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Viewing 1 to 30 of 225
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1383
Clément Chartier, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Mark Musculus, Mohan Bobba
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1421
Yashodeep Lonari, Christopher Polonowski, Jeffrey Naber, Bo Chen
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1760
Magnus Sjoberg, John E. Dec
Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1812
Christopher J. Polonowski, Charles J. Mueller, Christopher R. Gehrke, Tim Bazyn, Glen C. Martin, Peter M. Lillo
High-efficiency, clean-combustion strategies for heavy-duty diesel engines are critical for meeting stringent emissions regulations and reducing the costs of aftertreatment systems that are currently required to meet these regulations. Results from previous constant-volume combustion-vessel experiments using a single jet of fuel under quiescent conditions have shown that mixing-controlled soot-free combustion (i.e., combustion where soot is not produced) is possible with #2 diesel fuel. These experiments employed small injector-orifice diameters (≺ 150 μm) and high fuel-injection pressures (≻ 200 MPa) at top-dead-center (TDC) temperatures and densities that could be achievable in modern heavy-duty diesel engines.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0897
John E. Dec, Yi Yang, Nicolas Dronniou
This study investigates the potential of partial fuel stratification for reducing the knocking propensity of intake-boosted HCCI engines operating on conventional gasoline. Although intake boosting can substantially increase the high-load capability of HCCI, these engines would be more production-viable if the knock/stability load limit could be extended to allow higher loads at a given boost and/or to provide even higher thermal efficiencies. A technique termed partial fuel stratification (PFS) has recently been shown to greatly reduce the combustion-induced pressure-rise rate (PRR), and therefore the knocking propensity of naturally aspirated HCCI, when the engine is fueled with a φ-sensitive, two-stage-ignition fuel. The current work explores the potential of applying PFS to boosted HCCI operation using conventional gasoline, which does not typically show two-stage ignition. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) at 1200 rpm.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0659
Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett, Alexandra A. Hoops, Jeffrey M. Headrick
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0829
Bao-Lin Wang, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han, Benjamin Petersen
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1285
Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the structure and evolution of the mean velocity field in the swirl (r-θ) plane of a motored, optically accessible diesel engine with a typical production combustion chamber geometry under motoring conditions (no fuel injection). Instantaneous velocities were measured were made at three swirl-plane heights (3 mm, 10 mm and 18 mm below the firedeck) and three swirl ratios (2.2, 3.5 and 4.5) over a range of crank angles in the compression and expansion strokes. The data allow for a direct analysis of the structures within the ensemble mean flow field, the in-cylinder swirl ratio, and the radial profile of the tangential velocity. At all three swirl ratios, the ensemble mean velocity field contains a single dominant swirl flow structure that is tilted with respect to the cylinder axis. The axis of this structure precesses about the cylinder axis in a manner that is largely insensitive to swirl ratio.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1291
Jordan Snyder, Nicolas Dronniou, John E. Dec, Ronald Hanson
Tracer-based PLIF temperature diagnostics have been used to study the distribution and evolution of naturally occurring thermal stratification (TS) in an HCCI engine under fired and motored operation. PLIF measurements, performed with two excitation wavelengths (277, 308 nm) and 3-pentanone as a tracer, allowed investigation of TS development under relevant fired conditions. Two-line PLIF measurements of temperature and composition were first performed to track the mixing of the fresh charge and hot residuals during intake and early compression strokes. Results showed that mixing occurs rapidly with no measureable mixture stratification remaining by early compression (220°CA aTDC), confirming that the residual mixing is not a leading cause of thermal stratification for low-residual (4-6%) engines with conventional valve timing.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1359
Yi Yang, John E. Dec, Nicolas Dronniou, Magnus Sjöberg, William Cannella
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock. This study focuses on three factors, engine speed, intake temperature, and fuel composition, that can affect the pre-ignition processes of two-stage fuels and consequently affect their performance with partial fuel stratification. A model fuel consisting of 73 vol.% isooctane and 27 vol.% of n-heptane (PRF73), which was previously compared against neat isooctane to demonstrate the superior performance of two-stage fuels over single-stage fuels with partial fuel stratification, was first used to study the effects of engine speed and intake temperature.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0061
Dipankar Sahoo, Paul C. Miles, Johannes Trost, Alfred Leipertz
Fuel tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to investigate the vaporization and mixing behavior of pilot injections for variations in pilot mass of 1-4 mg, and for two injection pressures, two near-TDC ambient temperatures, and two swirl ratios. The fluorescent tracer employed, 1-methylnaphthalene, permits a mixture of the diesel primary reference fuels, n-hexadecane and heptamethylnonane, to be used as the base fuel. With a near-TDC injection timing of −15°CA, pilot injection fuel is found to penetrate to the bowl rim wall for even the smallest injection quantity, where it rapidly forms fuel-lean mixture. With increased pilot mass, there is greater penetration and fuel-rich mixtures persist well beyond the expected pilot ignition delay period. Significant jet-to-jet variations in fuel distribution due to differences in the individual jet trajectories (included angle) are also observed.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3747
Shane De Zilwa, Richard Steeper
