Viewing 1 to 30 of 86
Technical Paper
Shohji Tsushima, Issei Nakamura, Satoshi Sakashita, Shuichiro Hirai, Daisuke Kitayama
In this study, particle transport and captured behaviors in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was investigated with Lattice Boltzmann Method. LBM calculation was performed to a 3D-reconstructed micro porous DPF substrate, which was obtained by micro-focus 3D X-ray technique. Simulating advection-diffusion behaviors of diesel particulates in micro porous channel, we adapted a LBM method used for high Peclet number flow, simulating flow conditions in DPFs. We investigated flow behaviors in a wide variety of inlet velocity. LBM simulation has clearly shown that non-dimensional flow field is similar in wide range of flow conditions in the DPF, because flow Reynolds number in the micro porous substrate is sufficiently low, dominated by laminar flow regime. It was also revealed that less than 40% pore channels was responsible for more than 80% volume flux in the porous substrate without particle loading.
Journal Article
Preechar Karin, Katsunori Hanamura
Particulate matter (PM) trapping and oxidation in regeneration on the surface of a diesel particulate catalyst-membrane filter (DPMFs) were investigated in detail using an all-in-focus optical microscope. The DPMF consists of two-layer sintered filters, where a SiC-nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) covers the surface of a conventional SiC filter. Using a visualization experiment, it was shown that PMs were trapped homogeneously along fine surface pores of the membrane's top surface, whereas in the regeneration process, the particulates in contact with the membrane may have been oxidized with some catalytic effect of the SiC nanoparticles. A soot cake was reacted continuously on the nanoparticles since pushed by a gas flow. The oxidation temperature of particulate trapped on the SiC-nanoparticle membrane was about 75 degrees lower than that on the conventional diesel particulate filters (DPF) without a catalyst.
Technical Paper
Preechar Karin, Yutthana Songsaengchan, Songtam Laosuwan, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Nanostructures of diesel and biodiesel engine particulate matters (PMs) were investigated by using a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average single particle sizes of biodiesel and diesel PMs are approximately 30-40 nm and 50-60 nm, respectively. Image processing process was used to estimate each carbon platelet length by using TEM image. The average carbon platelet length of biodiesel and diesel PMs are in the range of 0.1-7.0 nm. Moreover, carbon atoms per cubic volume of PMs are approximately 500-900. The result shows that engine load and fuel property are strongly impact on the size of single particle and carbon atom density of particle. This is one of interesting behaviors need to be investigated for better understanding. The results of this research would be used as basic information for design and develop removing process of PM emitted from engine combustion which using in diesel and biodiesel fuels.
Technical Paper
Hidenori Kosaka, Takuma Arai
In order to investigate the combustion phenomena in a combustion chamber of the diesel engine at transient operations, the simultaneous measurements of temperatures of flame and wall surface in a combustion chamber were conducted. The new technique for simultaneous measurements of flame temperature and wall surface was developed. Laser-Induced phosphorescence was used for the measurement of wall surface temperature which was coupled with the flame temperature measurement by a two-color pyrometry. The NOx and soot emissions were also measured simultaneously in transient operations. The relation between the temporal changes of emissions and temperatures of flame and surface wall are discussed. The results show that the temporal change of NOx emission during transient operation is similar to that of the average gas temperature in a chamber. On the other hand, the temporal change of soot emission is similar to neither that of flame temperature nor that of average gas temperature.
Technical Paper
Yukitoshi Hosokawa, Noriko Kojima, Osamu Yokota, Noriko Hasegawa, Jun Matsunami, Yutaka Tamaura
Multi-step water splitting with Mn-ferrite(MnFe2O4)/sodium carbonate(Na2CO3) system accompanying endothermic reaction was investigated for converting solar energy into chemical energy. This water splitting is caused by the oxidation-reduction of manganese ion in the Mn-ferrite. Multi-water splitting with MnFe2O4/Na2CO3 system was consisted of three steps. The first step was hydrogen generation at 1073K. The second step was oxygen release at 1273K. The third step was Na2CO3 reproduction at 873K. The mechanism of multi-water splitting has been considered by XRD, chemical analysis of colorimetry and back titration. The temperature range 873 to 1273K is quite lower than those studied on the solar furnace reaction (O2 releasing step) in two-step water splitting (1500-2300K). This lower temperature range would permit further progress in converting the direct solar energy into chemical energy.
