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Viewing 1 to 26 of 26
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1944
Blair S. Patty, Leo Novak, Hoang Pham
Field cracking in some instrument panels (IP) manufactured with a competitive grade of polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) material was observed in high temperature/high humidity geographies. OEMs and tier molders are: 1) questioning the thermal and hydrolytic stability of the various suppliers' PC/ABS resins, and 2) converting to grades with advantaged stability. A study was undertaken to compare the thermal and hydrolytic stability of two suppliers' high flow PC/ABS resins. Materials were aged at 90C/95% relative humidity up to 1000 hours. Samples were tested to compare the retention of properties. This paper will discuss the experimental procedures, resulting data, and the common factor in the PC/ABS resins showing the best stability.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980721
Pádraig Naughton, John McCallum
The use of Low Pressure Moulding (LPM), in its many forms, is becoming more widespread in the Automotive Industry. Design and setup of this process generally relies on experience built up over years of working with the process and often several tool and process changes in the development phase in order to optimise the process. This paper outlines a method of designing for LPM using C-Mold® software from AC-Technology, and the experience of working with the process and materials, which will reduce the number of iterations required to design for LPM and further increase the benefits to be gained by use of the process. The paper shows some of the characteristics of the process and the extent to which this can be simulated using the software.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980067
Pierre Juan, Pádraig Naughton, Richard Lee, Franciscus Krabbenborg
Among the various materials used today for an instrument panel application, polypropylene is one of the least expensive per kilogram and therefore one of the most attractive. Typically, different polypropylene compounds may be used in different components of the IP according to the desired performance requirements. At the same time, polypropylene is one of the most difficult thermoplastics to use properly when designing an instrument panel due to weaknesses related to its semi-crystalline nature. For some vehicles, the metal reinforcement which would be needed to overcome these weaknesses would lead to a higher overall system cost compared with engineering thermoplastics. In the last decade significant progress has been made in the development of new polypropylene compounds and processes.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980435
Luis Lorenzo, Scott Burr, Dave Chapman, Mick Heckert
Fully-integrated structural instrument panels (IP) have been in commercial use in passenger cars, light trucks, and sport utility vehicles for some years now. They offer a cost-effective alternative to the more traditional IP construction that utilizes full-size cross car beams to achieve the structural stiffness and energy management required to meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and corporate performance requirements. The natural evolution of interior designs demands an increasing level of integration of the different components in the interior of the vehicle. Therefore, the natural extension of current structural IP technology is to integrate the steering column subassembly, i.e., steering column and column support, and the heat, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) unit into a modular pre-assembled system.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980986
Pádraig Naughton, Rony Van Daele, John McCallum, Daryl Hertema
The drive to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the automotive industry is often the driving force for development of new technologies and methods of engineering. Polypropylene (PP) is widely used as a low cost alternative to “engineering” thermoplastics. This paper outlines the characterisation methods used to develop material models for talc-filled impact-modified PP, which are then used to increase the efficiency of the development process, by using engineering analyses to reduce the prototyping costs and potentially the development time for an application. Instrument panels (IPs), door panels and trim parts are usually subjected to heat requirements and must maintain dimensional tolerance levels for each application. This necessitates extensive prototype testing and often several design iterations in order to reach the requirements. This paper deals with the characterisation of PP creep behaviour and development of a model for use in Finite-Element (FE) - based codes.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980988
Allan James, John McLaren, Ken Arnold