This paper proposes a method for quantitatively predicting emissions from a homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of the in-cylinder fuel distribution. The prediction scheme, which is applied to stratified operation, is based on the premise that local fuel-air packets at a given equivalence ratio burn as if in an isolated homogeneous mixture at the same equivalence ratio. Insofar as the premise holds true, the emissions produced by each packet can be predicted using a look-up table of exhaust emission values measured during homogeneous operation. LIF images of fuel distribution during stratified operation are reduced to probability density functions (PDF) that, together with the look-up tables, allow prediction of engine-out emissions. Despite the simplifications associated with the prediction scheme, predicted values of CO2, CO and HC emissions each agree to within 15% of total fuel carbon for low-load operation.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3748
Shane De Zilwa, Richard Steeper
Optical engines are often skip-fired to maintain optical components at acceptable temperatures and to reduce window fouling. Although many different skip-fired sequences are possible, if exhaust emissions data are required, the skip-firing sequence ought to consist of a single fired cycle followed by a series of motored cycles (referred to here as singleton skip-firing). This paper compares a singleton skip-firing sequence with continuous firing at the same inlet conditions, and shows that combustion performance trends with equivalence ratio are similar. However, as expected, reactant temperatures are lower with skip-firing, resulting in retarded combustion phasing, and lower pressures and combustion efficiency. LIF practitioners often employ a homogeneous charge of known composition to create calibration images for converting raw signal to equivalence ratio.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0197
Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae, Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Michael Bergin, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2125
Magnus Sjöberg, John E. Dec
Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce pressure-rise rates and allow increased power output for HCCI engines. This paper systematically examines how the amount of thermal stratification of the core of the charge has to be adjusted to avoid excessive knock as the engine speed and fueling rate are increased. This is accomplished by a combination of multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling and engine experiments, using iso-octane as the fuel. The experiments show that, for a low-residual engine configuration, the pressure traces are self-similar during changes to the engine speed when CA50 is maintained by adjusting the intake temperature. Consequently, the absolute pressure-rise rate measured as bar/ms increases proportionally with the engine speed. As a result, the knocking (ringing) intensity increases drastically with engine speed, unless counteracted by some means.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0025
Shane De Zilwa, Richard Steeper
Our previous work applied LIF measurements of in-cylinder fuel distribution to predict CO2, CO, and HC emissions from an HCCI engine under low-load stratified-charge conditions. The prediction method is based on the premise that local fuel-air packets at a given equivalence ratio (characterized using LIF imaging) burn as if in a homogeneous charge at the same equivalence ratio. Thus, emissions measured during homogeneous operation provide an emission-versus- equivalence-ratio look-up table for predicting stratified-charge emissions. The present paper extends the technique to predict engine-out NOX emissions. Because of operating-range limitations, NOX look-up data for homogeneous operation cannot adequately be determined by experiment. Instead, a CHEMKIN-based model provides this look-up table data instead.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0079
Mark P. B. Musculus
In-cylinder spray, mixing, combustion, and pollutant-formation processes for low-load (4 bar IMEP), low-temperature combustion conditions (12.7% charge oxygen, ∼2170 K stoichiometric adiabatic flame temperature) with early fuel injection (SOI=-22° ATDC) at two different charge densities (naturally aspirated, 1.34 bar abs. boost) were studied in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine using simultaneous pairings of multiple laser/imaging diagnostics. Laser-elastic/Mie scattering showed liquid-fuel penetration, fuel fluorescence indicated the leading edge of the vapor jet, chemiluminescence imaging showed the location of ignition, OH fluorescence probed the hot second-stage combustion, and soot luminosity and soot laser-induced incandescence measured development of in-cylinder soot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0946
Yongjin Jung, Julien Manin, Scott Skeen, Lyle M Pickett
Abstract The mixing field of sprays injected into high temperature and pressure environments has been observed to be tightly connected to spreading angle, therefore linking vaporization and combustion processes to the angular dispersion of the spray. Visualization of the Engine Combustion Network three-hole, Spray B diesel injector shows substantial variation in near-field spreading angle with respect to time compared to past measurements of the single-hole, Spray A injector. The source of these variations originating inside the nozzle, and the implications on mixing, evaporation, and combustion of the diesel plume, need to be understood. In this study, we characterize the ECN-target plume for a Spray B injector (Serial # 211201), which already benefits from extensive and detailed internal measurements of nozzle geometry and needle movement, while comparing to the single-hole Spray A with the same type of detailed geometry and understanding.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0799
Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M Pickett
Abstract We investigate the mixing, penetration, and ignition characteristics of high-pressure n-dodecane sprays having a split injection schedule (0.5/0.5 dwell/0.5 ms) in a pre-burn combustion vessel at ambient temperatures of 750 K, 800 K and 900 K. High-speed imaging techniques provide a time-resolved measure of vapor penetration and the timing and progression of the first- and second-stage ignition events. Simultaneous single-shot planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging identifies the timing and location where formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from first-stage ignition and consumed following second-stage ignition. At the 900-K condition, the second injection penetrates into high-temperature combustion products remaining in the near-nozzle region from the first injection.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0801
Gregory K. Lilik, Charles J. Mueller, Cosmin E. Dumitrescu, Christopher R. Gehrke
Abstract Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0792
