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Viewing 1 to 30 of 87
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1893
Maria Rivas, Pascal Higelin, Christian Caillol, Olivier Sename, Emmanuel Witrant, Vincent Talon
To improve the prediction of the combustion processes in spark ignition engines, a 0D flame/wall interaction submodel has been developed. A two-zones combustion model is implemented and the designed submodel for the flame/wall interaction is included. The flame/wall interaction phenomenon is conceived as a dimensionless function multiplying the burning rate equation. The submodel considers the cylinder shape and the flame surface that spreads inside the combustion chamber. The designed function represents the influence of the cylinder walls while the flame surface propagates across the cylinder. To determine the validity of the combustion model and the flame/wall interaction submodel, the system was tested using the available measurements on a 2 liter SI engine. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure and energy release rate with measurements. A good agreement between the implemented model and the measurements was obtained.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0923
Benoit Douailler, Frederic Ravet, Vivien Delpech, Dominique Soleri, Benjamin Reveille, Rajesh Kumar
CNG is one of the most promising alternate fuels for passenger car applications. CNG is affordable, is available worldwide and has good intrinsic properties including high knock resistance and low carbon content. Usually, CNG engines are developed by integrating CNG injectors in the intake manifold of a baseline gasoline engine, thereby remaining gasoline compliant. However, this does not lead to a bi-fuel engine but instead to a compromised solution for both Gasoline and CNG operation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of a direct injection spark ignition engine derived from a diesel engine core and dedicated to CNG combustion. The main modification was the new design of the cylinder head and the piston crown to optimize the combustion velocity thanks to a high tumble level and good mixing. This work was done through computations. First, a 3D model was developed for the CFD simulation of CNG direct injection.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1307
David Marie-Luce, Damiano Di-penta, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman, Michel Sorine
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (SCR) are two leading candidates for diesel NOx after-treatment. Each technology exhibits good properties to reduce efficiently diesel NOx emissions in order to match the forthcoming EURO 6 standards. NOx reduction in LNT is made through a two-step process. In normal (lean) mode, diesel engine exhausts NOx is stored into the NOx trap; then when necessary the engine runs rich during limited time to treat the stored NOx. This operating mode has the benefit of using onboard fuel as NOx reducer. But NOx trap solution is restrained by limited active temperature windows. On the other hand, NH₃-SCR catalysts operate in a wider range of temperature and do not contain precious metals. However, NH₃-SCR systems traditionally use urea-water solution as reducing agent, requiring thus additional infrastructure to supply the vehicles with enough reducer.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1300
Damiano Di-Penta, Karim Bencherif, Pierre-Yves Le-Morvan
This paper presents an after-treatment architecture combining a close coupled NOx trap and an under floor NOx trap. Instead of simply increasing the volume of the catalyst, we propose to broaden the active temperature window by splitting the LNT along the exhaust line. In order to design this architecture, a complete 1D model of NOx trap has been developed. Validated with respect to experimental data, this model has been useful to define the two volumes of LNT, making significant savings on the test bench exploitation. However, one of the main difficulties to operate the proposed architecture is the NOx purge and sulfur poisoning management. In order to optimize the NOx and sulfur purge launches, we have developed a control strategy based on an embedded reduced LNT model. These strategies have been validated on different driving cycles, by the means of simulation and of vehicle tests using rapid prototyping tools.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2444
Jean-François Rondeau, Arnaud Duval, Guillaume Deshayes, Mathieu Lassalas, Hans-Elias de Bree, Sébastien Chaigne
In order to reach OEMs acoustic treatment targets (improving performance while minimizing the weight and cost impact), we have developed an original hybrid approach called “Vehicle Acoustic synthesis method”[1] to simulate - and therefore to optimize - noise treatments for both insulation and absorption, and to calculate the resulting Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at ear points for the middle and high frequency range. To calculate the SPL, we identify equivalent volume velocity sources from intensity measurements, and combine them to acoustic transfer functions (panel/ear) measured or computed with ray tracing codes using the reciprocity principle. Compared to our first approach [1], this paper shows a new measurement technique using pressure-particle velocity probes [2]. This technique allows to reduce acquisition time by a factor four, and makes therefore possible a synthesis method on a complete car within two weeks.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0216
