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Viewing 1 to 30 of 99
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1930
Sebastian Fischer, Jens-Olaf Stein
Previous research has shown that elevating fuel injection pressure results in better air-fuel mixture formation, allowing for a further increase in maximum exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate while consequently reducing NOx emissions. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is an optimum injection pressure for lowest soot-NOx emissions at a given boost pressure in high-speed diesel engines. Experiments are carried out on a single-cylinder research engine with a prototype common-rail system, capable of more than 200 MPa injection pressure. The effect of injection pressure on soot-NOx formation is investigated for a variety of boost conditions, representing the conditions of single to multi-stage turbocharger systems. Analysis of the data is performed at the application relevant soot to NOx ratio of approximately 1:10. It is observed that above a critical injection pressure, soot-NOx emissions are not reduced any further.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0905
Andre Kulzer, Tobias Nier, Roland Karrelmeyer
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0712
Norbert Mueller, Steffen Strauss, Stefan Tumback, Guo-Chang Goh, Ansgar Christ
Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1288
Sebastian H. R. Müller, Stefan Arndt, Andreas Dreizler
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9125
Bernd Heinzmann, Simon Scholz, Pramod R, Prashanth Anantha
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0231
André Kulzer, Ansgar Christ, Martin Rauscher, Christina Sauer, Gernot Würfel, Thomas Blank
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1081
Axel Maier, Ulrike Klaus, Andreas Dreizler, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0385
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Abstract The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0076
Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes, Thorsten Raatz
Abstract Equipping low cost two-wheelers with engine management systems (EMS) enables not only a reduction of emissions but also an improvement in fuel consumption and system robustness. These benefits are accompanied by initially higher system costs compared to carburetor systems. Therefore, intelligent software solutions are developed by Bosch, which enable a reduction of the necessary sensors for a port fuel injection system (PFI) and furthermore provide new possibilities for combustion control. One example for these intelligent software solutions is a model based evaluation of the engine speed. By use of the information contained in the engine speed signal, characteristic features like air charge, indicated mean effective pressure (imep) and combustion phasing are derivable. The present paper illustrates how these features could be used to reduce the system costs and to improve fuel consumption and system robustness.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0067
Henning Heikes, Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Jürgen Berkemer, Thorsten Raatz, Wolfgang Fischer
Abstract Cost reduction of engine management systems (EMS) for two-wheeler applications is the key to utilize their potentials compared to carburetor bikes regarding emissions, fuel economy and system robustness. In order to reduce the costs of a system with port fuel injection (PFI) Bosch is developing an EMS without a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. The pressure sensor is usually used to compensate for different influences on the air mass, which cannot be detected via the throttle position sensor (TPS) and mean engine speed. Such influences are different leakage rates of the throttle body and changing ambient conditions like air pressure. Bosch has shown in the past that a virtual sensor relying on model based evaluation of engine speed can be used for a detection of leakage air mass in idling to improve the pre-control of the air-fuel ratio. This provides a functionality which so far was only possible with an intake pressure sensor.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1270
David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer, Günter Hohenberg, Michael Bargende
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1082
Andre Kulzer, David Lejsek, Tobias Nier
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with turbo/supercharging on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI has already shown a considerable potential of about 14% in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) compared with a conventional 4-cylinder 2.0 liter gasoline Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine without any advanced valve-train technology. The HCCI n.a. operation range is air breathing limited due to the hot residuals required for the self-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics, and therefore is limited to a part-load operation area.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1447
Fabian Köpple, Dimitri Seboldt, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9053
Tobias Breuninger, Jürgen Schmidt, Helmut Tschoeke, Martin Hese, Andreas Kufferath, Frank Altenschmidt
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1730
Alexander Eichhorn, David Lejsek, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1089
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0125
David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emission legislation require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. Therefore, adaptations to the start-up conditions of the known models by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende were introduced for calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient in SI engines with gasoline direct injection. This paper shows how the indicated values can be measured during the engine start-up.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2332
Jorge Sans Sangorrin, Jan Sparbert, Ulrike Ahlrichs, Wolfgang Branz, Oliver Schwindt
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking).
