Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
Technical Paper
David E. Ripple, Jane F. Guzauskas
The Environmental Protection Agency will require a reduction in U.S. diesel particulate standards in 1991. To comply with this, the OEM's must modify engine design and ask petroleum refiners to reduce fuel sulfur levels to less than 0.05%. This reduction could have a dramatic impact on an engine's lubricant and possibly its performance. The durability and particulate emission stability of new engines designed to use low sulfur fuel should be related to lubricant performance and protection. Performance with low sulfur fuel must also be acceptable with equipment in service today. Laboratory evaluations of lubricant performance in current equipment were conducted with the Caterpillar 1G2 and various multicylinder diesel tests used for API CE certification. Performance differences attributable to both fuel sulfur and lubricant formulation variations have been identified and will be discussed.
Technical Paper
D. M. Smith, J. M. Sutherland
The development of engine oil specifications in North America, Europe and Japan has resulted in a proliferation of performance tests of increasing complexity and cost. At the same time, the transportation industry is becoming more international with vehicle populations of mixed national origin the rule, rather than the exception. In this context, regional specification writing bodies are making efforts to rationalize their own specifications and to enter into dialogue with each other. Central to any attempt at rationalization, regionally or internationally, is the availability of high-quality reference oils. Data on two formulations (a passenger car motor oil and a heavy-duty engine oil) which have met major requirements of North American, European and Japanese engine builders are presented.
Technical Paper
B. M. O'Connor, F. C. Jacoby, R. W. Cain
Laboratory testing is an essential part of product development. However, it usually only reflects a small portion of the experience that a lubricant may see in actual service conditions. Many laboratory tests are designed to only address one or two facets of what is deemed to be critical performance areas. Since it is difficult to cover all of the critical performance conditions problems sometimes arise in service that were not anticipated by the laboratory test. Or, conversely, some above average performance evolves during service that was not observed in a specific laboratory test. This paper highlights the overall performance of four manual transmission fluids approved or accepted by the manufacturer for this application. The evaluations were conducted in a city bus fleet with the test buses assigned to the same route for approximately 300,000 km over 30 months.
Technical Paper
Sanjay Kalhan, Steve Twining, Richard Denis, Richard Marano, Rebecca Messick
Mist generated from water-soluble fluids used in machining operations represents a potentially significant contribution to worker exposure to airborne particles. Part I of this study [1], discussed polymer additives as mist suppressants for straight mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWF), which have been successfully employed at several locations. This paper focuses on recent developments in polymer mist suppressants for water-based MWF, particularly in the production environment. The polymer developed and tested in this study functions on a similar basis to that for straight oil anti-mist additives. This water soluble polymer suppresses the formation of small mist droplets and results in a distribution of larger droplet sizes. These larger droplets tend to settle out near the point of machining, resulting in a significant decrease in the total airborne mist concentration.
Technical Paper
Robert C. Richardson, Brian M. O'Connor, Michael P. Gahagan
All automotive gear oils must satisfy a series of standard industry or Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) tests. These usually include bench, axle dynamometer, and field tests. However, product development testing must extend beyond satisfying standard test protocols. This is especially true as increased emphasis is placed on extending oil drain intervals and increasing equipment life in the face of greater performance demands through new heavy-duty vehicle designs. End-users ultimately benefit from extended oil drain intervals and increased equipment life. However, the effort to achieve both initiatives will prove successful only through careful development and selection of the proper performance additives and base fluids. Also, a broad focus must be maintained to satisfy all lubricant requirements. These requirements build on a solid base of standard features and include new features that stretch the current envelope of gear oil performance.
Technical Paper
Michael J. Covitch
Multigrade automotive lubricants contain polymeric viscosity modifiers which enable the oil to provide adequate hydrodynamic lubrication at high temperatures and good starting/pumping performance at low temperatures. Under operating conditions in engines, transmissions and gear boxes, polymeric additives undergo both temporary and permanent viscosity loss. The former is caused by flow orientation and the latter by molecular chain scission. Whatever the mechanism, original equipment manufacturers are interested in maintaining a minimum level of hydrodynamic viscosity from oil change to oil change. This is often expressed as a “stay-in-grade” requirement. Commercial viscosity modifiers (VM) span a wide range of chemistries and molecular architectures.
Technical Paper
C.E. Eldredge-LaMarca, K.D. Blalock, M.E. Hanna, S.H. Roby
The work presented here is the second of two papers investigating the KA24E engine test. The first paper characterized the KA24E engine in terms of the physical and chemical operating environment it presents to lubricants. The authors investigated oil degradation and wear mechanisms, and examined the differences between the KA24E and the Sequence VE engine tests. It was shown that while the KA24E does not degrade the lubricant to the extent that occurs in the Sequence VE, wear could be a serious problem if oils are poorly formulated. This second paper examines the wear response of the KA24E to formulation variables. A statistically designed matrix demonstrated that the KA24E is sensitive to levels of secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP), dispersant and calcium sulfonate detergent. This matrix also showed that the KA24E appears to have good repeatability for well formulated oils and is a reasonable replacement for the wear component of the Sequence VE.