Brian J. Bowers, Jian L. Zhao, Michael Ruffo, Rafey Khan, Virginie Sweetland, Jean-Christophe Beziat, Fabien Boudjemaa
To reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, automakers are actively pursuing alternative propulsion systems. Improvements to current engine technology are being investigated along with new power plant technologies. Fuel Cell Vehicles offer an exciting option by producing electric power through a reaction that combines hydrogen and oxygen to make water. However, hydrogen storage onboard vehicles and construction of an expensive hydrogen distribution and fueling infrastructure remain as challenges today. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions from the production of hydrogen must be considered since most hydrogen is currently produced from non-renewable sources. While these issues are being worked on, Renault has chosen to pursue a fuel cell vehicle with a fuel processor that converts gasoline and other liquid fuels to hydrogen onboard the vehicle.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2145
Efthimios Zervas, Pascal Dorlène, Laurent Forti, Cyriaque Perrin, Jean-Claude Momique, Richard Monier, Didier Pingal, Béatrice Lopez
The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the identification of a method to replace or complete the existing particle mass (PM) measurement method. The French PMP subgroup, composed by IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and UTAC, proposes an improved gravimetric method for the measurement of emitted particles, and conducted an inter-laboratory test to evaluate its performances. The technical programme is based on tests carried out on a Euro3 Diesel passenger car (PC), tested on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To achieve low particulate matter (PM) emissions, the EGR is disconnected and a paraffinic fuel is used. The regulated pollutants are also measured. It is shown that the multiple filter weighing and a 0.1 μg balance instead of a 1 μg one are not necessary, as the first weighing and the 1 μg balance performances are satisfactory for type-approval purposes.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2147
Efthimios Zervas, Pascal Dorlhène, Laurent Forti, Cyriaque Perrin, Jean-Claude Momique, Richard Monier, Hok Ing, Béatrice Lopez
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is often employed to measure the particle number and size distribution of internal combustion engines exhaust gas. If appropriate values of particle density are available, the particle mass can be estimated by this method. Exhaust particles of three Euro3 passenger cars (one gasoline operating under stoichiometric conditions, one Diesel and one Diesel equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter) are measured using the current European regulations (gravimetric method on the are New European Driving Cycle) and estimated by ELPI particle number and size distribution. Different values for particle density are used to estimate the particle mass using all ELPI stages or only some of them. The results show that the particle mass estimated by ELPI is well correlated with the mass determined by filters for PM emissions higher than 0.025 g/km. This correlation is not very good at lower emissions.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0068
Allan Schrøder Pedersen, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Martin Kunst, Ingemar Bertilsson, Isabelle de Lima, Michael Smith, Michael Wappelhorst, Per Bakke, Sandrine Sereni, Mario Durando, Thomas Marx
Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0070
Per Bakke, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Isabelle de Lima, Hans Lilholt, Ingemar Bertilsson, Fethi Abdulwahab, Pierre Labelle
A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0830
Jesus Benajes, Ricardo Novella, Daniela De Lima, Pascal Tribotte
Abstract Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) of fuels in the gasoline octane range has proven its potential to achieve simultaneous reduction in soot and NOX emissions, combined with high indicated efficiencies; while still retaining proper control over combustion phasing with the injection event, contrary to fully premixed strategies. However, gasoline fuels with high octane number as the commonly available for the public provide a challenge to ensure reliable ignition especially in the low load range, while fuel blends with lower octane numbers present problems for extending the ignition delay in the high load range and avoid the onset of knocking-like combustion. Thus, choosing an appropriate fuel and injection strategy is critical to solve these issues, assuring successful PPC operation in the full engine map.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0011
Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pascal Tribotte, Gaetano De Paola, Cyprien Ternel
Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0844
Florence Duffour, Vincent Knop, Franck Vangraefschepe, Thomas Leone, Vincent Pascal
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0349
Olivier Laget, Jean-Marc Zaccardi, Xavier Gautrot, Thomas Mansion, Emmanuel Cotte
This paper presents an innovative methodology and the corresponding results of a study whose goal is to identify the main links between in-cylinder charge motion and the development of combustion without taking into consideration how to create this charge motion (shape of the intake ducts, valve timing, etc …). During this study a specific methodology was developed and used. It is based on the calculation of a “3D numerical test bench” matrix planned following the Design Of Experiments method. Many aerodynamic configurations obtained by combining the three main aerodynamic motions with several different intensities (tumble, cross-tumble or swirl) at the intake valve closing were calculated.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1555
