Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 525
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2176
Adam Brandt, Edwin Frame, Greg Hansen, Robert Warden, Douglas Yost, Allen Comfort, Luis Villahermosa
The US Army is currently assessing the feasibility and defining the requirements of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL). This new lubricant would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel-efficient, multifunctional powertrain fluid with extended drain capabilities. As a developmental starting point, diesel engine testing has been conducted using the current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil at high temperature conditions representative of desert operation. Testing has been completed using three high density military engines: the General Engine Products 6.5L(T) engine, the Caterpillar C7, and the Detroit Diesel Series 60. Tests were conducted following two standard military testing cycles; the 210 hr Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Cycle, and the 400 hr NATO Hardware Endurance Cycle. Modifications were made to both testing procedures to more closely replicate the operation of the engine in desert-like conditions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2180
Robert Warden, Adam Brandt, Allen Comfort, Luis Villahermosa
The US Army is currently seeking to reduce fuel consumption by utilizing fuel efficient lubricants in its ground vehicle fleet. An additional desire is for a lubricant which would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel efficient, multifunctional Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) with extended drain capabilities. To quantify the fuel efficiency impact of a SCPL type fluid in the engine and transmission, current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil was used in place of MIL-PRF-2104G 15W-40 oil and SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption In-Service testing was conducted. Additionally, synthetic SAE 75W-140 gear oil was evaluated in the axles of the vehicles in place of an SAE J2360 80W-90 oil. The test vehicles used for the study were three M1083A1 5-Ton Cargo vehicles from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2178
Brian Koehler, John Matthew Jackson
Fossil fuel consumption is a significant factor in terms of both economic and environ-mental impact of on- and off-highway systems. Because fuel consumption can be directly tied to equipment efficiency, gains in efficiency can lead to reduction in operating costs as well as conservation of nonrenewable resources. Fluid performance has a direct effect on the efficiency of a hydraulic system. A procedure has been developed for measuring a fluid's effect on the degree to which mechanical power is efficiently converted to hydraulic power in pumps typical of off-highway applications.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0413
Qilong Lu, Magdi Khair, Jeongmin Lee, Seongoh Lee, Euisung Lee, Kwonoh Oh
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied in modern diesels to effectively control nitric oxides (NOx) emission. However, unfiltered high-pressure loop EGR leads to EGR cooler fouling and loss of its effectiveness. Reduced EGR cooler effectiveness often leads to increased NOx emission through increased intake charge temperature and/or reduced EGR flows. Therefore, there is a desire to avoid EGR cooler fouling and its associated problems. Filtering the EGR upstream from the EGR cooler is considered a potential solution to preserve EGR cooler effectiveness over long operating periods and simplify the control of the EGR system. The effect of EGR filter filtration efficiency on the EGR cooler effectiveness was investigated at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Alantum, a filter manufacturer from Korea, developed EGR filters having 50 and 70 percent filtration efficiency for this study. A 2008 calibration, V8, A350 International diesel engine was used in this work.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0636
Michael Hedge, Phillip Weber, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Imad A. Khalek
Gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines are becoming a concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) emissions. The upcoming 2014 Euro 6 regulations may require a drastic reduction in solid particle number emissions from GDI engines and the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III regulations for 2014 and 2017 will also require some PM reduction measures. As a result, it is necessary to characterize PM emissions from GDI engines and investigate strategies that suppress particle formation during combustion. The main focus of this work was on using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means to reduce engine-out particle emissions from a GDI engine with an overall stoichiometric fuel to air mixture. A small displacement, turbocharged GDI engine was operated at a variety of steady-state conditions with differing levels of EGR to characterize total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle emissions with respect to size, number, and soot or black carbon mass.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0635
Imad A. Khalek, Thomas Bougher
A solid particle number measurement system (SPNMS) was developed using a catalytic stripper (CS) technology instead of an evaporation tube (ET). The ET is used in commercially available systems, compliant with the Particle Measurement Program (PMP) protocol developed for European Union (EU) solid particle number regulations. The catalytic stripper consists of a small core of a diesel exhaust oxidation catalyst. The SPNMS/CS met all performance requirements under the PMP protocol. It showed a much better performance in removing large volatile tetracontane particles down to a size well below the PMP lower cut-size of 23 nm, compared to a SPNMS equipped with an ET instead of a CS. The SPNMS/CS also showed a similar performance to a commercially available system when used on a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1218
Cynthia C. Webb, John Miller, Christopher Sharp
The classical approach to prepare engine exhaust emissions control systems for evaluation and certification is to condition the fresh parts by aging the systems on an engine/dynamometer aging stand. For diesel systems this can be a very lengthy process since the estimated service life of the emissions control systems can be several hundred thousand miles. Thus full useful life aging can take thousands of engine bench aging hours, even at elevated temperatures, making aging a considerable cost and time investment. Compared to gasoline engines, diesel engines operate with very low exhaust gas temperatures. One of the major sources of catalyst deactivation is exposure to high temperature [ 1 ].