Technical Paper
Osamu Yokota, Masaki Nezuka, Yoshinori Oku, Yukitoshi Hosokawa, Jun Matsunami, Yutaka Tamaura, Katsushige Nakamura, Mitsunobu Kitamura
A new solar furnace system using a stationary elliptic dish and heliostats is proposed. Since the elliptic dish has two focuses (an upper focus and a lower focus) for elliptic geometry, this system has three advantages. The first is enable to fix a solar reactor on the ground, the second to expand the heliostat field largely, and the third to concentrate the direct solar radiation in a small area around the lower focus. The horizontal deviation from the lower focus of the direct solar radiation was estimated within ±1.2m for the heliostat field of 100m and the tower-reflector height of 70m. The system using the elliptic dish and heliostats is available as high-concentration system due to large scale of solar energy.
Technical Paper
Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Piyaboot Ornman, Preechar Karin, Hidenori Kosaka, Nuwong Chollacoop
The increasing of global energy demand and stringent pollution regulations have promoted research on alternative fuels. In Thailand, ethanol, can be produced from many sources of national agriculture products as renewable fuel, which was strongly promoted by government due to its many merits for use in transportation field. In this study, combustion characteristics of ethanol-gasoline blend (20%, 85%, and 100%) as well as pure gasoline (E0) were investigated by using a swirl-generated constant volume combustion chamber. Flame propagations of different fuel blends were observed by high speed Schlieren photography technique while pressure history data were recorded for detailed combustion analysis. Combustion behavior, combustion duration and rate of pressure rise of all tested fuels were investigated in various swirl intensities and equivalence ratios. In addition, effect of swirl intensities and ethanol concentration on lean misfire limit were also discussed.
Technical Paper
Hiroshi Uchida, Naota Fukushima, Ichiro Hagiwara
Energy optimal control theory (EOC) is applied to the energy flow control of a hybrid electric vehicle. Since the differential equation is solved analytically, the control law can be easily implemented in real time. Because the objective function is described in power form that permits negative value, not only the energy consumption is minimized but also the energy regeneration by the motor is maximized. In the simulation for the 10-mode driving, it is shown that the fuel cost of EOC is 15% lower than the rule based control (RBC).
Technical Paper
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
Technical Paper
Komkla Siricholathum, Preechar Karin, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Katsunori Hanamura, Nuwong Chollacoop
As well-known, the diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency at the same load as compared with internal combustion engine but its disadvantage is particulate matter (PM) emitted to the atmosphere. The studies of this paper were divided into two parts. The first part studied the quantity of PM from the both diesel and biodiesel fuels at 80% load (2400 rpm) by the trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a partial flow dilution tunnel. The second part studied the regeneration process of PM under the flow rate of oxygen and nitrogen gas of 13.5 L/min with 10%, 15%, and 21% of oxygen gas. The result showed that amount of PM from biodiesel fuel was lower around two times than PM from diesel fuel. The duration in regeneration process of biodiesel's PM was shorter than diesel while increasing of oxygen percentage can reduce regeneration time.
Technical Paper
Basmil Yenerdag, Masayasu Shimura, Yoshitsugu Naka, Mamoru Tanahashi, Yuzuru Nada
A direct numerical simulation of turbulent premixed flames in a constant volume vessel is conducted to understand flame-wall interactions and heat loss characteristics under the pressure rising condition. The contribution of the burnt region to the total heat flux is more significant compared to the reaction region. The velocity profiles indicate inward and outward motions. The profile of the turbulent kinetic energy is damped by the wall, and no distinct turbulence production is observed. Since the turbulence is weakened in the burnt region, the effect of near wall turbulence to the total wall heat flux is considered to be limited.
Technical Paper
Basmil Yenerdag, Masayasu Shimura, Kozo Aoki, Yoshitsugu Naka, Mamoru Tanahashi, Yuzuru Nada
Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of methane-air turbulent premixed flame propagating in homogenous isotropic turbulence are conducted to investigate local and global flame structure in thin reaction zones. GRI-Mech 3.0 is used to represent methane-air reactions. The equivalence ratio of unburned mixture is 0.6 and 1.0. For a better understanding of the local flame structure in thin reaction zones, distributions of mass fractions of major species, heat release rate and temperature are investigated. To clarify effects of turbulence on the local and global flame structures, the statistical characteristics of flame elements are also revealed.
Journal Article
Keisuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Oki, Ryoko Sanui, Yutaro Kinoshita, Nobuhiro Hidaka, Masamichi Tanaka, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Katsunori Hanamura
The diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) is a good solution to the problem of high pressure drop that exists across diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the soot trapping process. Moreover, DPMFs that have a membrane layer composed of SiC nanoparticles can reduce the oxidation temperature of soot and the apparent activation energy. The SiC nanoparticles have an oxide layer on their surface, with a thickness less than 10 nm. From the visualization of soot oxidation on the surface of SiC nanoparticles by an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), soot oxidation is seen to occur at the interface between the soot and oxide layers. The soot oxidation temperature dependency of the contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was evaluated using a temperature programmed reactor (TPR). The contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was varied by changing the ratio of SiC nanoparticles and carbon black (CB), which was used as an alternative to soot.
