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Viewing 1 to 30 of 44
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1207
Wim Van Dam, Mark W. Cooper, Kenneth Oxorn, Scott Richards
Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3713
Greg Shank, Ken Goshorn, Mark Cooper, Wim van Dam, Scott Richards
As on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emissions specifications and greater customer requirements, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has changed. Engine lubricant quality is very important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Beginning in the late 1980's, a new Mack genuine oil specification and a new American Petroleum Institute (API) heavy-duty engine lubricant category have been introduced with each new U.S. heavy-duty, on-highway emissions specification. This paper documents the history and development of the Mack T-7, T-8, T-8A, T-8E, T-9, T-10, T-11, and T-12 engine lubricant tests.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3689
Douglas C. Eberle, Martin B. Treuhaft, Xiaojian Tao
Radioactive tracer technology is an important tool for measuring component wear on a real-time basis and is especially useful in measuring engine wear as it is affected by combustion system operation and lubricant performance. Combustion system operation including the use of early and/or late fuel injection and EGR for emissions control can have a profound effect on aftertreatment contamination and engine reliability due to wear. Liner wear caused by localized fuel impingement can lead to excessive oil consumption and fuel dilution can cause excessive wear of rings and bearings. To facilitate typical wear measurement, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings are initially exposed to thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that are separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1886
Robert Zalosh, Nathan Weyandt
A fire exposure test was conducted on a 72.4 liter composite (Type HGV-4) hydrogen fuel tank at an initial hydrogen pressure of 34.3 MPa (ca 5000 psi). No Pressure Relief Device was installed on the tank to ensure catastrophic failure for analysis. The cylinder ruptured at 35.7 MPa after a 370 kW fire exposure for 6 min 27 seconds. Blast wave pressures measured along a line perpendicular to the cylinder axis were 18% to 25% less the values calculated from ideal blast wave correlations using a blast energy of 13.4 MJ, which is based on the ideal gas internal energy at the 35.7 MPa burst pressure. The resulting hydrogen fireball maximum diameter of 7.7 m is about 19% less than the value predicted from existing correlations using the 1.64 kg hydrogen mass in the tank.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1561
James R. Griffith, Cory R. Machado, Bill B. Bendele
The primary objective of this study was to compare the performance of “new” plastic fuel tanks vs. “aged” plastic fuel tanks when subjected to the standard fire exposure test described in ECE R34.01, Annex 5 Section 5.0 “Resistance to Fire.” The program also included a comparison of failure modes of plastic vs. metal fuel tanks when subjected to a simulated post-crash pool fire. The “new” tanks were purchased from the OEM suppliers (not weathered or pre-conditioned with fuel). The “aged” tanks were obtained from vehicles that were operated in a warm climate and considered to be weathered and fully conditioned with fuel. Three vehicle types, representing three fuel tank shapes and installations, were evaluated: 1.) “thin profile” tank, typical of front wheel drive cars with the tank mounted on the underbody near the rear seat area and in front of the rear axle; 2.) “square profile” tank, typical of SUV's with the tank mounted behind the rear axle; and 3.)
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980869
Gary B. Bessee, Douglas M. Yost, Gordon Jones, David Becktel, Tim Meyer, Stephen D. Davis, Douglas Wersal, Keith Lilly, Roger Miller, William Needelman, Lorin C. Dueck
The critical particle size for a high-pressure injection system was determined. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0 to 5 μm to 10 to 20 μm were evaluated to determine which test dust caused the high-pressure system to fail. With the exception of the 0- to 5-μm test dust, all test dust ranges caused failure in the high-pressure injection system. Analysis of these evaluations revealed that the critical particle size, in initiating significant abrasive wear, is 6 to 7 μm. Wear curve formulas were generated for each evaluation. A formula was derived that allows the user to determine if the fuel filter effluent will cause harmful damage to the fuel system based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles per milliliter present. A methodology was developed to evaluate fuel filter performance as related to engine operating conditions. The abrasive methodology can evaluate online filter efficiency and associated wear in a high-pressure injection system.