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1185
Reggie Zhan, Wei Li, Scott T. Eakle, Phillip Weber
A novel urea evaporation and mixing device has been developed to improve the overall performance of a urea-SCR system. The device was tested with a MY2007 Cummins ISB 6.7L diesel engine equipped with an SCR aftertreatment system. Test results show that the device effectively improved the overall NO conversion efficiency of the SCR catalyst over both steady-state and transient engine operating conditions, while NH₃ slip from the catalyst decreased.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1244
Christopher James Chadwell, Darius Mehta
Southwest Research Institute, as part of the Clean Diesel IV consortium, built a multi-cylinder HCCI engine that ran in the HCCI combustion mode full-time. The engine was used to develop HCCI fuels, demonstrate the potential operating range of HCCI, and to demonstrate the feasibility of transient control of HCCI. As part of the engine design, a hardware based method of decoupling control of air and EGR was developed and patented [ 1 ]. The system utilized a positive displacement supercharger with a controlled bypass valve for air-flow control, and a high-pressure loop EGR system with variable geometry turbocharger to control the EGR rate. By utilizing the system, the required precision from the air and EGR control in the engine controller was reduced.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0883
Arjun Prakash, Aaron Jones, Edward Nelson, James Macias, Eugene Jimenez, Matthew Hinojosa
A higher octane quality fuel used in premium-recommended vehicles has the potential for delivering better acceleration and power. Octane number is a standard measure for the anti-knock quality of a gasoline fuel. A higher octane number fuel can withstand more compression before detonation (or knock). Higher compression ratios directly correlate with engine power and thermodynamic efficiency. Hence engines that are designed for higher octane or premium grade fuels should typically develop higher power by extracting more from the calorific value of the fuel. However, in the case of premium-recommended vehicle models that are designed to run even on lower octane fuels, the extent of performance benefits of using premium grade higher octane fuels can be deciphered via vehicle testing. In this regard, two gasoline fuels with anti-knock index values (AKI) of 87 and 91 respectively were compared in five premium-recommended vehicles for acceleration and power benefits.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1301
Gary D. Neely, Jayant V. Sarlashkar, Darius Mehta
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1478
Bapiraju Surampudi, Mark Walls, Joe Redfield, Alan Montemayor, Chips Ingold, Jim Abela
The electrification of accessories using a fuel cell as an auxiliary power unit reduces the load on the engine and provides opportunities to increase propulsion performance or reduce engine displacement. The SunLine™ Class 8 tractor electric accessory integration project is a United States Army National Automotive Center (NAC™) initiative in partnership with Cummins Inc., Dynetek™ Industries Ltd., General Dynamics C4 Systems, Acumentrics™ Corporation, Michelin North America, Engineered Machine Products (EMP™), Peterbilt™ Motors Company, Modine™ Manufacturing and Masterflux™. Southwest Research Institute is the technical integration contractor to SunLine™ Services Group. In this paper the SunLine™ tractor electric Air Conditioning (AC) system is described and the installation of components on the tractor is illustrated. The AC system has been designed to retrofit into an existing automotive system and every effort was made to maintain OEM components whenever modifications were made.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1971
Thomas W. Ryan, Timothy J. Callahan, Darius Mehta
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) experiments were performed in a variable compression ratio single cylinder engine. This is the fourth paper resulting from work performed at Southwest Research Institute in this HCCI engine. The experimental variables, in addition to speed and load, included compression ratio, EGR level, intake manifold pressure and temperature, fuel introduction location, and fuel composition. Mixture preparation and start of reaction control were identified as fundamental problems that required non-traditional mixture preparation and control strategies. The effects of the independent variable on the start of reaction have been documented. For fuels that display significant pre-flame reactions, the start of the pre-flame reactions is controlled primarily by the selection of the fuel and the temperature history of the fuel air mixture.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0593
Michael T. Sherman, George D. Huron, Kevin A. Whitney, Jim Hill
The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0584