Technical Paper
M. E. Hanna, C. E. Eldredge-LaMarca, S. H. Roby, A. E. Clough
The Nissan KA24E engine test is designated to replace the Ford Sequence VE engine test as the low temperature valve train wear requirement for ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) GF-3. The KA24E (recently designated the Sequence IV A) represents much of the current world-wide material and design technology while retaining the sliding cam/follower contact found in earlier engine designs. The work presented here is the first of two reports. In this first report, the physical and chemical environment the KA24E engine presents a lubricant is characterized and compared to those of the Sequence VE engine. Valve train materials and wear modes are investigated and described. Although chemical analysis of drain oils indicate the KA24E procedure does not degrade the lubricant to the extent seen in the Sequence VE test, valve train wear appears to proceed in a similar manner in both tests.
Technical Paper
W. Michael Burk, Brigdon D. Domonkos, Kieron Donnelly, David A Duncan, Matthew D. Gieselman, Darryl T. Gundic, Jess R. Hamilton, Douglas T. Jayne, Michael Sutton
With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper
Mike Sutton, Jody A. Kocsis, Isao Nakagawa
Requirements to improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in aiding fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications that require fuel economy improvements. Part of this improvement is due to achieving suitable viscometric properties in the lubricant, but additional improvements can be made using friction modifier (FM) compounds. The use of FMs in lubricants is not new, with traditional approaches being oleochemical-based derivatives such as glycerol mono-oleate and molybdenum-based compounds. However, to achieve even greater improvements, new new friction modifying compounds are needed to help deliver the full potential required from next generation lubricants. This work looks at the potential improvements available from new FM technology over and above the traditional FM compounds.
Technical Paper
Ewa A. Bardasz, Elizabeth Schiferl, William Nahumck, Jack Kelley, Lewis Williams, Carolyn P. Hubbard, Eva Thanasiu, Mark Jagner, Ann O'Neill, Dairene Uy
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper
Sung Choon Yoo, Sang Yeob Cha, Masahiko Ikeda, Isao Nakagawa, Hyun-Soo Hong
Global original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have requested lower viscosity automatic transmission fluid (ATF) for use in conventional and 6-speed automatic transmissions (AT) to meet growing demands for improved fuel economy. While lower-viscosity ATF may provide better fuel economy by reducing churning losses, other key performance attributes must be considered when formulating lower viscosity ATF(1,2). Gear and bearing performance can be key concerns with lower-viscosity ATFs due to reduced film thickness at the surfaces. Long-term anti-shudder performance is also needed to enable the aggressive use of controlled slip torque converter clutches that permit better fuel economy. And, friction characteristics need to be improved for higher clutch holding capacity and good clutch engagement performance. This paper covers the development of next-generation, low-viscosity ATF technology, which provides optimum fuel economy along with wear and friction durability.
Technical Paper
Simon C. Tung, Michael L. McMillan, Gao Hong, Ewa Bardasz
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper
Ewa A. Bardasz, David C. Arters, Elizabeth A. Schiferl, Dino W. Righi
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper
Douglas T. Jayne, James R. Shanklin, Carl F. Stachew
The next generation of engine oil under development has been formulated to maintain beneficial oil lubrication properties at increased engine operating temperatures, increased drain-oil intervals, and with the recirculation of exhaust gas back through the engine (EGR). These conditions result in the formation of degradation products from decomposed fuel, additives, and base oil. Decomposition products containing reactive sulfur can result in the corrosion of copper alloys. Sulfur-containing compounds currently used in these formulations can include zinc dithiophosphates (ZDP), molydithiophosphates, molydithiocarbamates, and molybdic acid/amine complexes, along with sulfur containing detergents and antioxidants. Interactions among these components and others in the formulation often determine the propensity of these formulations for corrosion. This paper will discuss the results of corrosion bench tests used to screen oil formulations for copper corrosion.
Technical Paper
David R. Forester, Bharat B. Malik, Spencer E. Taylor
The continued development of more powerful aviation turbine engines has demanded greater thermal stability of the fuel as a high temperature heat sink. This in turn requires better definition of the thermal stability of jet fuels. Thermal stability refers to the deposit-forming tendency of the fuel. It is generally accepted that dissolved oxygen initiates the deposition process in freshly refined fuels. While there are many tests that are designed to measure or assess thermal stability, many of these either do not display sufficient differentiation between fuels of average stability (JP-8) and intermediate stability (JP-8+100, JP-TS), or require large test equipment, large volumes of fuels and/or are costly. This paper will discuss the use of three laboratory tests as “concept thermal stability prediction” tools with aviation fuels, including Jet A-1 or JP-8, under JP8+100 test conditions.
Technical Paper
D. L. Clason
This paper describes the development of an extended vane pump test procedure utilizing the Eaton® 35VQ-25 vane pump. Evaluation of two commercial Zinc Dithiophosphate containing and two commercial non Zinc (ashless) hydraulic fluids are also described. Results show that extending the test time allows differentiation among fluids which give comparable performance in the standard 50 hour test. System cleanliness, as well as pump weight loss, must be used in the performance assessment.
Technical Paper
John S. Manka, Thomas M. Sopko
Many marketers of branded diesel fuels are introducing a “premium” diesel fuel grade. The National Conference on Weights and Measures is recommending that one of the criteria for marketing a fuel as “premium” is that it have a lower cloud point or alternatively a reduced low temperature flow test (LTFT) failure point [1]. However, waxy crudes and process limitations make it difficult for refiners to economically make very low cloud point diesel fuel. Fortunately, cloud point depressants (CPDs) can overcome these limitations. However, refiners are concerned about the effect cloud point additives have on other diesel fuel properties. We found that cloud point depressants allow refiners to meet low temperature specifications while being neutral or beneficial to other diesel fuel properties.
Viewing 1 to 18 of 18


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