Guillaume Latouchent, PIerre Darcy, Bertrand Coulet
This study deals with a coupled experimental and modeling approach of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking. A coupled model (heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions) is used to predict the temperature field inside the filter during the regeneration steps. This model consists of assembled 1D models and is calibrated using a set of laboratory bench tests. In this set of experiments, laboratory scale filters are tested in different conditions (variation of the oxygen rate and gas flow) and axial/radial thermal gradient are recorded with the use of thermocouples. This model is used to build a second set of laboratory bench tests, which is dedicated to the understanding of the phenomena of Diesel Particulate Filter cracking.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1513
Vivien Delpech, Jerome Obiols, Dominique Soleri, Laurent Mispreuve, Eric Magere, Sebastien Kermarrec
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1537
Michael Deligant, Pierre Podevin, Georges Descombes, Fabrice Vidal, Alain Lefebvre, Thierry Lamquin
Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0447
Renaud Deborne, Skárlet Khouri Silva, Andras Kemeny
Abstract By the action on the steering wheel, the driver has the capability to control the trajectory of its vehicle. Nevertheless, the steering wheel has also the role of information provider to the driver. In particular, the torque level at the steering wheel informs the driver about the interaction between the vehicle and the road. This information flow is natural due to the mechanical chain between the road and the steering wheel. Many studies have shown that steering wheel torque feedback is crucial to ensure the control of the vehicle. In the context of uncoupled steering (steer-by-wire vehicle or driving simulators), the torque rendering on the steering wheel is a major challenge. In addition, of the trajectory control, the quality of this torque is a key for the immersion of drivers in virtual environment such as in driving simulators. The torque-rendering loop is composed of different steps.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1719
Olivier Laget, Cyprien Ternel, Julien Thiriot, Sébastien Charmasson, Pascal Tribotté, Fabrice Vidal
The target of substantial CO₂ reductions in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol as well as higher engine efficiency requirements has increased research efforts into hybridization of passenger cars. In the frame of this hybridization, there is a real need to develop small Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with high power density. The two-stroke cycle can be a solution to reach these goals, allowing reductions of engine displacement, size and weight while maintaining good NVH, power and consumption levels. Reducing the number of cylinders, could also help reduce engine cost. Taking advantage of a strong interaction between the design office, 0D system simulations and 3D CFD computations, a specific methodology was set up in order to define a first optimized version of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine. The main geometrical specifications (displacement, architecture) were chosen at the beginning of the study based on a bibliographic pre-study and the power target in terms.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0197
Jean-Louis Ligier, Laurent Dutfoy
For many years, bearing suppliers have been using the specific pressure to evaluate the fatigue risk of conrod bearings. However, modern engines have made the bearing more sensitive to various phenomena such as the thermal expansion or the elasticity of the conrod housing. These effects modify the stresses in the bearing layers and consequently fatigue risk. In this paper, we propose a new way to determine the bearing fatigue resistance. To achieve that, we analyze the elastic and plastic behavior of the bearing along the engine life. We detail and provide the analytical relationships which determine stresses in the overlay and in the substrate of the bearing in order to analyze their fatigue resistance. Various physical loads are taken into account such as the thermal load, the hydrodynamic pressure field, the fitting load, the free spread load. A good knowledge of the relationships between those physical phenomena helps to understand the mechanical behavior of the bearing.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1311
Maxime Debert, Guillaume Colin, Yann Chamaillard, Michel Mensler, Ahmed Ketfi-cherif, Lino Guzzella
The energy management of a hybrid vehicle defines the vehicle power flow that minimizes fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. In a combined hybrid the complex architecture requires a multi-input control from the energy management. A classic optimal control obtained with dynamic programming shows that thanks to the high efficiency hybrid electric variable transmission, energy losses come mainly from the internal combustion engine. This paper therefore proposes a sub-optimal control based on the maximization of the engine efficiency that avoids multi-input control. This strategy achieves two aims: enhanced performances in terms of fuel economy and a reduction of computational time.
