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Viewing 1 to 30 of 32
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2897
Ryan N. Schaezler, Daniel J. Leonard, Saniel Suri
International Space Station (ISS) Crewmembers perform one of three denitrogenation protocols prior to performing Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) using the International Space Station (ISS) Airlock. The three denitrogenation protocols are: a) Exercise, b) Campout, and c) In-suit. EVA gas usage is categorized into Denitrogenation, Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) oxygen use during EVAs, and air loss gas usage. The amount of gas usage depends on the denitrogenation protocol that is used. Each protocol's gas usage will differ as a result of different requirements of denitrogenation and EMU support. Flight data is correlated with theoretical values when it is available. The correlation to flight data provides a validation of the analysis data. Theoretical and actual gas usages from the ISS were calculated for EVAs out of the Airlock during Stage 7A to Stage 11A. Components of denitrogenation and EMU support gas usage are included.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-3079
Thomas O. Leimkuehler, Vipul Patel, Daniel R. Reeves, James M. Holt
A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3208
Kay Y. Blohowiak, Joseph H. Osborne, Jill E. Seebergh
A family of water-based sol-gel coatings has been developed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional aerospace finishing materials and processes. The sol-gel hybrid network is based on a reactive mixture of an organo-functionalized silane with a stabilized zirconium complex. Thin films of the material self-assemble on metal surfaces, resulting in a gradient coating that provides durable adhesion for paints, adhesives, and sealants. Use of the novel coating as a surface pretreatment for the exterior of commercial aircraft has enabled environmental, health, and safety benefits due to elimination of hexavalent chromium, and flight test and early fleet survey data support the laboratory observations that the sol gel coating reduces the occurrence of “rivet rash” adhesion failures. Modifications of the basic inorganic/organic hybrid network have yielded multifunctional coatings with promise for applications such as corrosion control and oxidation protection.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3203
Sharanpal (Paul) Sikand, John Carr, Mark Kuntavanish
The C-17 airplane operates in some of the most challenging environments in the world including semi prepared runway operations (SPRO). Typical semi-prepared runways are composed of a compacted soil aggregate of sand, silt, gravel, and rocks. When the airplane lands or takes off from a semi-prepared runway, debris, including sand, gravel, rocks and, mud is kicked up from the nose landing gear (NLG) and the main landing gear (MLG) tires. As the airplane accelerates to takeoff or decelerates from landing touchdown, this airborne debris impacts the underbelly and any component mounted on the underbelly. The result is the erosion of the protective surface coating and damage to systems that protrude below the fuselage into the debris path. The financial burden caused by SPRO damage is significant due to maintenance costs, spares costs and Non-Mission Capable (NMC) time.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2413
Brandon Dick, Tony Cook, Dan Leonard
The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen storage in the human spaceflight environment.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972381
Kevin C. Moore, Karen J. Gallagher, Daniel J. Leonard
The on-orbit oxygen and nitrogen supply for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is provided in tanks mounted on the outside of the Airlock module. Gasses are supplied, for distribution to users within the USOS, via pressure regulators in the Airlock. The on-orbit storage can be replenished with gas that is scavenged from the Space Shuttle, or by direct replacement of the tanks. The supply and distribution system are described in this paper. The users of the gasses are identified. The system architecture is presented. Operational considerations are discussed.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981792
Niranjan S. Rao, Guy K. Griffith, Donathan E. Hutchings, William B. Howard
As pieces of the International Space Station (ISS) enter their test phase, access to information and data from the test laboratories must be made immediately available to analysts, managers, and customers. The Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) concept provides remote access to laboratory test data and other information, indirectly as archived data or directly as real-time data off the test bed. We applied VLAB to a life support system hardware test (the Trace Contaminant Control System, TCCS) in the Life Support Technology Center (LSTC). In this paper we describe the VLAB concept in the context of the TCCS hardware test.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981588
Ching-Fen Tsai, Glenn A. Sitler
A multi-element fixed control volume integrated air interchange system performance computer model has been developed and upgraded for the evaluation/assessment of atmospheric characteristics inside the crew compartments of the mated Orbiter and International Space Station (ISS). In order to ensure a safe, comfortable, and habitable environment for all the astronauts during the Orbiter/ISS docked period, this model was utilized to conduct the analysis for supporting the early ISS assembly missions. Two ISS assembly missions #2A and #4A were selected and analyzed.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981618
Timothy Scull, Maurice Devin, Terri Bedard
The temperature and humidity of the air within the habitable areas of the International Space Station are controlled by a set of hardware and software collectively referred to as the Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) subassembly. This subassembly 1) controls the temperature of the cabin air based on a crew selected temperature, 2) maintains humidity within defined limits, and 3) generates a ventilation air flow which circulates through the cabin. This paper provides descriptions of the components of the THC subassembly, their performance ranges, and the control approach of the hardware. In addition, the solutions of the design challenges of maintaining a maximum case radiated noise level of NC 45, controlling the cabin air temperature to within ±2°F of a setpoint temperature, and providing a means of controlling microbial growth on the heat exchanger surfaces are described.