A new RRIM system produces a polyurea polymer that is capable of going through a traditional assembly process including E-coat bakes of up to 200C. In order to achieve the necessary performance characteristics, the high temperature resistant polyurea RIM polymer requires post-cure temperatures between 180C and 200C. Existing ovens are designed to post-cure materials below 160C. Also, existing ovens may not be large enough to handle pickup truck rear fenders. The existing ovens need to be refurbished or new ones built to meet the new market demand. To reduce the cost of the post-cure process, infrared (IR) radiation was tested to determine its utility for post-curing RIM parts. It was demonstrated that a infrared radiation can be used to pre-heat the RIM part in 1/10th the time of a convection oven in the laboratory. The benefit of using infrared radiation is improved dimensional stability and impact properties with acceptable flexural modulus.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2698
David Bank, Peter Cate, Mike Shoemaker
Cyclic oligomers of butylene terephthalate (CBT™)† represent a new chemical route to semi-crystalline thermoplastic polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). The oligomers of interest melt completely at about 150°C to produce a low viscosity fluid that is ideal for wetting and dispersing fibrous fillers and reinforcements thereby enabling the development of composites that were previously not possible when working with high viscosity commercial PBT. Introduction of catalyst to undiluted molten cyclic oligomer leads to rapid ring opening polymerization and the formation of high molecular weight thermoplastic PBT without the generation of volatile organic compounds. The polymer resulting from this polymerization will be hereby referred to as pCBT. Treatment of cyclic oligomers in this fashion results in pCBT thermoplastic resin with a high melting point (230°C) and physical performance similar to that of other commercially available PBT resins.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0016
Gregory P. Reny, Sean H. Tang, Michael Best, Ray Ciplijauskas
PC/ABS blends have been used with much success in energy management applications for the last 10 years. These systems are typically injection molded; however as blow molding technology advances, a re-examination of applicable applications is warranted. The attributes of the two molding techniques will be compared in a technical manner to illustrate which process delivers the most cost effective solution for automotive interior impact components. Material morphology and property consistency, energy management capability, weight savings, and total systems costs will be explored. Both fabrication techniques will be examined using FEA simulations to demonstrate energy management and weight savings. High magnification microscopy will depict part microstructure for both techniques, illustrating differences in morphology and rubber phase orientation in PULSE* Polycarbonate-Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Blends (PC/ABS).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0955
Cheng G Li, Frank Mao, Steven B. Swartzmiller, Sten A. Wallin, Robin R. Ziebarth
A new advanced ceramic material (ACM) has been developed and examined for diesel emission control systems, especially for diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. Lab tests have shown that ACM possesses suitable mechanical and chemical properties for a durable DPF. Engine dynamometer tests have shown that a DPF made from ACM possesses high performance in the key application requirements of high filtration efficiency, low filtration back pressure, fast regeneration, and suitability for catalyst coating applications. The experimental results from this investigation demonstrate that a DPF made from ACM can be used for advanced diesel PM emission control systems, including potential four-way diesel catalytic converter systems.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1747
Cheng G. Li, Hein Koelman, Ravi Ramanathan, Ulrich Baretzky, Gunter Forbriger, Thibaut Meunier
A catalyzed ceramic filter has been used on diesel engines for diesel particulate matter emission control. A key design criteria for a diesel particulate filter is to maximize DPF performance, i.e. low back pressure and compact size as well as near continuous regeneration operation. Based upon the modeling and deep understanding of material properties, a DPF system design has been successfully applied on a high performance diesel engine exhaust system, such as the Audi R10 TDI, the first diesel racing car that won the most prestigious endurance race in the world: the 24 hours of Le Mans in both 2006 and 2007. The design concept can be used for other materials and applications
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2327
Saeed Siavoshani, Jay Tudor, Dev Barpanda
This paper describes a comprehensive hybrid technique developed for optimization of damping materials on vehicle bodies. This technique uses finite element analysis (FEA) along with experimental techniques to complement each other. In this particular application, a hybrid technique was used to address floorpan vibration and the resulting radiated noise. The objective of this approach was to develop an optimized damping material application layout. This optimized layout balances the increased performance with the overall material volume, mass, and cost. The optimized damping material application developed resulted in a 3-5 dB reduction in the floorpan vibration level while saving 10% in material volume and mass. This optimized layout was validated on a body-in-white using a laser vibrometer. In addition, a new liquid applied material was also introduced with better damping characteristics.