2012-10-08
Technical Paper
2012-01-9007
Klaus Benninger, Uta Fischer, Cathy Lillie
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0052
Timo Jahn, Frank Schuerg, Stefan Kempf
Today, knock control is part of standard automotive engine management systems. The structure-borne noise of the knock sensor signal is evaluated in the electronic control unit (ECU). In case of knocking combustions the ignition angle is first retarded and then subsequently advanced again. The small-sized combustion chamber of small two-wheeler engines, uncritical compression ratios and strong enrichment decrease the knock tendency. Nevertheless, knock control can effectuate higher performance, lower fuel consumption, compliance with lower legally demanded emission limits, and the possibility of using different fuel qualities. The Knock-Intensity-Detector 2 (KID2) and the Bosch knock control tool chain, based on many years of experience gained on automotive engines, provides an efficient calibration method that can also be used for two-wheeler engines. The raw signal of the structure-borne noise is used for signal analysis and simulation of different filter settings.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0044
Silke Seuling, Haris Hamedovic, Wolfgang Fischer, Frank Schuerg
In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1105
Tobias Nier, Andre Kulzer, Roland Karrelmeyer
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0832
Alexander Eichhorn, David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer, Andreas Kufferath, Eberhard Wizgall, Ralf Centmayer
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920621
J.H. Spurk, T. Betzel, N. Simon
Rapid opening, closing and rebounds of needle from seat and stopper plate give rise to fluid transients in fuel injectors, which are strongly coupled to the dynamics of needle and body motions. A mathematical model, based on unsteady compressible flow in the injector and steady incompressible flow in inlet and outlet section in conjunction with the equation of motion for needle and body, allows the quantitative description of the injector operation cycle. Agreement between prediction and experiment in terms of needle motion, needle velocity and pressure history is good. The mathematical model is used to show the effects, which various contributions to the hydrodynamic interaction force have on the needle motion, on pressure history and on injected mass.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920520
Nikolaus Simon, Stefan Arndt, Ewald Ziegler
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930327
Werner Fischer, Walter Fuchs, Helmut Laufer, Uwe Reuter
The electronically-governed diesel distributor injection pump, with the proven sleeve control of injection quantity, has been in production at Bosch since 1987. Long-term development resulted in a solenoid-valve controlled injection pump. The function and component assemblies, consisting of the injection pump, solenoid valve and control unit, provide an even more flexible injection system. Of particular advantage with this type of system are the high dynamics of the fuel quantity, matching of each individual injection and the exact pump-specific fuel quantity compensation at numerous map points. Further advantages are the selection of timing and fuel injection rate independent of each other, as well as the ability to provide the correct timing even at cranking speeds. The entire system, with emphasis on the injection pump and the solenoid valve, are described for IDI engines in this paper.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980498
C. Preussner, C. Döring, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann
The development of future engine generations for Gasoline Direct Injection requires sophisticated combustion systems to reach reduced fuel consumption and future emission standards. The design process of these combustion systems has to be based on a fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms. Beside the air motion inside the cylinder mixture preparation is mainly feeded by the fuel spray quality, injector performance respectively. The article therefore presents a fundamental analysis of the GDI mixture preparation and affords an insight into the injector development. Comprehensive experimental studies were performed in high pressure/temperature vessels using Phase Doppler Anemometry, Laser Induced Fluorescence and video techniques to define the significant fuel spray features for GDI. CFD-calculations were additionally applied to study the temporal behavior of the mixture preparation under injection parameter variation.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980801
J. Gerhardt, H. Hönninger, H. Bischof
This paper describes the new Engine Management System (EMS) ME7. Torque and A/F demands for modern EMS result from both, internal functions (i.e. engine start, idle speed control, catalyst heating) and external systems (i.e. driver's request, transmission or vehicle dynamic control). With ME7 these demands are processed to the optimized actions of the actuators by a centrally coordinated torque and A/F management. The design of the functions is physically based to provide optimum portability and minimum calibration time. Examples are given for the physical manifold pressure model and the cylinder charge control of ME7 with electronic throttle control. The real time operating system „ERCOS” and a layer based software architecture enable the implementation of these functions in a flexible family of products for current and future systems.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970855
Jürgen Förster, Andrea Lohmann, Manfred Mezger, Klaus Ries-Müller
This paper presents a system concept for detecting combustion misfire. The relevant research grew out of the more stringent requirements for On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBDII) mandated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), effective as of model year 1997 onward. The system concept is based on evaluation of variations in crankshaft speed. Processes using engine roughness are applied in non-critical operating areas and/or on engines with a small number of cylinders. The modulation process is used in more critical areas. Research was done using a 12-cylinder engine and indicated the potential to comply with the California Air Resources Board's regulations for the model year (MY) 1997 and later.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980512
K. Mischker, H. Hillner, J. Schiemann
This paper describes the concept of the Diagnostic System Management DSM which introduces an improved object-oriented software architecture in order to meet the high performance and reliability requirements of automotive On-Board Diagnostic Systems (OBD). DSM handles standard tasks and offers services to integrate diagnostic and control functions. This architecture enables the flexible composition of system-independent, reusable function implementations. Hence a distributed software development and software sharing are supported. The module DSM consists of a Fault Code Memory, an Inhibit Handler, a Validator and a Function Scheduler. Special care has been taken to achieve robustness against EMI effects. Bosch will use DSM in the future powertrain control systems.
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