1998-09-15
Technical Paper
982149
D.J. Waldron, R.W. Roberts, C.J. Dawes, P.J. Tubby
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) can achieve high quality welds in aluminum alloys that are of interest to the aerospace industry (e.g. alloys 2014, 2219, 7050 and numerous aluminum-lithium alloys). The low distortion solid-phase welds exhibit metallurgical and mechanical properties, including fatigue, which are superior to conventional fusion welds achieved by arc processes. FSW, although a relatively new welding technique, has been systematically developed and proved by The Welding Institute (TWI) under contract to an international group of sponsors, one of which is The Boeing Company. To further validate the process, The Boeing Company conducted separate development activities including detailed mechanical testing of welds made from the FSW process.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2161
Russell H. Morrison, Mike Holt
The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2048
Peter L. McCloud, Brian R. Dunaway
A recent endeavor has been undertaken to understand the performance of Shuttle Orbiter lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters used during STS-114. During this mission, the crew relied on both fresh LiOH and aged LiOH stored on the International Space Station (ISS). Due to the Space Shuttle being grounded after the Columbia accident, the canisters stored on ISS had passed the certified two-year shelf life and were considered expired. The focus of the analysis was to determine the performance of expired LiOH in relation to fresh LiOH and the accuracy of previous predictions1 regarding the performance of expired LiOH. Understanding the performance of expired LiOH is crucial in enabling the extension of the useful life of LiOH canisters. Extending the shelf life has ramifications not only in the current Shuttle program, but in regard to future exploration missions fulfilling the Vision for Space Exploration as well.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2090
Phillip Brendan Watters, Ryan Nathaniel Schaezler
The analysis presented in this paper focuses on the metabolic consumption of oxygen by the crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 12. The Russian Elektron, which electrolyzes water to produce oxygen, operational and non-operational periods are used to assist in the calculation of metabolic oxygen consumption. Non-operational periods will be used to establish baseline crew consumption rates. The importance of this analysis is to provide more accurate trend of oxygen metabolic consumption rates for Expedition 12.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3430
David T. Misciagna, Dennis J. Landi
This white paper will outline the material and processes, which have been developed for the fabrication and application of an integrated composite firewall primary structure for use in military and commercial aircraft. Military and commercial aircraft have requirements to protect occupants from fire. One specific fire protection requirement is to contain a (1100°C/2000°F) flame for 15 minutes. This protection on composites is usually provided by a metallic firewall attached to the composite structure. The integrated ceramic composite firewall is an improvement over existing metallic firewall technology. This technology reduces cost, part count, weight, and manufacturing complexity of composites, which require fire protection. The integrated ceramic composite firewall material and process incorporates ceramic fabric and film adhesive into one unique material.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3428
Sharanpal (Paul) S. Sikand, Sham S. Hariram, Darsh Aggarwal
There have been 17 fuel tank ignition events on commercial airplanes since 1959 that have resulted in 542 fatalities and 11 airplane losses. On the military side there have been 12 airplane losses on military version of the B-707 and the B-52 airplanes. The Most notable accident was the TWA 800 in July 1996 on the Boeing 747 which caused loss of 230 lives. This paper looks at the potential root causes of fuel tank explosions and the corrective actions that industry can undertake to minimize the hazard of fuel tank explosions. Fuel tank flammability and ignition sources are considered. The areas looked at are design, installation, and maintenance. Compliance to Federal Airworthiness Regulation are reviewed.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3307
Pradip K. Saha
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) technology has been used lately for the joining and assembly of axisymmetric parts in the aerospace and automotive industries. A few case studies of compressive-type joining processes applied on both aluminum and titanium or stainless tubes for aerospace applications are presented. In the first case study, tests were conducted using 2024-T3 drawn tubes joined with a steel end fitting to form a torque tube using different forming variables including: the fitting geometry, material formability and forming power (KJ). The power setting and the fitting geometry were optimized to improve the fatigue life, torque off, and the axial load capability of the torque tube joints to drive the leading and trailing edge high-lift devices.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2768
