Viewing 1 to 14 of 14
Technical Paper
Peter Nordin, Par Degerman
Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow. Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information.
Technical Paper
Mikael Adenmark, Matthias Deter, Thomas Schulte
Modern vehicles use Electronic Control Units (ECU), connected via Controller Area Network (CAN) to perform functions. Many of these functions are distributed across several ECUs. This network interconnection enables the sharing of sensors, calculated information and actuators. As new functionality is added, the number of ECUs and their complexity increase. This paper describes the values and possibilities of a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) based Integration Lab, which enables a wide range of automatic tests to be performed on networked ECUs. The Integration Lab is the complex rebuild of a Scania truck/bus, containing the ECU superset, for connecting and testing networked ECUs. It involves more than 30 ECUs and eleven CAN networks.
Technical Paper
Mengqin Shen, Vilhelm Malmborg, Yann Gallo, Bjorn B. O. Waldheim, Patrik Nilsson, Axel Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Abstract When applying high amount of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) using diesel fuel, an increase in soot emission is observed as a penalty. To better understand how EGR affects soot particles in the cylinder, a fast gas sampling technique was used to draw gas samples directly out of the combustion chamber in a Scania D13 heavy duty diesel engine. The samples were characterized on-line using a scanning mobility particle sizer for soot size distributions and an aethalometer for black carbon (soot) mass concentrations. Three EGR rates, 0%, 56% and 64% were applied in the study. It was found that EGR reduces both the soot formation rate and the soot oxidation rate, due to lower flame temperature and a lower availability of oxidizing agents. With higher EGR rates, the peak soot mass concentration decreased. However, the oxidation rate was reduced even more.
Technical Paper
Ulf Engström, Linnéa Fordén, Sven Bengtsson, Magnus Bergström
Planetary gears in heavy truck gearboxes are normally manufactured by forging a blank, turning, hobbing, shaving and heat-treatment followed by grinding. Due to the size of the gear the net shape capability of PM methods can be cost effective alternatively to conventional manufacturing. Warm compaction and surface densification are two PM methods to reach high density and thereby high strength and fatigue properties. Typical characteristics for PM gears manufactured by these methods are outlined.
Journal Article
Håkan Warnquist, Mattias Nyberg, Jonas Biteus
When a truck or bus suffers from a breakdown it is important that the vehicle comes back on the road as soon as possible. In this paper we present a prototype diagnostic decision support system capable of automatically identifying possible causes of a failure and propose recommended actions on how to get the vehicle back on the road as cost efficiently as possible. This troubleshooting system is novel in the way it integrates the remote diagnosis with the workshop diagnosis when providing recommendations. To achieve this integration, a novel planning algorithm has been developed that enables the troubleshooting system to guide the different users (driver, help-desk operator, and mechanic) through the entire troubleshooting process. In this paper we formulate the problem of integrated remote and workshop troubleshooting and present a working prototype that has been implemented to demonstrate all parts of the troubleshooting system.
Technical Paper
Matts Karlsson, Roland Gårdhagen, Petter Ekman, David Söderblom, Claes Löfroth
Abstract There is a need for reducing fuel consumption and thereby also reducing CO2 and other emissions in all areas of transportation and the forest industry is no exception. In the particular case of timber trucks special care have to be taken when designing such vehicles; they have to be sturdy and operate in harsh conditions and they are being driven empty half the time. It is well known that the aerodynamic resistance constitutes a significant part of the vehicles driving resistance and four areas in particular, front of vehicle, gap, side/underbody and rear of the vehicle contributes about one quarter each. In order to address these issues a wind tunnel investigation was initiated where a 1:6 scale model of a timber truck was designed to operate in a 3.6 m wind tunnel. The present model resembles a generic timber truck with a flexible design such that different configurations could be tested easily.
Technical Paper
David Soderblom, Per Elofsson, Ann Hyvärinen
Abstract The effect of blockage due to the presence of the wind tunnel walls has been known since the early days of wind tunnel testing. Today there are several blockage correction methods available for correcting the measured aerodynamic drag. Due to the shape of the test object, test conditions and wind tunnel dimensions the effect on the flow may be different for two cab variants. This will result in a difference in the drag delta between so-called open-road conditions and the wind tunnel. This makes it more difficult to evaluate the performance of two different test objects when they are both tested in a wind tunnel and simulated in CFD. A numerical study where two different cab shapes were compared in both open road condition, and in a digital wind tunnel environment was performed.
Journal Article
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Technical Paper
Adam Olsson, Erik Höckerdal, Ola Stenlåås
The amount of emitted pollutants from an internal combustion engine is regulated by emission legislation. Commonly regulated pollutants for the diesel engine are NOx and PM. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one efficient way of controlling the NOx emissions, and to control PM emissions an accurate lambda control is used. Both EGR- and lambda control requires good knowledge of the gas flows in the engine. The gas flows of interest are inlet air, EGR, total gas flow through the engine and total amount of exhaust gas. There are several possible concepts to measure and/or model these gas flows, all with their pros and cons. Flow and concentration based measurement concepts for determining the gas flows in a heavy duty diesel engine with EGR are investigated. The flow based concepts measures the amount of gas directly with a flow meter such as a hot-film air meter, ultrasonic flow meter or an orifice plate.
Technical Paper
Jonas Karlsson, Ola Stenlåås
The upcoming European legislation for heavy duty vehicles, EuVI, includes rules on monitoring of urea consumption and urea tank volume. These new rules put new demands on the level sensing system monitoring the urea tank. The normal vehicle mounted liquid level sensing system today consists of a single, more or less vertically placed, sensor. When the vehicle is tilted the level of the fluid at the sensor position normally changes. This results in a measurement error in the calculated volume, as the volume is calculated based only on the information from the level sensor. The presented modeling studies investigate the feasibility of using sensor fusion to improve the accuracy of liquid volume estimation on a heavy duty truck. In the first study, the signals from multiple level sensors located in various liquid containing tanks on the truck are fused.
Journal Article
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
Journal Article
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
Technical Paper
Carlos Jorques Moreno, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal
Abstract Factors influencing the effect of pilot-injection on main-injection combustion were investigated using heat release analysis in a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with standard diesel fuel, and included the effect of those factors on engine performance and emissions. Combinations of pilot injection parameters i.e. pilot start of injection, pilot mass, pilot-main injection separation, and rail pressure were studied for various operating conditions and combustion phases. It was concluded that the effect of pilot-injection combustion on main injection can be studied based on the phase of pilot combustion at the start of main injection. Four cases were identified: a) main injection during the mixing phase of pilot injection; b) main injection during the premixed phase of pilot combustion; c) main injection during the diffusive phase of pilot combustion and d) main injection after pilot combustion was completed.
Journal Article
Christian Binder, Fahed Abou Nada, Mattias Richter, Andreas Cronhjort, Daniel Norling
Abstract Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Viewing 1 to 14 of 14


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