1952-01-01
Technical Paper
520090
J. D. HANAWALT, G. K. GLAZA
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0588
Lorraine C. Yu, Khalil N. Khameneh
Many studies have been done to objectively measure car seat foam properties and correlate them to comfort performance. Typically, the vibration characteristics (namely transmissibility) of the foam cushion are measured. It has been generally accepted that low natural frequency equates to better comfort. However, no subjective studies have been done to verify that humans can feel the vibration differences that are measured. Also, the measured differences of the foam may not be detectable once the foam is built into a complete seat. Three different foam formulations utilizing MDI (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and TDI (toluene diisocyanate) technology were evaluated for vibration characteristics. The foams were then submitted to subjective human testing and objective lab testing after being built into seats. The subjective testing was done using a typical ride and drive evaluation where people were interviewed about the comfort of the seat while driving over various road conditions.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0585
F. M. Casati, P. R. Berthevas, R. M. Herrington, Y. Miyazaki
The major element of contact between the occupant, the vehicle and the road surface is the automobile seat. Flexible polyurethane foams are the material of choice for this application, not only because of the economies offered by large-scale molding operations, but also because the cushioning characteristics of the foam/seat assembly can be adjusted. The automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s) worldwide are looking for optimization of the balance between foam weight and foam specifications, with more emphasis than ever on comfort and durability. This goes with specific requirements for the various foam pads, i.e., front cushion, rear cushion, front backrest and rear backrest. Commercially useful foams can be made from a variety of polyurethane molding chemistries.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0296
Gajanan V. Gandhe, Martin H. Tusim
The passing of the federal regulation for head impact protection for upper interior components (FMVSS 201U) has led to the use of a variety of foam materials in interior trim pillar and headliner reinforcement applications. Polyurethane foams and expanded bead foams are some of the commonly used foams in these applications. However, the low energy absorption efficiency (35% - 55%) of the current foams requires the use of 20 mm - 40 mm of packaging space to integrate the countermeasures that make it possible to meet the regulations. A newly developed high efficiency olefin based foam is able to meet the performance requirements at a reduced packaging space. A combination of physical structure and superior mechanical properties provides the much needed higher efficiency (80% - 90%) of the olefinic foam. This paper discusses the foam architecture and performance benefits for many interior applications, such as energy absorbing countermeasures in pillar trim, headliners, and door panels.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0692
Keith Kauffmann, Mansour Mirdamadi, Peter Cate, Mark Turner, Bob Turner, Mike Sammut, Chris Arundel, Jeff Laya
In a joint effort between Ford Motor Company, Visteon Automotive Systems, Textron Automotive Company, and Dow Automotive the 1999 Mercury Cougar instrument panel (IP) was designed and engineered to reduce the weight and overall cost of the IP system. The original IP architecture changed from a traditional design that relied heavily upon the steel structure to absorb and dissipate unbelted occupant energy during frontal collisions to a hybrid design that utilizes both plastic and steel to manage energy. This design approach further reduced IP system weight by 1.88 Kg and yielded significant system cost savings. The hybrid instrument panel architecture in the Cougar utilizes a steel cross car beam coupled to steel energy absorbing brackets and a ductile thermoplastic substrate. The glove box assembly and the driver knee bolster are double shell injection molded structures that incorporate molded-in ribs for added stiffness.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0841
Gerhard Slik, Vikas Gupta, Dave Chapman
In the present paper the engineering development of a structural instrument panel (IP) concept made of a Polypropylene (PP) rubber modified compound filled with 15% talc in which the metal cross car beam has been eliminated, is discussed. The design concept consists of three main injection molded shells which are vibration welded to each other to form a stiff structure. The steering column is attached to the BIW and plastic structure by means of a separate column support made of steel, aluminum, magnesium or fiber-reinforced plastic. The concept has been developed for the European market and is therefore not intended to meet the unbelted FMVSS 208 requirements. The total IP assembly has a substantially lower cost and weight than conventional cross car beam based IP structures while meeting all of the performance requirements. The concept development was supported by static and dynamic numerical analyses using well established, widely used FEA codes.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0842
Eugenio Toccalino, Dagmar van Heur, Maurizio Pettigiani
The platform strategy broadly used by OEMs across their different brands, as well as the increasing targets in terms of cost, weight and performance are driving forward since several years the modular approach for a new generation of instrument panels. An innovative hybrid concept has been developed in order to integrate the HVAC system with the structural IP components, reducing cost and weight, improving thermal comfort and structural performance, with at the meantime high style flexibility. The integration of metallic and thermoplastic components, together with a structural use of plastic parts, has driven to the development of different modular concepts. Each of these concepts has been screened and optimized using engineering tools such as finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to assess the structural, noise-vibration-harshness (NVH), airflow and cool-down performance.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0846
Blair S. Patty, Cheryl Weckle, Hoang Pham, Dick Lauer
An advanced high flow PCABS was developed for improving the efficiency of injection molding processes and cycle times. Proprietary technology was used to develop this new blend while maintaining key properties (heat resistance and impact) necessary to meet end use part requirements. Significant rheological improvements in melt flow rate (MFR) and flow capabilities throughout the entire viscosity versus shear rate range were obtained. These improvements allowed for lower cooling times (21-27% reduction) and injection pressures. Molders using this resin have the potential to improve cycle times, improve processes, and save money. This paper will document cycle time and process improvements in automotive instrument panel applications with the new high flow PCABS blend, PULSE*2000EZ.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0209