Cynthia C. Webb, Phillip A. Weber, Matthew Thornton
Increasing fuel costs and the desire for reduced dependence on foreign oil has brought the diesel engine to the forefront of future medium-duty vehicle applications in the United States due to its higher thermal efficiency and superior durability. The main obstacle to the increased use of diesel engines in this platform is the upcoming extremely stringent, Tier 2 emission standard. In order to succeed, diesel vehicles must comply with emissions standards while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as common rail fuel injection systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOX adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with these future requirements. In meeting the Tier 2 emissions standards, the heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. In support of this, the U.S.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0984
Charles E. Roberts, James C. Snyder, Chad Stovell, Lee G. Dodge, Thomas W. Ryan, Rudolf H. Stanglmaier
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1760
James F. Unruh, Paul D. Till
Automotive catalytic converters must provide a very high level of mechanical and thermal durability to maintain performance during their 100,000 to 150,000 mile life expectancy. The work reported herein characterizes the converter as a base (can) excited spring (mat material) supported mass (substrate). A mat material coupon test apparatus was developed for the purpose of providing parameter data for the converter model in the form of stiffness and material loss factor data as a function of shear deflection across the mat. An intumescent mat material was chosen and its dynamic properties evaluated for a range of converter operating parameters. The mat material response properties were placed into a mat material database as a function of gap bulk density, substrate temperature, and temperature gradient across the mat.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1262
Robert E. Fanick, Aviad Cahana
Abstract A novel oxygenate, 5-methyl furoate ethyl ester (EF), was made by a chemical process from biomass and ethanol. This compound was then used as a renewable diesel additive at concentrations up to 10 percent by volume. This unique ester, which is similar in composition to a know food additive, was studied for engine performance in comparison with two other oxygenated alternatives (i.e. ethanol - EtOH and ethyl levulinate - EL) and with B20 (20 percent biodiesel). Tests were performed with a 2012 6.7 L Ford diesel engine using the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure. The emission results indicated that a blend of the ester with diesel was comparable to the base fuel. In addition, the results also indicated that EF reduces the formation of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide. Other properties of EF seem to improve the physical properties of the blended fuel such as lubricity and viscosity when compared to the base fuel.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0106
Steven G. Fritz, John C. Hedrick, James A. Rutherford
The objective of this project was to assess the effects of various blends of biodiesel on locomotive engine exhaust emissions. Systematic, credible, and carefully designed and executed locomotive fuel effect studies produce statistically significant conclusions are very scarce, and only cover a very limited number of locomotive models. Most locomotive biodiesel work has been limited to cursory demonstration programs. Of primary concern to railroads and regulators is understanding any exhaust emission associated with biodiesel use, especially NOX emissions. In this study, emissions tests were conducted on two locomotive models, a Tier 2 EMD SD70ACe and a Tier 1+ GE Dash9-44CW with two baseline fuels, conventional EPA ASTM No. 2-D S15 (commonly referred to as ultra-low sulfur diesel - ULSD) certification diesel fuel, and commercially available California Air Resource Board (CARB) ULSD fuel.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1207
Wim Van Dam, Mark W. Cooper, Kenneth Oxorn, Scott Richards
Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2060
Patrick M. Merritt, Christopher A. Sharp, E. Robert Fanick
This paper discusses a method developed to counter the variability of media interferences for the measurement of aldehydes and ketones in automotive exhaust. Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) Derivatization Methodology for the collection of aldehyde and ketone compounds in vehicle exhaust has been in use for over thirty years. These carbonyl compounds are captured by passing diluted exhaust gas through a sample medium containing DNPH. The sampling medium can take the form of DNPH dispersed on a solid sorbent or as a DNPH solution in a solvent such as acetonitrile. Carbonyl compounds react readily to form DNPH derivatives which are stable and which absorb ultra-violet (UV) light, facilitating quantitative measurement. However, when the procedure was developed, emissions rates from vehicles were much higher than the current (2010) emissions levels.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1037