Peter L. McCloud, Brian R. Dunaway, John C. Graf, Curtis A. Stephenson
Recent efforts have been pursued to establish the usefulness of Space Shuttle Orbiter lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters beyond their certified two-year shelf life, at which time they are currently considered “expired.” A stockpile of Orbiter LiOH canisters are stowed on the International Space Station (ISS) as a backup system for maintaining ISS carbon dioxide Canisters with older (CO2) control. Canister with older pack dates must routinely be replaced with newly packed canisters off-loaded from the Orbiter Middeck. Since conservation of upmass is critical for every mission, the minimization of canister swap-out rate is paramount. LiOH samples from canisters with expired dates that had been returned from the ISS were tested for CO2 removal performance at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD). Through this test series and subsequent analysis, performance degradation was established.
2006-09-12
Technical Paper
2006-01-3154
Steven G. Keener, Patrick B. Berbon
This paper presents the results of development efforts relating to an advanced material processing technique, namely cryogenic milling, and its application to the processing of Al-7.5wt%Mg-0.2wt%N-20vol%SiC and Al 8wt%Ti-2wt%Ni nano-composite materials suitable for use in aerospace fastener applications. The effects of cryogenic milling in the material production are investigated via microstructural analysis. The advantages of cryogenic milling in the material production are presented with powder morphology and handling characteristics, and microstructural and nanostructural aspects. The resulting, very homogeneous material is discussed along with resulting mechanical properties, which are obtained through tension tests.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2278
Bill Bartholet
A layered shielding approach of high and low Z material (graded-Z) is assessed for weight savings over aluminum for both geosynchronous (GEO) and mid (MEO) orbits.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2491
David E. Williams, Leah R. Pate, Chris Hoffman
The Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) management plan to control carbon dioxide (CO2) for the Shuttle while docked to the International Space Station (ISS) reduces the mass and volume needed to be launched. For missions before Flight UF-1/STS-108, the Shuttle and ISS each removed their own CO2 during the docked time period. To control the CO2 level, the Shuttle used LiOH canisters and the ISS used the Vozdukh or the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) with the Vozdukh being the primary ISS device for CO2 removal. Analysis predicted that both the Shuttle and Station atmospheres could be controlled using the Station resources with only the Vozdukh and the CDRA. If the LiOH canisters were not needed for the CO2 control on the Shuttle during the docked periods, then the mass and volume from these LiOH canisters normally launched on the Shuttle could be replaced with other cargo.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2817
Donald D. Palmer, Roger W. Engelbart, Christopher M. Vaccaro
One of the key elements of increasing the affordability of major weapons systems is reducing costs associated with manufacturing. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a critical element of the manufacturing process and one that cannot be compromised. A key goal associated with NDE research and development is to help reduce the cost associated with quality assurance. In relation to composite structures, this is being approached from several directions, two of which will be discussed. The approach most frequently used for inspection of composite parts is to pull the parts out of the manufacturing cells and route them to a centralized quality assurance area for inspection. This approach leads to accumulation of non-recurring costs for tooling/fixturing to support the inspection and significant additions to production flow time. An alternative would be to develop nondestructive evaluation processes that can be performed in the manufacturing cells.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2821
Steven G. Keener, Ralph R. Luhm
Fastening metallic structure for aerospace applications is relatively straightforward and has been done for some time. Dealing with advanced composites, though, requires a significantly different technological approach, especially primary structure. Although composite material utilization has increased enormously in civil and military aircraft in recent years, the application of composite materials to primary aircraft structure has not kept pace and is still greeted with some skepticism in the aerospace community. In particular, no major transport manufacturer has yet employed composite components for fuselage or wing primary structure. This appears to be changing rather rapidly with the introduction and the evolution of new airframes such as the 7E7 and Blended Wing Body (BWB) concepts.