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971690
Gary B. Bessee, Joseph P. Fey
Alternative fuels are being evaluated in automotive applications in both commercial and government fleets in an effort to reduce emissions and United States dependence on diesel fuel. Vehicles and equipment have been operated using 100 percent biodiesel and various blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel in a variety of applications, including farming equipment and transit buses. This government study investigates the compatibility of four base fuels and six blends with elastomer and metallic components commonly found in fuel systems. The physical properties of the elastomers were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 471, “Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Effect of Liquids,” and ASTM D 412, “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.” These evaluations were performed at 51.7°C for 0, 22, 70, and 694 hours. Tensile strength, hardness, swell, and elongation were determined for all specimens.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922229
Thomas W. Ryan, Jimell Erwin
The work described in this paper includes the preparation and combustion testing of fuels that consist of fractions of several different distillate materials that represent different feed stocks and different processing technology. Each of the fuels have been tested in a constant volume combustion apparatus to determine the relationship between ignition delay time, temperature and cetane number. These relationships are discussed in terms of the composition and properties of each fraction, and the processing that each of the feedstocks were exposed to.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932847
Steve Marty, Bill Carpenter
This paper discusses the implications of computerizing the SAE #2 clutch friction durability tests that General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company require for automatic transmission fluid certification. There are three reasons for this paper. 1) Friction durability testing is a significant part of a much larger battery of tests needed to qualify a fluid. 2)There have been recent modifications concerning computerization of both the Ford and GM tests. 3) Because there are only two OEM qualified testing facilities, the details of certain testing intricacies in the areas of data acquisition, reduction and reporting may not be as understood as well as in other areas of automotive-based standardized testing. Formulators of automatic transmission fluid need to be aware of all details surrounding the collection and evaluation of the data that will result in the final test report.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941982
Martin B. Treuhaft,, Frank A. Iddings,, Glen A. Boyd, Stan R. Sprague
Radioactive tracer technology (RAT) is an important tool in measuring component wear in an operating engine on a real-time basis. This paper will discuss the use of RAT to study and evaluate boundary lubricant and surfactant chemistries aimed at providing benefits in wear control. In particular, RAT was employed to study ring and bearing wear as a function of engine operating condition (speed, load, and temperature) and lubricant characteristics. Prior to testing, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings were subjected to bulk thermal neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that were separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces. The irradiated parts were installed in the test engine, after which testing to a specific test matrix was accomplished.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950708
Ping C. Sui, Tony Y. Torng
Life prediction and reliability analysis of a cam roller system were investigated. From the tribological analysis, the cam roller system was found to operate under low film parameter conditions and components were subjected to the risk of contact fatigue. Surface analysis performed on the failed rollers indicated that the surface distress was the primary cause for failure. Then, numerical analyses were performed to evaluate the cam roller life and its related reliability. The adopted approach combined a contact fatigue crack growth calculations with a probabilistic model for controlling the design uncertainty. The computation-efficient Fast Probabilistic Integration (FPI™) code was used to solve the problem. With appropriate descriptions for uncertainty distributions, the surface fatigue life of the specified cam roller system can be predicted along with a confident reliability level.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950248
Paul I. Lacey, Steven R. Westbrook
The United States and Europe are mandating increasingly severe diesel fuel specifications, particularly with respect to sulfur content, and in some areas, aromatics content. This trend is directed towards reducing vehicle exhaust emissions and is generally beneficial to fuel quality, ignition ratings, and stability. However, laboratory studies, as well as recent field experience in Sweden and the United States, indicate a possible reduction in the ability of fuels to lubricate sliding components within the fuel injection system. These factors, combined with the trend toward increasing injection pressure in modern engine design, are likely to result in reduced durability and failure of the equipment to meet long-term emissions compliance. The U.S. Army Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (BFLRF) located at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed an accelerated wear test that predicts the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system durability.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982491
