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Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2058
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Dmitri Konson
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1960
Guanyu Zheng, Adam Kotrba, Michael Golin, Timothy Gardner, Andy Wang
The introduction of stringent EPA 2015 regulations for locomotive / marine engines and IMO 2016 Tier III marine engines initiates the need to develop large diesel engine aftertreatment systems to drastically reduce emissions such as SOx, PM, NOx, unburned HC and CO. In essence, the aftertreatment systems must satisfy a comprehensive set of performance criteria with respect to back pressure, emission reduction efficiency, mixing, urea deposits, packaging, durability, cost and others. Given multiple development objectives, a systematic approach must be adopted with top-down structure that addresses top-level technical directions, mid-level subsystem layouts, and bottom-level component designs and implementations. This paper sets the objective to provide an overview of system development philosophy, and at the same time touch specific development scenarios as illustrations.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1951
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns of a recently developed Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust (T.R.U.E-Clean®) for exhaust emission control. Like other ground vehicle systems, the T.R.U.E-Clean® system experiences cyclic loadings due to road vibrations leading to fatigue failure over time. Creep and oxidation cause damage at high temperature conditions which further shortens the life of the system and makes fatigue life assessment even more complex. Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly assess the durability/reliability of the system in the early development stage. However, reliable and validated simplified engineering methods with rigorous mathematical and physical bases are still urgently needed to accurately manage the margin of safety and decrease the cost, whereas iterative testing is expensive and time consuming.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2200
Adam Kotrba, Ling Bai, Argun Yetkin, Robert Shotwell, Timothy Gardner
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have been successfully applied for several years to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from on-highway applications, and similar products are now also applied in off-highway markets and retrofit solutions. Most solutions are catalytically-based, necessitating minimum operating temperatures and demanding engine support strategies to reduce risks [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. An ignition-based thermal combustion device is applied with Cordierite and SiC filters, evaluating various DPF conditions, including effects of soot load, exhaust flow rates, catalytic coatings, and regeneration temperatures. System designs are described, including flow and temperature uniformity, as well as soot load distribution and thermal gradient response.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2207
Figen Lacin, Adam Kotrba, Granville Hayworth, Henry Sullivan, Marek Tatur, Jason Jacques, Dean Tomazic, Hoon Cho
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2307
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R2) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2305
Zhigang Wei, Yunfei Qu, Yanping Zhang, Fulun Yang, Matthew Yule, Kay Ellinghaus, Markus Pieszkalla, Figen Lacin
Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) resistance characterization and life assessment are extremely important in the durability/reliability design and validation of vehicle exhaust components/systems, which are subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loadings during operation. The current thermal-fatigue related design and validation for exhaust products are essentially based on testing and the interpretation of test results. However, thermal-fatigue testing are costly and time consuming, therefore, computer aided engineering (CAE) based virtual thermal-fatigue life assessment tools with predictive powers are strongly desired. Many thermal-fatigue methods have been developed and eventually implemented into the CAE tools; however, most of them are based on deterministic life assessment approach, which cannot provide satisfactory explanation for the observed uncertainties introduced in thermal-fatigue failure data.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1074
Guanyu Zheng, Manoj Kumar Sampath, William Alcini, Gabriel Salanta, Adam Kotrba, Bryan Axe
To meet the 2010 diesel engine emission regulations, an aftertreatment system was developed to reduce HC, CO, NOx and soot. In NOx reduction, a baseline SCR module was designed to include urea injector, mixing decomposition tube and SCR catalysts. However, it was found that the baseline decomposition tube had unacceptable urea mixing performance and severe deposit issues largely because of poor hardware design. The purpose of this article is to describe necessary development work to improve the baseline system to achieve desired mixing targets. To this end, an emissions Flow Lab and computational fluid dynamics were used as the main tools to evaluate urea mixing solutions. Given the complicated urea spray transport and limited packaging space, intensive efforts were taken to develop pre-injector pipe geometry, post-injector cone geometry, single mixer design modifications, and dual mixer design options.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2208
Adam J. Kotrba, Argun Yetkin, Bradley Gough, Arda Gundogan, Dan Mastbergen, Clark Paterson
Diesel Particulate Filters have been successfully applied for several years to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from on-highway applications, and similar products are now also applied in off-highway markets and retrofit solutions. As soot accumulates on the filter, backpressure increases, and eventually exhaust temperatures are elevated to burn off the soot, actively or passively. Unfortunately, in many real-world instances, some duty cycles never achieve necessary temperatures, and the ability of the engine and/or catalyst to elevate exhaust temperatures can be problematic, resulting in overloaded filters that have become clogged, necessitating service attention. An autonomous heat source is developed to eliminate such risks, applying an ignition-based combustor that leverages the current diesel fuel supply, providing necessary temperatures when needed, regardless of engine operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0153
Dipankar Sahoo, Adam Kotrba, Tom Steiner, Greg Swift
Abstract Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
Viewing 1 to 11 of 11

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