2004-09-21
Technical Paper
2004-01-2824
Patrick Berbon, Steven Keener
Every aircraft produced today contains hundreds of thousands of fastened joints. These joints and the fasteners that connect them are perhaps the most common source of failure in aircraft structure. Therefore, it is imperative that advancements in fastener materials and designs be given the utmost consideration and attention to achieve increased joint performance and integrity. This paper presents the results of development efforts relating to an advanced processing technique and its effect upon selected mechanical properties of certain metallic alloy materials that are deemed appropriate or important for potential fastener applications.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3179
Anthony J. Cook, Daniel J. Leonard, Patricia A. O'Donnell
The Shuttle retirement in 2010 will force the ISS program to reconsider how to supply the Station with nitrogen and oxygen for six to ten more years beyond 2010. The major options for post-Shuttle retirement resupply are resupply via transfer vehicle, the use of small Intervehicular Activity (IVA) high pressure tanks, “stockpile” enough gas to support International Space Station (ISS) through end of life, or generate the necessary gases onboard the Station. The method chosen to sustain the ISS will serve as a building block for producing new minimally dependent environmental control and life support systems for future manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.
2008-06-29
Journal Article
2008-01-2163
Lawrence W. Townsend, David Yancey, Peter Thomas, William Atwell
Estimates of the effectiveness of the high-hydrogen containing materials, sodium alanate and ammonia borane, are made by calculating dose and dose equivalent for the 1977 solar minimum and 1970 solar maximum galactic cosmic ray spectra and for the large solar particle event spectra from the space era event of August 1972 and comparing their shielding effectiveness with that of polyethylene.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2159
Tony Rector, John Steele, Mark Wilson
The proliferation and growth of microorganisms in the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been of significant concern since 2001. Initial testing and assessments of biocides to determine bacterial disinfection capability, material compatibility, stability (rate of oxidative degradation and identification of degradation products), solubility, application methodology, impact on coolant toxicity hazard level, and impact on environmental control and life support systems identified a prioritized list of acceptable biocidal agents including glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and methyl isothiazolone. Glutaraldehyde at greater than 25 ppm was eliminated due to NASA concerns with safety and toxicity and methyl isothiazolone was eliminated from further consideration due to ineffectiveness against biofilms and toxicity at higher concentrations.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2316
Evan B. Davis
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a very powerful tool in its ability to guide noise control package design in automobile, airplane and architectural systems. However transmission loss modeling in an SEA frame work has more to do with modeling of sound propagation through foam and fiber noise control materials than classical SEA power flow between groups of resonant modes. The transmission loss problem is reviewed in an SEA frame work with a focus on key paths and input parameter variations on predicted noise control package performance.
2002-11-05
Technical Paper
2002-01-2912
Gautam H. Shah, Kevin Cunningham, John V. Foster, C. Michael Fremaux, Eric C. Stewart, James E. Wilborn, William Gato, Derek W. Pratt
A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
2002-11-05
Technical Paper
2002-01-2957
Norman R. Byrd, Arthur Rojo, Stephen C. Amundson
Use of graphite/resin composites in engine nacelles has been restricted because the resin is flammable. Fiberglass/polyimide and graphite/polyimide laminates were treated with various phosphorylated polymers to obtain enhanced fire-resistance and high-char-yield products after exposure to a 2000°F flame for 15 minutes. Tensile, flexural shear, and interlaminar shear strengths were determined. Polymeric phosphorylated hydrazides were found to give the best fire-resistance.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1517
I. Syed, B. Bahr, J. Sha, F. Tadayon
This paper presents the experimental study of hole quality parameters in the drilling of titanium alloy (6Al-4V). Titanium alloy plates were drilled dry using three types of solid carbide drills i.e. 2-flute helical twist drill, straight flute and three-flute drill. The objective was to study the effects of process parameters like feed rate, speed and drill bit geometry on the hole quality features. Typical hole quality features in a drilling process are the hole quality measures such as surface roughness, hole diameter, hole roundness and burr height. The results indicate that proper selection of speed, feed rate, and drill geometry can optimize metal removal rate and hole quality.
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