Thomas W. Ryan, Janet Buckingham, Lee G. Dodge, Cherian Olikara
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1270
K. Carpenter, M. Janssens, A. Sauceda
Forty-eight materials from parts used inside and outside the passenger compartment of six motor vehicles were tested according to FMVSS 302. All samples passed the test although the FMVSS 302 test requirements do not apply to exterior materials. The same materials were also tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) at three heat fluxes. The FMVSS 302 performance diagram developed earlier on the basis of Cone Calorimeter data for 18 exterior materials from two vehicles appears to have more general validity for solid plastic parts, regardless whether they are taken from locations inside or outside of the passenger compartment. The previously-developed performance diagram is not applicable to plastic foams and fabrics. Additional criteria are proposed to predict whether a foam or fabric is likely to pass the FMVSS 302 test based on ignition time and peak heat release rate measured in the Cone Calorimeter at a heat flux of 35 kW/m2.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0018
Joseph Timar, Walter C. Nygaard*, Michael A. Shrout, Kevin S. Castile
Despite the recent increase in fuel prices, the multi-billion dollar recreational boating market in North America continues to experience solid momentum and growth. In the U.S. economy alone, sales of recreational boats continue to increase with over 17 million boats sold in 2004 [1]. Of that share, outboard boats and the engines that power them, accounted for nearly half of all boat sales. Though there has been a shift in outboard technology to four-stroke cycle engines, a significant number of new engine sales represent two-stroke cycle engines employing direct fuel injection as a means to meet emissions regulations. With the life span of modern outboards estimated to be 8 to 10 years, a significant base of two-stroke cycle engines exist in the market place, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1478
Bapiraju Surampudi, Mark Walls, Joe Redfield, Alan Montemayor, Chips Ingold, Jim Abela
The electrification of accessories using a fuel cell as an auxiliary power unit reduces the load on the engine and provides opportunities to increase propulsion performance or reduce engine displacement. The SunLine™ Class 8 tractor electric accessory integration project is a United States Army National Automotive Center (NAC™) initiative in partnership with Cummins Inc., Dynetek™ Industries Ltd., General Dynamics C4 Systems, Acumentrics™ Corporation, Michelin North America, Engineered Machine Products (EMP™), Peterbilt™ Motors Company, Modine™ Manufacturing and Masterflux™. Southwest Research Institute is the technical integration contractor to SunLine™ Services Group. In this paper the SunLine™ tractor electric Air Conditioning (AC) system is described and the installation of components on the tractor is illustrated. The AC system has been designed to retrofit into an existing automotive system and every effort was made to maintain OEM components whenever modifications were made.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2987
Sidney L. Clark, Robert M. Olree, Patrick Lang, Charlie Leverett, Dwight H. Bowden
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence III Engine Oil Certification Tests have been used for the past forty-five years to evaluate lubricant performance characteristics for valvetrain wear, viscosity increase, and piston deposit formation. Minimum performance standards for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) (1) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) (2). This paper describes the development of the new ASTM Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Certification Test for use in evaluating the performance characteristics of engine oils meeting the next generation, low sulfur, low phosphorus, ILSAC GF-4 and API licensing requirements.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4002
Kenneth Oxorn, Mark W. Cooper, Wim Van Dam, Scott M. Richards
The API has established lubricant specifications, which include standard tests for ring and liner wear. The Mack T-10 is one such test, performed on a prototype engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). At EOT, the liner wear is measured by profilometry, while the ring wear is measured by weight loss. It was decided to monitor the wear of the rings and liners during a full-length T10 test in order to observe the evolution of the wears and wear rates over the course of the test, by using the Surface Layer Activation (SLA) and Bulk Activation (BA) techniques. Three different radioisotopes were created, one in the liners at the turnaround zone, one in the chromium-containing coating on the ring faces, and one in the iron bulk of the rings. This enabled us to observe the wear characteristics of these three components separately. In particular, we were able to separate the face and side ring wears, which cannot be done with simple weight-loss measurements.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0066
