Viewing 1 to 30 of 48
Journal Article
I. J. Lee, A. Selamet, H. Kim, T. C. Kim, J. Kim
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Journal Article
Jae-Yeol Park, Rajendra Singh
Most of the prior work on active mounting systems has been conducted in the context of a single degree-of-freedom even though the vehicle powertrain is a six degree-of-freedom isolation system. We seek to overcome this deficiency by proposing a new six degree-of-freedom analytical model of the powertrain system with a combination of active and passive mounts. All stiffness and damping elements contain spectrally-varying properties and we examine powertrain motions when excited by an oscillating torque. Two methods are developed that describe the mount elements via a transfer function (in Laplace domain). New analytical formulations are verified by comparing the frequency responses with numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method (based on Voigt type mount model). Eigensolutions of a spectrally varying mounting system are also predicted by new models.
Journal Article
Sriram Sundar, Rajendra Singh, Karthik Jayasankaran, Seungbo Kim
This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.
Journal Article
Rick Dehner, Neil Figurella, Ahmet Selamet, Philip Keller, Michael Becker, Kevin Tallio, Keith Miazgowicz, Robert Wade
The acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor are studied on a steady-flow turbocharger test bench, with the goal of advancing the current understanding of compression system instabilities at the low-flow range. Two different ducting configurations were utilized downstream of the compressor, one with a well-defined plenum (large volume) and the other with minimized (small) volume of compressed air. The present study measured time-resolved oscillations of in-duct and external pressure, along with rotational speed. An orifice flow meter was incorporated to obtain time-averaged mass flow rate. In addition, fast-response thermocouples captured temperature fluctuations in the compressor inlet and exit ducts along with a location near the inducer tips.
Journal Article
Ryan M. Ashby, JongYun Jeong, Shreesha Y. Rao, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper
W. Oh, R. Singh
Linear and non-linear simulation models are created to understand, interpret and control the clunk problem in a front-wheel drive vehicle, with focus on tip-in and tip-out induced transients. A reduced order torsional model of the driveline system is employed to conceptually describe the impulsive behavior. Based on the calculated time responses, this investigation attempts to propose a few metrics for the quantification of clunk or sharp transients. The effects of several design parameters, such as the number of gear backlashes and stiffnesses of a two-staged clutch damper, are illustrated. Suggestions for further work and possible design solutions are included.
Technical Paper
I. J. Lee, A. Selamet, N. T. Huff, M. Hrdlicka
A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Technical Paper
Peter Eyabi, Gregory Washington
This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Technical Paper
Vincenzo Marano, Pinak Tulpule, Stephanie Stockar, Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Technical Paper
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Matthew Yard, Eric Gallo, Andrew Garcia, Matthew Organiscak, Andrew Huster, Margaret Yatsko, Jason Ward, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Journal Article
Scott Noll, Jason Dreyer, Rajendra Singh
Shaped elastomeric joints such as engine mounts or suspension bushings undergo broadband, multi-axis loading; however, in practice, the elastomeric joint properties are often measured at stepped single frequencies (non-resonant test method). This article helps provide insight into multi-axis properties with new benchmark experiments that are designed to permit direct comparison between system resonant and non-resonant identification methods of the dynamic stiffness matrices of elastomeric joints, including multi-axis (non-diagonal) terms. The joints are constructed with combinations of inclined elastomeric cylinders to control non-diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. The resonant experiment consists of an elastic metal beam end-supported by elastomeric joints coupling the in-plane transverse and longitudinal beam motion.
Journal Article
Brian David Dykas, Denise M. Rizzo, Doug Fussner, Randy McDonnell, Mark Riggs
A dynamometer test methodology was developed for evaluation of HMMWV axle efficiency with hypoid gearsets, comparing those having various degrees of superfinish versus new production axles as well as used axles removed at depot maintenance. To ensure real-world applicability, a HMMWV variant vehicle model was created and simulated over a peacetime vehicle duty cycle, which was developed to represent a mission scenario. In addition, tractive effort calculations were then used to determine the maximum input torques. The drive cycle developed above was modified into two different profiles having varying degrees of torque variability to determine if the degree of variability would have a significant influence on efficiency in the transient dynamometer tests. Additionally, steady state efficiency performance is measured at four input pinion speeds from 700-2500 rpm, five input torques from 50 - 400 N⋅m, and two sump temperatures, 80°C and 110°C.