Technical Paper
Kyungseok Lee, Yuya Ogita, Susumu Sato, Hidenori Kosaka
Diesel engine is one the effective solutions for reducing CO2 and recognized as a leading candidate for mitigating global warming. To comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, all diesel engines require some sort of NOx control systems such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The SCR catalyst for reducing NOx from diesel engines is classified into two groups, urea-SCR and HC-SCR catalyst, respectively. Although the urea-SCR catalyst is widely recognized as promising de-NOx technology in respect to the NOx conversion efficiency, it have some outstanding issues such as ammonia slip, urea injection, storage space, freezing and some infrastructures for supplying urea water solutions. In an attempt to overcome the inherent shortcoming of existing urea-SCR catalyst, hydrocarbons have been considered as alternative reducing agents for SCR process, instead of NH3.
Journal Article
Teerapharp Amornsawaddirak, Sittikorn Lapapong, Szathys Songschon, Masaaki Okuma
In an automotive suspension, a shock absorber plays a significant role to enhance the vehicle performances, particularly ride comfort and road holding. Because of its important influences on the overall vehicle performances, the understanding of its physical characteristics is essential. Thus, this paper develops a mathematical model of twin-tube shock absorber that is widely used in modern production cars. The model is derived based on a rational polynomial formulation. This formulation generally represents the flow behaviors of fluid across a restriction. Further, simulation results are compared to those obtained from experiments to determine the model accuracy. The result comparison illustrates that the model is able to describe the behavior of shock absorber with slight discrepancies.
Technical Paper
Morteza Borhanipour, Preechar Karin, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Abstract The increase of air pollution and global warming is a threat for human life. Besides, the price of petroleum is increasing rapidly and the resources are diminishing. This obliged scientists and engineers to look for alternative sources of energy, which are cleaner and more sustainable. Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyls of esters from vegetable oils and animals fat, is a cleaner renewable fuel and has been considered as the best alternative for petroleum based diesel fuel hence it can be used in any compression ignition engines without any significant modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions due to their higher content of oxygen. The produce less soot and hence the feed stuck is plant it will regenerate the CO2 by the photosynthesis which ensures the renewability and reduces global warming.
Technical Paper
Kimitoshi Tanoue, Eiki Hotta, Yasuo Moriyoshi
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with static induction thyristor at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IEC circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. In this paper, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. The experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. In conclusions, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to extend lean flammability limits compared with conventional spark ignition systems. In addition, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges could shorten ignition delay time.
Technical Paper
Kimitoshi Tanoue, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Eiki Hotta, Naohiro Shimizu, Yuichiro Imanishi, Katsuji Iida
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
Journal Article
Hiroyuki Yamada, Kentaro Misawa, Masaaki Fujii, Koichi Tanaka, Daisuke Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Kotaro Tanaka
A simultaneous multi-composition analyzing (SMCA) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) system was used to investigate gasoline engine exhaust. Observed peaks for exhaust were smaller mass numbers than those from diesel exhaust. However, large species up to three ring aromatics were observed suggesting that soot precursor forms even in the gasoline engine. At low catalyst temperature condition, the reduction efficiencies of a three-way catalyst were higher for higher mass numbers. This result indicates that the larger species accumulate in the catalyst or elsewhere due to their lower vapor pressures. To evaluate the emission of low volatility species, the accumulation should be taken into account. In the hot mode, reduction efficiencies for aromatic species of three-way catalyst were almost 99.5% however, they fall to 70% in the cold start condition.
Technical Paper
Kentaro Misawa, Shun-ichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Jun Matsumoto, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shun-ichi Hayashi, Kotaro Tanaka, HiroYuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper
L.-R. Wang, Z.-H. LU, I. Hagiwara
Hydraulically damped rubber mount (HDM) can effectively attenuate vibrations transmitting between automotive powertrain and body/chassis, and reduce interior noise of car compartment. This paper involves an analytical qualitative analysis approach of dynamics characteristics of HDM. Analysis of experimental results verifies the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis approach. Frequency- and amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristic of HDM are investigated to clarify working mechanism of HDM. The presented qualitative analysis approach provides a convenient performance adjustment guideline of HDM to meet vibration isolation requirements of powertrain mount system.