Guillaume Lequien, Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M Pickett, Oivind Andersson
Abstract The ignition and flame stabilization characteristics of two synthetic fuels, having significantly different cetane numbers, are investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel over a range of ambient conditions representative of a compression ignition engine operating at variable loads. The synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 63 (S-1) is characterized by ignition delays that are only moderately longer than n-dodecane (cetane number of 87) over a range of ambient conditions. By comparison, the synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 17 (S-2) requires temperatures approximately 300 K higher to achieve the same ignition delays. The much different ignition characteristics and operating temperature range present a scenario where the lift-off stabilization may be substantially different.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0796
Stephen Busch, Kan Zha, Paul C. Miles, Alok Warey, Francesco Pesce, Richard Peterson, Alberto Vassallo
Abstract A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0797
Benjamin W Knox, Caroline L Genzale, Lyle M Pickett, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Walter Vera-Tudela
Abstract This work contributes to the understanding of physical mechanisms that control flashback, or more appropriately combustion recession, in diesel sprays. A large dataset, comprising many fuels, injection pressures, ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, ambient densities, and nozzle diameters is used to explore experimental trends for the behavior of combustion recession. Then, a reduced-order model, capable of modeling non-reacting and reacting conditions, is used to help interpret the experimental trends. Finally, the reduced-order model is used to predict how a controlled ramp-down rate-of-injection can enhance the likelihood of combustion recession for conditions that would not normally exhibit combustion recession. In general, fuel, ambient conditions, and the end-of-injection transient determine the success or failure of combustion recession.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0824
Jeremie Dernotte, John E. Dec, Chunsheng Ji
Abstract A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (γ) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), on the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. The various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0813
John E. Dec, Yi Yang, Jeremie Dernotte, Chunsheng Ji
Abstract Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ϕ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0818
Brian Peterson, Isaac Ekoto, William Northrop
Abstract Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a viable control strategy that enables low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) at low loads. Thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well understood, but fuel reforming chemistry during NVO has not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to analyze the impact of global equivalence ratio and available oxidizer on NVO product concentrations. Experiments were performed in a LTGC single-cylinder engine under a sweep of NVO oxygen concentration and NVO fueling rates. Gas sampling at the start and end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus with detailed sample speciation by gas chromatography. Single-zone reactor models using detailed chemistry at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions were used in parallel to the experiments to evaluate expected yields of partially oxidized species under representative engine time scales.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1133
Bing Hu, Mark Musculus, Joseph Oefelein
Recent experiments of diesel injection processes have demonstrated that mixing accelerates after the end of injection (EOI). This finding has significant implications for low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel engines. Previous simulations using a one-dimensional model of a single-pulsed air jet, which is analogous in many aspects to diesel jets, suggest that the rapid mixing after EOI in diesel jets is due to a temporary increase in the entrainment rate as the jet decelerates. In the present study, we performed a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) of an unsteady air jet identical to that used for the one-dimensional model. The LES calculation agrees well with available experimental data and provides both spatially and temporally resolved details of the three-dimensional transient mixing field. Results show that entrainment increases during deceleration.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0579
Victor M. Salazar, Sebastian A. Kaiser
This paper examines the interaction of bulk flow and jet-induced fuel convection in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine with direct injection. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of gaseous acetone as a fuel tracer was performed to obtain quantitative images of the hydrogen mole-fraction in the operating engine. With the engine motored, fuel was injected into inert bulk gas from a centrally located injector during the compression stroke. The injector had a single-hole nozzle with the jet angled at 50 degrees with respect to the vertical injector axis. Two parameters were varied in the experiments, injector orientation and tumble intensity, and for each of these, the injection timing was varied. Image series of the mean fuel mole-fraction between injection and near-TDC crank angles capture the mixture-formation process for each configuration and injection timing.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0862
Ben R. Petersen, Isaac W. Ekoto, Paul C. Miles
The influence of soy- and palm-based biofuels on the in-cylinder sources of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in an optically accessible research engine operating in a partially premixed, low-temperature combustion regime. The biofuels were blended with an emissions certification grade diesel fuel and the soy-based biofuel was also tested neat. Cylinder pressure and emissions of UHC, CO, soot, and NOx were obtained to characterize global fuel effects on combustion and emissions. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to capture the spatial distribution of fuel and partial oxidation products within the clearance and bowl volumes of the combustion chamber. In addition, late-cycle (30° and 50° aTDC) semi-quantitative CO distributions were measured above the piston within the clearance volume using a deep-UV LIF technique.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2699
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
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