Reggie Zhan, Scott T. Eakle, John W. Miller, Joseph W. Anthony
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective in reducing engine-out NOx emissions; however, the EGR system is subject to fouling and corrosion. Fouling is mainly due to particulate buildup on the EGR component (e.g., EGR valve and cooler) surfaces. Corrosion is primarily related to oxides of sulfur and nitrogen in the gas stream, especially problematic when condensation occurs [1]. Because cooled EGR is most effective in controlling NOx emissions, EGR cooler design and operation are important considerations in engine design in order to meet durability requirements. An approach has been developed to greatly reduce EGR system fouling. Four EGR coolers were tested simultaneously with various PM control devices installed upstream of the cooler. System configuration and on-engine test results are presented herein.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1548
Magdi K. Khair, Patrick M. Merritt, Qilong Lu, Jacques Lemaire, Jean-Paul Morin, Keld Johansen
To counter the adverse impact on the formation of harmful unregulated emissions such as nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH), catalyst companies and researchers have been developing catalytic coatings that have the capability of suppressing the formation of NO2. NO2 is formed at low exhaust temperatures with potentially greater concentrations at part load engine operation. Haldor Topsoe, a catalyst company from Denmark, developed such a catalytic coating for DPFs. A sample was provided to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct this research with a view of potentially improving NO2-suppressing formulations in the future. The Haldor Topsoe diesel particulate filter (DPF) with its novel coating was tested together with three other DPFs and the results confirmed the capability of this DPF to suppress the formation of NO2. This characteristic was apparent in all five engine test modes selected to cover the full engine operating range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0891
Teri D. Kowalski, Satoshi Hirano, William A. Buscher, Eric Liu, Jerry C. Wang, James L. Linden
Abstract The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740214
Charles T. Hare, Karl J. Springer, Joseph H. Somers, Thomas A. Huls
This paper describes the results of a public opinion survey on testing of diesel exhaust odors conducted during 1969 and 1970. Major goals of the research were to relate public opinion of the odors and the objectionability associated with them to odor intensity, and to obtain a dose-response curve as the primary result. The dose-response curve was needed to assess odor-control technology by providing a criterion for deciding whether or not the effect of a given control item would be noticed by the general public, reduce complaints, or be worth the cost and effort required for its implementation. The engine used as the live odor source for the subject research was a two-stroke cycle type similar to those used in many buses. This engine type was chosen because its exposure to the public in urban bus applications is very widespread, and because a large portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's odor research had been performed with similar engines.
1964-01-01
Technical Paper
640819
Charles D. Wood, Park W. Espenschade
Abstract This paper shows the results of an experimental investigation of the nature and characteristics of erosion of metals by high-speed impingement of airborne dust particles. The influence of various parameters upon the rate of erosion is shown. The manner in which the rate of erosion varies with certain of these parameters indicates that erosion occurs through the ductile displacement of the eroded material by the impinging dust particle.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0025
David T. Montgomery, Joe Franklin, Kevin Rettmann, David Wagster, Claude von Plato, Steve Friedrich, Kevin Castile, Steve Rose, Tom Marhevko, William Cleveland, Frank Kelley, Don Schultz, Ed Callis, Tim Theriot, Joe Timar, Charlie Seymour, George L'Heureux, Jay Patel, Jeffery Hsu, Dwight Bowden
The Oil Certification Committee of the National Marine Manufacturers Association has developed FC-W®, a new standard for crankcase lube oil used in four-stroke cycle inboard, outboard, and sterndrive marine engines. A sub-committee representing the marine engine industry, the oil industry, oil testing laboratories, and the NMMA engineering standards group was formed to study the lubrication and corrosion prevention needs of four-stroke cycle engines. The sub-committee developed a rust test and an engine test as well as adopting 3 industry standard bench tests. These tests, together with formulation restrictions are used to identify oils that meet the requirements for use in four-stroke cycle marine engines. This paper gives an overview of the development of the new tests, formulation restrictions, and product approval system.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2652