Journal Article
Preechar Karin, Liyan Cui, Pedro Rubio, Teppei Tsuruta, Katsunori Hanamura
Trapping and regeneration processes in a SiC wall-flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) without a catalyst were investigated in detail through microscopic visualization. By microscopic observation of the cross section and surface, the transition from depth filtration to surface filtration could be observed clearly. The open pores on the wall surface were strongly related to the filtration depth of diesel particulate matter (PM). During the regeneration process, after the soot cake was burnt out, the particulates trapped inside the surface pores were oxidized. As a result, the particulate trapping and oxidation behaviors were strongly dependent on the microstructural surface pores.
Technical Paper
Kotaro Tanaka, Keitaro Watanabe, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto, Kentaro Misawa, Jun Matsumoto, Shunichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shunichi Hayashi
A simple real-time measurement system for the components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in automobile exhaust gas using a laser ionization method was developed. This method was used to detect VOCs and PAHs in the exhaust gas of a diesel truck while idling, at 60 km/h, and in the Japanese driving mode JE05. As a result, various VOCs and PAHs, such as xylene and naphthalene, were simultaneously detected, and real-time changes in their concentration were obtained at 1 s intervals.
Technical Paper
Takeshi Okada, Kazuyuki Shiomi, Tetsuro Ikeno, Tomatsu Taro, Masaaki Okuma
The method was established to identify the dynamic stiffness of the engine mount using modal parameters acquired from experimental modal analysis. Vibration tests were conducted using actual large outboard motor the BF225 (165 kW), and the dynamic stiffness of the mounts was identified. The results show that this method can identify the engine mount dynamic stiffness more adequately than the conventional method, even when the engine mounts are subjected to loads corresponding to thrust force or even in the case that the stiffness of the parts supporting an outboard motor is low.
Technical Paper
Teppei Tsuruta, Katsunori Hanamura
Trapping of diesel particulates and phenomena of chemical reaction in regeneration were investigated by visualization through the cross-sectional area of a diesel-particulate-filter wall, using a digital-microscope with a high focusing depth. Herein, SiC-DPF walls were polished up to make a uniform height and to create a mirror-like surface on each SiC-particle-grain. At the beginning of the trapping process, it was observed that large particulates were trapped once in the small pores inside the wall, and then, since the flow-pattern was changed drastically, the trapped particulates were pushed out and blown off again, and finally, trapped in a region further downstream. As time passed, image analysis disclosed that since fine particulates were deposited around the SiC-particle-grain surface, the flow-channels became increasingly narrow.
Technical Paper
Shin Kimura, Hidenori Kosaka, Yukio Matsui, Ryutaro Himeno
The purpose of this study is to investigate the turbulent mixing in a diesel spray by large eddy simulation (LES). As the first step for the numerical simulation of diesel spray by LES, the LES of transient circular gas jets and particle laden jets were conducted. The simulation of transient circular jets in cylindrical coordinates has numerical instability near the central axis. To reduce the instability of calculation, azimuthal velocity around the central axis is calculated by the linear interpolation and filter width around the axis is modified to the radial or axial grid scale level. A transient circular gas jet was calculated by the modified code and the computational results were compared with experimental results with a Reynolds number of about 13000. The computational results of mean velocity and turbulent intensity agreed with experimental results for z/D>10. Predicted tip penetration of the jet also agreed to experimental data.
Technical Paper
Yusuke Miyazaki, Sadayuki Ujihashi, Masaaki Mochimaru, Makiko Kouchi
The influence of the head shape on intracranial responses under impact was investigated by using Finite Element Method. Head shape models of 52 young adult male Japanese were analyzed by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and a 2 dimensional distribution map of head shapes was obtained. Five finite element models of the Japanese head were constructed by a transformed finite element model of an average European adult male (H-Head model) using Free Form Deformation (FFD) technique. The constructed models represent the 5th and 95th percentile of the first 2 scales obtained by MDS. The same acceleration pulse was applied to the H-Head model and the five finite element models. The cause of the difference was considered to be differences in pressure distribution in the brain caused by the differences in the head shape. Variation in the head shape should be taken into account in simulating the effects of impact using a finite element model.
Technical Paper
Saiko Aoki, Masabumi Masuko, Akihito Suzuki
The major aim of this study is to investigate the tribofilm formation and friction-speed characteristics of ZnDTP in the presence of other lubricant additives. Simultaneous measurement of friction and electrical conductivity were employed using ZnDTP and several kinds of functionally different additives. Several analyses of friction surfaces were also carried out in order to measure the reaction film thickness and investigate the chemical composition of this film. It was demonstrated that the presence of each additive with ZnDTP prevented the formation of a ZnDTP tribofilm and thereby could provide lower friction than ZnDTP alone.
Technical Paper
Hidenori Kosaka, Kentaro Nishida, Tetsuya Aizawa
In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper
Tetsuya Aizawa, Hidenori Kosaka
In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 86


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