2010-05-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-1493
Nicolas Bordet, Christian Caillol, Pascal Higelin, Vincent Talon
This paper presents a new 0D phenomenological approach to predict the combustion process in diesel engines operated under various running conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a physical approach in order to improve the prediction of in-cylinder pressure and heat release. The main contribution of this study is the modeling of the premixed part of the diesel combustion with a further extension of the model for multi-injection strategies. In phenomenological diesel combustion models, the premixed combustion phase is usually modeled by the propagation of a turbulent flame front. However, experimental studies have shown that this phase of diesel combustion is actually a rapid combustion of part of the fuel injected and mixed with the surrounding gas. This mixture burns quasi instantaneously when favorable thermodynamic conditions are locally reached. A chemical process then controls this combustion.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2165
David Serrano, Olivier Laget, Dominique Soleri, Stephane Richard, Benoit Douailler, Frederic Ravet, Marc Moreau, Nathalie Dioc
The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0407
Ashish Vashishtha, Balamurugan Rathinam, Laurent Delahaye, Frederic Ravet, Frederic Justet
In this study, different designs of intake ports for two-stroke Ultra Low Cost Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (ULC-GE) has been analyzed to conclude on best design using steady state analysis in STAR-CD. The four types of intake ports design with two cylinders, each having fourteen ports, have been studied. The basic differences in designs are horizontal inlet entry (perpendicular to cylinder axis) and vertical inlet entry (in-line with cylinder axis) having rotation of flow clockwise and anticlockwise. Each type is further differentiated in eight cases with varying distances between axis of two-cylinder as 85mm, 88mm, 91 mm, 94 mm, 97 mm, 100 mm, 105 mm and 112 mm. These designs are analyzed for four different pressure drops as 10 mbar, 50 mbar, 100 mbar and 150 mbar.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1104
Jesus Benajes, Ricardo Novella, Daniela De Lima, Vincent Dugue, Nicolas Quechon
An innovative alternative to overcome the load limits of the early injection highly premixed combustion concept consists of taking advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of two-stroke engines, since they can attain the full load torque of a four-stroke engine as the addition of two medium load cycles, where the implementation of this combustion concept could be promising. In this frame, the main objective of this investigation focuses on evaluating the potential of the early injection HPC concept using a conventional diesel fuel combined with a two-stroke poppet valves engine architecture for pollutant control, while keeping a competitive engine efficiency. On a first stage, the HPC concept was implemented at low engine load, where the concept is expected to provide the best results, by advancing the start of injection towards the compression stroke and it was confirmed how it is possible to reduce NOX and soot emissions, but increasing HC and CO emissions.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0904
Olivier Grondin, Jonathan Chauvin, Laurent Fontvieille
This paper proposes a method to detect an intake manifold leakage for a Diesel engine with a dual loop EGR system. The intake manifold leak has a strong impact on the engine performances by changing the intake manifold burned gas ratio. This fault is analyzed according to the control structure used and also according to the EGR operating mode. The paper proposes a diagnosis algorithm to detect the intake manifold leak in sequential or simultaneous use of the two EGR paths. The sensors considered are the mass air flow meter, the intake manifold pressure sensor, the exhaust equivalence ratio sensor and the differential pressure sensor (across the HP EGR valve). The diagnosis is based on a criteria that uses the redundancy between these sensors and air system models or estimators. The diagnosis threshold depends on the engine operating conditions as well as the sensor or model dispersions.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0831
Ludek Pohorelsky, Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pierre-Yves Vallaude, Jean-Charles Ricaud, Philippe Obernesser, Pascal Tribotté
This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920223
Murielle Ortis, Ivan Lacrouts-Cazenave, Patrick Herbault
This paper presents the following VAN concept led by a vehicle analysis: electrical architecture must not be basically changed in order to be cost effective; efficiency, interoperability and safety aspects must be rigorously respected to avoid lack of quality. As a consequence VAN solutions meet the requirement set concerning wiring, transceivers, protocol controllers and software services. Each of these solutions is optimized to assure safety and easy use. VAN transceivers support multiplexed applications - even high speed application - with conventional wiring. VAN controllers offer a large diversity of services, so allow the minimization of network load, of CPU load, with a high Real Time efficiency. Moreover their structure is very open to diagnosis requirements. VAN softwares provide simple, reliable, reusable mechanisms of sharing, exchange and synchronization. Such mechanisms minimize cost development and guarantee safety proofs in the liability context.
1997-11-12
Technical Paper
973315
Roger Biard, François Alonzo, Anne-Christine Muge, Maryvonne Dejeammes, François Chamouard, Claude Tarrière
Child dummies used in certification dynamic tests have not been improved since their marketing and their approval as European regulation dummies. Their main shortcoming lies in a too high and therefore unrealistic stiffness of the torso front part. The paper addresses a study carried out in the aim of solving this problem. It includes two parts: in a first section, the changes brought to the dummy torso and intended to improve its biofidelity and to reduce stiffness drastically are described. In order to reach such an objective, the lower part of the upper torso was remodelled; the pelvis profile was redefined and the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the foam used for the abdominal insert were changed. The results obtained using two transducers installed in the abdominal section are then presented. The measurement principle of the first transducer consists in a pressure measurement, and the principle of the second one in a load measurement.
1996-04-01
Technical Paper
91A121
J. P. Jameux, M. El Mouatassim, J. P. Dumesnil
In order to improve the design of drawn parts and to reduce the number of trial and error tests, Renault has undertaken the development and the validation of various finite element procedures and codes. This paper describes the function of each software and its level of integration into the design process. One of them is already an operational tool used be planners whilst the others are still in the validation phase. Selected examples show typical applications of the computer programs on automotive parts.
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