Journal Article
Laihang Li, Rajendra Singh
The engine start-up process introduces speed-dependent transient vibration problems in ground vehicle drivelines as the torsional system passes through the critical speeds during the acceleration process. Accordingly, a numerical study is proposed to gain more insights about this transient vibration issue, and the focus is on nonlinear analysis. First, a new nonlinear model of a multi-staged clutch damper is developed and validated by a transient experiment. Second, a simplified nonlinear torsional oscillator model with the multi-staged clutch damper, representing the low frequency dynamics of a typical vehicle driveline, is developed. The flywheel velocity measured during the typical engine start-up process is utilized as an excitation. The envelope function of the speed-dependent response amplification is estimated via the Hilbert transform technique. Finally, the envelope function is effectively utilized to examine the effect of multi-staged clutch damper properties.
Technical Paper
A. T. Little, A. Selamet, A. Iqbal, R. A. Reese, R. K. Vick
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
Technical Paper
Adam R. Denlinger, Yann G. Guezennec, Woong-Chul Choi
Measurements of the temporal evolution of the 3-D velocity field were performed in an IC engine during the latter part of the intake stroke using a Water Analog Engine Simulation Rig and the 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique (3-D PTV). The engine head tested was a typical 4 valve, pent-roof type combustion chamber shape with slightly asymmetric intake passages to favor a preferred swirl with one intake valve almost deactivated to reinforce the swirling flow pattern. This study was aimed at characterizing the dynamic development of the flow field resulting from this head geometry and asymmetric valve event during the latter part of the intake stroke. The most salient feature of this flow field is that this final, highly organized and energetic vortex does not emerge until relatively late in the intake stroke. Even as late at 60° BBDC, the flow field is still characterized by smaller (of the order of 1/4 or 1/3 of the bore size) structures, particularly in the tumble plane.
Technical Paper
Piero Azzoni, Davide Moro, Fabrizio Ponti, Giorgio Rizzoni
Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper
Devesh Upadhyay, Giorgio Rizzoni
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper
Q. Zheng, K. Srinivasan, G. Rizzoni
Electronic closed loop control of automatic transmission functions can potentially benefit from the use of quantitative models of transmission response in a form compatible with controller design procedures. Transmission dynamic response during gear shifts of a discrete-ratio transmission is nonlinear. Procedures for developing linearized dynamic models are applied to the simulation of the nonlinear model of a representative power train during the inertia phase of a shift. The frequency responses for the resulting linear models are examined, and their implications for controller design are noted.
Technical Paper
Ahmed Soliman, Yong-Yha Kim, Giorgio Rizzoni, José Candau
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper
Joseph M. Brault, Deborah Sneckenberger Maymir, Mohammad Samimy, Masato Matsuki
The mixture formation processes of methane and air in an optical access engine operating steadily at 200 RPM have been explored in order to study charge inhomogeneity in a natural gas powered spark ignition engine during transient engine cranking. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to create fuel/air equivalence ratio maps as a function of injection timing for various image planes at intervals throughout the intake and compression strokes. The work has been done using a Honda VTEC-E engine head that features port injection, four valves per cylinder, a pentroof style combustion chamber for the generation of tumble motion, and one nearly deactivated intake valve to generate swirl motion at low engine speeds in order to enhance mixing.
Technical Paper
J. Paul, A. Selamet, K. D. Miazgowicz, K. V. Tallio
The interface between a plenum and primary runner in log-style intake manifolds is one of the dominant sources of flow losses in the breathing system of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). A right-angled T-junction is one such interface between the plenum (main duct) and the primary runner (sidebranch) normal to the plenum's axis. The present study investigates losses associated with the combining flow through these junctions, where fluid from both sides of the plenum enters the primary runner. Steady, incompressible-flow experiments for junctions with circular cross-sections were conducted to determine the effect of (1) runner interface radius of 0, 10, and 20% of the plenum diameter, (2) plenum-to-runner area ratio of 1, 2.124, and 3.117, and (3) runner taper area ratio of 2.124 and 3.117. Mass flow rate in each branch was varied to obtain a distribution of flow ratios, while keeping the total flow rate constant.
Technical Paper
V. Mariucci, A. Selamet, K. D. Miazgowicz
The present experimental study investigates systematically the effects of primary intake runner configurations on a firing single cylinder research engine. Twelve different intake configurations were fabricated to investigate runners with tapers and bellmouths. For each configuration, the length from the base of the test configuration to the start of the inlet radius and pressure measurement locations were retained in an effort to isolate the effect of runner geometry only. Each configuration is presented against a baseline case with constant cross-sectional area and a ratio of inlet radius, Ri, to internal diameter, D, of 0.35. For the seven tapered runners, the length of the taper varied from 25% to 100% of the overall length of the test piece, and the taper area ratios (TAR) varied from 1.5 - 3; all tapers retained the inlet radius of the baseline. The four bellmouth runners had a constant cross-sectional area, and varying inlet radii from Ri/D = 0.05 to 1.0.