Dan H. Weissling, Stephen L. Wiedmann, Daniel P. Solomon
The general benefits of automation are well documented. Order of magnitude improvements are achievable in processing speeds, production rates, and efficiency. Other benefits include improved process consistency (inversely, reduced process variation), reduced waste and energy consumption, and risk reduction to operators. These benefits are especially true for the automation of the aerospace paint removal (or "depaint") processes. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) developed and implemented two systems in the early 1990s for depainting full-body fighter aircraft at Robins Air Force Base (AFB) at Warner Robins, Georgia, and Hill AFB at Ogden, Utah. These systems have been in production use, almost continuously for approximately 20 years, for the depainting of the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon fighter aircraft, respectively.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0003
Gary B. Bessee
The Beta ratio and filtration ratio are two common rating systems used to designate the abrasive filtration efficiency of fuel filters. Previous research developed a series of wear curves to predict the effects of abrasive particles of varying sizes on fuel injector performance. Based on this data, a formula was generated to predict injector wear based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles in the effluent. This value is called the wear index. (1,2)1 Various fuel filters with the same manufacturer rating were evaluated on a test engine to determine the wear index for each of these fuel filters. The results demonstrate the differences between these “similar” fuel filters and how the wear index provides additional information as compared to Beta and filtration ratios.
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-1917
P. I. Lacey, R. L. Mason
A number of laboratory-scale test methods are available to predict the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system wear. Anecdotal evidence exists to indicate that these methods produce poor correlation with pump wear, particularly for fuels that contain lubricity additives. The issue is further complicated by variations in the lubricity requirements of full-scale equipment and the test methodologies used to evaluate the pumps. However, the cost of performing full-scale equipment testing severely limits the quantity of data available for validation of the laboratory procedures at any single location. In the present study, the technical literature was reviewed and all previously published data was combined to form a single database of 175 pump stand results. This volume of data allows far more accurate statistical analysis than is possible with tests performed at a single location. The results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the standardized laboratory-scale methods.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0217
Kent B. Spreen, Martin J. Heimrich, L. Russ Hornback, Andrew J. Montalbano
A typical automotive catalytic converter is constructed with a ceramic substrate and a steel shell. Due to a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion, the steel shell will expand away from the ceramic substrate at high temperatures. The gap between the substrate and shell is usually filled with a fiber composite material referred to as “mat.” Mat materials are compressed during assembly and must maintain an adequate pressure around the substrate under extreme temperature conditions. The container deformation measurement procedure is used to determine catalytic converter shell expansion during and after a period of hot catalytic converter operation. This procedure is useful in determining the potential physical durability of a catalytic converter system, and involves measuring converter shell expansion as a function of inlet temperature. A post-test dimensional measurement is used to determine permanent container deformation.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0216
Kent B. Spreen, Douglas J. Fox, Martin J. Heimrich, Richard Beason, Andrew Montalbano, Jonathan Kisenyi
An increasing number of passenger vehicle exhaust systems incorporate catalytic converters that are “close-coupled” to the exhaust manifold to further reduce the quantity of cold-start emissions and increase overall catalyst conversion efficiencies. In general, close-coupled catalytic converters are not necessarily subjected to higher inlet exhaust temperatures than conventional underbody catalytic converters. To establish a foundation of on-vehicle temperature data, several passenger vehicles with close-coupled catalytic converters were studied while operating on a chassis dynamometer. Converter temperatures were measured over a variety of vehicle test conditions, including accelerations and extended steady-state speeds for several throttle positions, at both zero- and four-percent simulated road grades.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0221
James F. Unruh, Douglas J. Fox, Robert J. Locker, Connie B. Sawyer
To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
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