Mark Goldhawk, Maria Wesolowski
To address the automotive industry's initiative to maximize the utility of each component by decreasing both weight and cost to improve the performance and value of its products, it is logical to try to minimize the thickness of any part whose main function is ostensibly decorative. A example of such a candidate part on the vehicle would be the fascia and body side claddings. The fascia and claddings of vehicles do provide some impact resistance and resiliency functionality to vehicles, but more and more, the energy management functionality is being taken on by improvements in the engineering design and support systems behind the exterior part. The function of these exterior parts then, is, to a large degree, to be aesthetically pleasing when painted, and maintain their high quality fit and finish over the life of the vehicle. These applications are therefore justifiably subject to investigations into the reduction of their wallstock.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-1322
Kevin Nichols, Harry Fowler, Mark Newsham, Sarada Namhata, Jason Reese, Tom Fiola, Chris Guild
The QUESTRA* Crystalline Polymer product family, based on syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), has been improved to meet the needs of the automotive connector and light socket applications in a very cost effective manner. In this paper, the attributes of two new SPS formulations, SPS/polyamide (PA) blends and low gas SPS formulations, are compared to existing SPS formulations and competitive resins. It is shown that the SPS/PA blends have significantly improved strength and ductility over existing SPS formulations. This improves the SPS formulation technology to include the full range of strength and ductility options the designer of automotive connectors needs to achieve the terminal retention forces and latch deflection distances necessary for the smaller connectors like the .64 mm terminal systems that the automotive industry is migrating towards.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1429
George E. Totten, Ben Ashraf, Roland J. Bishop
For many years the ASTM D2882 test method, using the V-104C Vane pump, served the industry well to evaluate the lubricating properties of hydraulic fluids at low pressures (< 2000 psi). However, at higher pressures in different types of pumps (i.e. piston pumps), this method may not be reliable enough to predict satisfactory lubrication performance in commercial applications. In this paper the V-104C pump will be evaluated in terms of vane contact force and film thickness parameters to assertain the possibility of using a modified bench test to better predict hydraulic fluid performance at higher pressures.
2002-03-04
Technical Paper
2002-01-0724
Blair S. Patty, Dan Denardo, Mechelle Weidner
The challenging economic climate of today is causing many suppliers to develop new and creative ways to improve efficiency and meet the needs of customers without jeopardizing the quality of service and support. The Dow Automotive business group is evaluating a new mechanism for remotely supporting customers' injection molding trials by combining wireless video camera technology and traditional videoconference (VC) capabilities. The Video Response System™ (VRS), from Teleco Video Systems, incorporates a wireless remote camera on a wheeled tripod and a wireless audio connection to allow users to transmit a real-time video and audio signal from anywhere within a location to other sites around the globe. The video and audio signals generated by the VRS system are transmitted to a traditional VC unit in the molding shop which in turn transmits the signals over ISDN lines to an awaiting VC unit.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0849
Kenneth A. Kerouac, Peter F. Grelle, Nigel Shields
Currently, throughout the automotive industry, a major emphasis is being placed on reducing costs of plastics part manufacturing. For example, manufacturers of plastics parts used for interior trim applications have traditionally painted parts, to improve part aesthetics and cover over such surface defects as weld lines. Part painting can typically add from $.60-$2.00 to the part costs for these applications. Furthermore, due to the loss in mechanical properties found at weld lines, structural integrity can also be sacrificed. This paper discusses the use of the multi-live feed molding process as a solution to minimize weld lines, improve mechanical properties and part aesthetics, and potentially reduce costs by eliminating steps in manufacturing operations such as painting.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0853
Albert Reunis, Andrew Hogg, Pádraig Naughton, Thomas Dau, Norbert Schoppmann, Rudi Nickel, Andreas Markhardt
The trend in the automotive industry to establish higher quality, comfort and safety levels, while at the same time reducing cost and weight, is pushing production techniques, materials and the development cycle to become as efficient as possible. The automotive supplier has to choose from a broad range of fabrication technologies and material alternatives to achieve the highest performance level at the lowest possible cost. This paper outlines the process followed by a multi-functional team to design and develop the interior door panels for the VW Golf, in ABS resin for large scale production. The team effort, headed by the Tier 1 (Sommer Allibert Industrie), with extensive interaction with the OEM, and the support of the material supplier and tool-maker, led to a thin-walled part with integrated mountings, high quality appearance and excellent dimensional stability.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0278
Ranganath Shastri, Erwin Baur
The material data provided by resin suppliers in their product datasheets generally focuses on single point data only and does not include the data useful to the design engineers. Even though the single-point data bears little relevance to the end-use performance of the material and provides very little insight into its behavior, design engineers rely heavily on these data because it is readily available. However, to enhance their confidence in their material selection decisions, they ask for large quantity of data without taking into consideration the cost of data measurement. Today, as resin suppliers struggle to justify the cost of generating all the data requested against the tremendous pressure to reduce their cost, it is important to put the direct costs of material data measurement in perspective.
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