Technical Paper
Jin-Hyuk Lee, Hoon Lee
It is well-known that the hydrodynamic torque converter plays a major role in the transient study of power train systems since it has a great influence on the transient characteristics of a vehicle during gear shifting as well as vehicle launching. To predict accurately the vehicle characteristics, detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic torque converter is required. However, even with the development of a nonlinear dynamic model for the torque converter based on Hrovat and Tobler's paper (1985) is available, it is imperative to calculate both torques from impeller and turbine in order to utilize the dynamic model since it takes torque as an input [3]. In order to obtain the information about necessary but unmeasurable variables, nonlinear model-based estimator is developed using already available and measurable speeds data of impeller and turbine. The hydrodynamic torque converter model includes all necessary dynamics, namely, hydraulic as well as mechanical dynamics.
Technical Paper
Ashley L. Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
Published NHTSA rulemaking plans propose significant reduction in the maximum stopping distance for loaded Class-VIII commercial vehicles. To attain that goal, higher torque brakes, such as air disc brakes, will appear on prime movers long before the trailer market sees significant penetration. Electronic control of the brakes on prime movers should also be expected due to their ability to significantly shorten stopping distances. The influence upon jackknife stability of having higher performance brakes on the prime mover, while keeping traditional pneumatically controlled s-cam drum brakes on the trailer, is discussed in this paper. A hybrid vehicle dynamics model was applied to investigate the jackknife stability of tractor-semitrailer rigs under several combinations of load, speed, surface coefficient, and ABS functionality.
Technical Paper
James R. Wilde, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Tom Mallin, Andrew M. Devenish
Kinetic Pty Ltd and Tenneco Automotive have developed a passive suspension system called a Kinetic system. The motivation for the design of the system is discussed, and the function of the system is explained. The system improves handling, stability, and ride by passively decoupling roll stiffness from articulation stiffness and roll damping from bounce damping. Improved stability is evaluated by conducting NHTSA's Roll Rate Feedback Fishhook tests on a small SUV equipped with the Kinetic system. Results of the testing are presented, and benefits to rollover are discussed.
Technical Paper
A. Selamet, S. Rupal, Y. He, P. S. Keller
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper
Chris Taylor, Gregory Washington
With increasing demands to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines, engine manufacturers are forced to seek out new technology. One such technology employed primarily in the diesel and two-stroke engine community is direct-injection (DI). Direct injection has shown promising results in reduction of CO and NOx for both two- and four-stroke engines. While having been used for several years in the diesel industry, direct injection has been scrutinized for an inability to meet future requirements to reduce particulate matter emissions. Direct injection has also came under fire for complicating fuel delivery systems, thus making it cost prohibitive for small utility engine manufacturers. Recent research shows that the application of piezo-driven actuators has a positive effect on soot formation reduction for diesel engines and as this paper will distinguish, has the ability to simplify direct injection fuel delivery systems in general.
Technical Paper
Seungbo Kim, Rajendra Singh
A vibration isolator or mount is often modeled by the Voigt model describing uni-axial (longitudinal) motion with frequency-invariant parameters. However, wave effects due to the mass distribution within the isolator are observed as the frequency is increased. Further, flexural stiffness components play an important role, leading to off-axis and coupling effects. Thus, the simplified mount models could lead to erroneous predictions of the dynamic behavior of an overall system such as automotive powertrain or chassis mounting systems. This article compares various approximate isolator models using a multi-dimensional mobility model that is based on the continuous system theory. Harmonic force and moment excitations are separately applied to a rigid body source to investigate the multi-dimensional vibratory behavior. Analysis is however limited to a linear time-invariant system and the mobility synthesis method is utilized to predict the frequency domain behavior.
Technical Paper
Michael Arnett, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Mohamed Kamel Salaani
This paper presents the implementation and performance of an electric all-wheel drive system on a series-parallel, through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional methods of all-wheel drive do not provide a suitable solution for this type of vehicle as the powertrain lacks a mechanical link between the front and rear axles. Moreover, this unique architecture allows the vehicle to be propelled solely by the front, or the rear, wheels during typical operation. Thus, the algorithm presented here manages wheel slip by either the front, or rear wheels when engaging to provide all-wheel drive capability. necessary testing validates the robustness of this Extensive system.
Technical Paper
Y. He, A. Selamet, R. A. Reese, R. K. Vick, A. A. Amer
The introduction of tumble into the combustion chamber is an effective method of enhancing turbulence intensity prior to ignition, thereby accelerating the burn rates, stabilizing the combustion, and extending the dilution limit. In this study, the primary intake runners are partially blocked to produce different levels of tumble motion in the cylinder during the air induction process. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine at maximum brake torque timing under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar BMEP at 1200 rpm. A method has been developed to quantify the tumble characteristics of blockages under steady flow conditions in a flow laboratory, by using the same cylinder head, intake manifold, and tumble blockages from the engine experiments.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 48


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