Bapiraju Surampudi, Joe Steiber
Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0358
Christopher Chadwell, Terrence Alger, Charles Roberts, Steven Arnold
Four high-efficiency alternative combustion modes were modeled to determine the potential brake thermal efficiency (BTE) relative to a traditional lean burn compression ignition diesel engine with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment. The four combustion modes include stoichiometric pilot-ignited gasoline with EGR dilution (SwRI HEDGE technology), dual fuel premixed compression ignition (University of Wisconsin), gasoline partially premixed combustion (Lund University), and homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) (SwRI Clean Diesel IV). For each of the alternative combustion modes, zero-D simulation of the peak torque condition was used to show the expected BTE. For all alternative combustion modes, simulation showed that the BTE was very dependent on dilution levels, whether air or EGR. While the gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) could be shown to improve as the dilution was increased, the required pumping work decreased the BTE at EGR rates above 40%.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1561
George Bailey, Douglas Fussner
Geartrain noise can be a significant contribution to the overall sound level of diesel engines. Some engine manufacturers employ isolation solutions such as sound deadening covers and foam panels to combat the problem, but these add cost. Little has been published on geartrain noise reduction, and public standards for diesel geartrain design and development are not available. This paper describes an experimental study of the relative influence of gear design parameters on the rattle noise of a diesel engine timing geartrain. The geartrains of several diesel engines were benchmarked to determine the noise reduction strategies employed. A total of three gear sets were designed and tested in a 3.3L four cylinder normally aspirated diesel engine. The experimentation quantified the influence of an anti backlash idler gear in reducing gear rattle noise, and revealed that a key path for gear rattle noise transmission is through an idler gear journal bearing shaft.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2281
Manuch Nikanjam, James Rutherford, Kent Spreen
Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another type such as a modern light-duty. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in an identical environment, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3302
James N. Carroll, Jeff J. White, Scott Rowland
The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3564
Magdi Khair, Dale L. McKinnon
To evaluate the performance of a variety of commercially available exhaust emission control technologies, the Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MECA) sponsored a test program at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The test engine was a current design heavy-duty diesel engine operated on standard No. 2 diesel (368 ppm) and lower sulfur (54 ppm) diesel fuel. Technologies evaluated included: diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) in combination with filters and oxidation catalysts, and combinations of the above technologies. The program was structured to demonstrate that a variety of exhaust emission control technologies, including exhaust gas recirculation, could be used to substantially reduce emissions from a modern MY 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3574
Thomas W. Ryan, Ed Owens, David Naegeli, Jim Doglio, Glenn Blyth, Wim van Dam, Bernard Damin, Cherian Olikara, Fred Villforth
The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3591
Luc N. Allard, Gary D. Webster, Thomas W. Ryan, Gary Baker, Andrew Beregszaszy, Craig W. Fairbridge, Alfred Ecker, Josef Rath
This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3461
K. Froelund
The oil consumption has been measured in real-time for steady-state operating conditions for an approximately 2 L SI-engine. These oil consumption measurements have been obtained for the engine stack (total) as well as for the individual engine cylinders with the current generation of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed SO2 analyzers. The 10 steady-state data presented in this paper is only a small fraction of the 234 steady-state data taken as part of this project. This paper is important since few complete data sets have been published in this area of research and since it illustrates the technical superiority of this analyzing tool for engine development purposes.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 525

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: