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Viewing 1 to 30 of 62
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910223
Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Haruki Kobayashi, Hidenori Kosaka
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910225
Haruyuki Yokota, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka, Kinji Tsujimura
The relation between the characteristics of a non-evaporating spray and those of a corresponding frame achieved in a rapid compression machine was investigated experimentally. The fuel injection pressure was changed in a range of 55 to 260 MPa and the other injection parameters such as orifice diameter and injection duration were changed systematically. The characteristics of the non-evaporating spray such as the Sauter mean diameter and the mean excess air ratio of the spray were measured by an image analysis technique. The time required for a pressure rise due to combustion was taken as an index to characterize the flame. It was concluded that the mean excess air ratio of a spray is the major factor which controls the burning rate and that the high injection pressure is effective in shortening the combustion duration and reducing soot formation.
1988-10-01
Technical Paper
881640
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidehiko Kando, Shigeharu Kobori, Hiraku Hatano, Haruki Kobayashi, Kazuo Tsuchiya
A rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate the combustion processes in diesel engines is developed. The configuration of the combustion chamber is a 100 mm bore and a 90 mm stroke, and the compression ratio is 15. The piston is driven by an electro-hydraulic system with a thrust of 90 kN and the maximum frequency of 20 Hz. The whole system composed of a hydraulic actuator, a fuel injection system, and a valve driving unit is sequentially controlled by a computer. The reproducibility of the stop position of the piston at the end of compression is achieved with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm by employing a hydraulic-mechanical brake mechanism. The experiment shows that the combustion in the expansion stroke is achieved, and that the combustion characteristics such as the rate of heat release and indicated output as well as the exhaust emission can be measured.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800254
Yuzo Aoyagi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Yukio Matsui, Shin Matsuoka
The concentrations of soot, NO and the other combustion products were measured by incylinder gas sampling in a DI diesel engine. The effects of injection timing, swirl ratio, and combustion chamber geometry on the formation and emission processes of soot and NO were studied. The following results were obtained: (1) Soot is promptly formed in the flame during the early combustion period where the equivalence ratio in the flame is high over 1.0. Thereafter almost all the formed soot is swiftly burnd up by oxidation during the middle combustion period. This process mainly determines the exhaust soot concentration. (2) NO is formed in the flame during the early and middle combustion period where the flame temperature is high over 2000 K. The highest NO concentration is observed at the flame tip swept by the air swirl. Though the concentration of the formed NO decreases by dilusion it nearly constant during the later combustion period.
1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810183
Soo Kil Ahn, Yukio Matsui, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A new technique was proposed for measuring instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factor of luminous flames. Here the principle of the two-color method was used to calculate flame temperature and KL factor from the two-color densities of a film image taken on a nega-color film. We applied this technique to the high speed nega-color photographs of flames in a D. I. diesel engine operated with varying swirl ratios, and discussed the measured results of instantaneous distributions of flame temperature and KL factors.
1981-02-01
Technical Paper
810259
Haruki Kobayashi, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shin Matsuoka
A diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were realized without interference with combustion chamber walls in a newly constructed rapid compression machine. High speed shadow photography and pressure measurement were employed to obtain data for calculating the amount of air entrainment into the the flame and spray. From a comparison of air entrainment between the flame and spray, it turned out that when ignition delay becomes longer air entrainment into flames is promoted by the thermal expansion of multi-points ignition sources in the central region of the spray.
1986-02-01
Technical Paper
860551
Tetsuro Butsuen, Masaaki Ookuma, Akio Nagamatsu
This paper concerns the Direct System Identification Method (hereafter referred to as DSIM) which allows accurate and quick determination of two groups of properties which exercise dominant effects on low frequency vibration of a vehicle body. The first group is the rigid body properties of an engine. The second group is the properties of each engine mount. Under the assumption that the engine/mount system is a rigid body, this paper makes theoretical discussion for using the DSIM to induce the parameters of an engine/mount system, and makes improvements for better correlation with experiments. Also mentioned is a comparison of this study with the experimental results and verification of consistency on those parameters obtained from DSIM to predict the accurate vehicle characteristics, along with the role this method will play in upgrading the technology of prediction analysis.
1987-09-01
Technical Paper
871610
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Haruyuki Yokota, Haruki Kobayashi
The characteristics of diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 30 to 110 MPa. Measurements included the spray form and Sauter mean diameter of a non-evaporating spray, the liquid phase penetration of an evaporating spray and the visualization of sooting zone in a flame. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment of non-evaporating spray and that the liquid phase penetration of evaporating spray is hardly affected by injection pressure, demonstrating a promotion of evaporation with injection pressure. Visualization of the sooting zone in a flame made it clear that high pressure injection is advantageous in reducing soot formation and shortening the combustion duration.
1988-02-01
Technical Paper
880423
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Myurng-hoan Bae
Experiments on the effects of temperature T and equivalence ratio ϕ on soot formation at high pressures up to 5 MPa were conducted. The soot formation region is mapped on ϕ-T diagram using the results obtained in the experiments and the published data. NO formation region is also determined by the Zeldovich equations and is plotted on the same diagram. The time histories of ϕ and T of the flame in a DI diesel engine which was obtained by a gas sampling study, are plotted on the ϕ-T diagram to form a trajectory. Discussion of the trajectory in relation to both soot and NO formation region gives suggestion of a possibility of high temperature - rich mixture combustion to reduce particulate formation in diesel engines.
1989-05-01
Technical Paper
891139
Masaaki Okuma, Tsukasa Ohara, Kazuhiko Nagao, Akio Nagamatsu
In this paper, a new method which directly identifies characteristic matrices (the mass, damping and stiffness matrices) of the mechanical structure using measured forces input and responses data is proposed. This algorithm is based upon the Maximum Likelihood Estimation, so that the accuracy of identified matrices is stable to experimental errors (random errors). After a theoretical formulation is performed, two examples are provided to illustrate and validate this algorithm. One is analytical example which identifies analytically generated data with random noises, and the other experimentarly identified engine/mount system of automobiles.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2047
Hidenori Kosaka, Takuma Arai
In order to investigate the combustion phenomena in a combustion chamber of the diesel engine at transient operations, the simultaneous measurements of temperatures of flame and wall surface in a combustion chamber were conducted. The new technique for simultaneous measurements of flame temperature and wall surface was developed. Laser-Induced phosphorescence was used for the measurement of wall surface temperature which was coupled with the flame temperature measurement by a two-color pyrometry. The NOx and soot emissions were also measured simultaneously in transient operations. The relation between the temporal changes of emissions and temperatures of flame and surface wall are discussed. The results show that the temporal change of NOx emission during transient operation is similar to that of the average gas temperature in a chamber. On the other hand, the temporal change of soot emission is similar to neither that of flame temperature nor that of average gas temperature.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0602
Hiroshi Oki, Preechar Karin, Katsunori Hanamura
Through microscopic visualization experiments, a process generally known as depth filtration was shown to be caused by surface pores. Moreover, the existence of a soot cake layer was an important advantage for filtration performance because it could trap most of the particulates. We proposed an ideal diesel particulate filter (DPF), in which a silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) instead of a soot cake was sintered on the DPF wall surface; this improved the filtration performance at the beginning of the trapping process and reduced energy consumption during the regeneration process. The proposed filter was called a diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF). A diesel fuel lamp was used in the trapping process to verify the trapping and oxidation mechanisms of ultrafine particulate matter. Thus, the filtration performance of the membrane filters was shown to be better than that of conventional DPFs.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-006
Tetsuya Aizawa, Hidenori Kosaka
In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0173
Kimitoshi Tanoue, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Eiki Hotta, Naohiro Shimizu, Yuichiro Imanishi, Katsuji Iida
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2132
L.-R. Wang, Z.-H. LU, I. Hagiwara
Hydraulically damped rubber mount (HDM) can effectively attenuate vibrations transmitting between automotive powertrain and body/chassis, and reduce interior noise of car compartment. This paper involves an analytical qualitative analysis approach of dynamics characteristics of HDM. Analysis of experimental results verifies the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis approach. Frequency- and amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristic of HDM are investigated to clarify working mechanism of HDM. The presented qualitative analysis approach provides a convenient performance adjustment guideline of HDM to meet vibration isolation requirements of powertrain mount system.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-39-7244
Hiroshi Uchida, Naota Fukushima, Ichiro Hagiwara
Energy optimal control theory (EOC) is applied to the energy flow control of a hybrid electric vehicle. Since the differential equation is solved analytically, the control law can be easily implemented in real time. Because the objective function is described in power form that permits negative value, not only the energy consumption is minimized but also the energy regeneration by the motor is maximized. In the simulation for the 10-mode driving, it is shown that the fuel cost of EOC is 15% lower than the rule based control (RBC).
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0854
Ronnachart Munsin, Yossapong Laoonual, Sumrerng Jugjai, Masataka Matsuki, Hidenori Kosaka
This work investigates the effects of ignition improvers on the ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight water and 1% by weight Lauric acid (Eh95) under simulated diesel engine conditions using the rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Results indicate that hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95) and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate in hydrous ethanol exhibit a near identical rate-of-pressure-rise and heat release rate. Ignition delay of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate is shorter, but hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate has longer ignition delay time and different combustion characteristics compared with hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95). Hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate are considered suitable fuels for high compression-ratio diesel engines.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972959
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Tomohiro Minagawa, Shigeharu Kobori
A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980501
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Masataka Akiyoshi, Hidenori Kosaka
To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970896
Shi-Wen Li, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Yoshiteru Enomoto
The local heat fluxes from impinging combusting and evaporating diesel sprays to the wall of a square combustion chamber were measured in a rapid compression machine. It was revealed that the ratio of local heat flux between the combusting and evaporating spray, q̇c/q̇e, is of the same order of magnitude as (Tc-Tw)/(Te-Tw) and its values estimated by a two-zone model agree roughly with the measured ones. The time-mean local heat flux during the spray impingement was found to be approximately proportional to the 0.8th power of the injection velocity and the heat-transfer phenomenon depends largely on whether the ignition starts before or after the impingement.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962087
Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hideaki Morikawa, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Tomokazu Hayashi
Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970201
Katsunori Hanamura, Kiyoshi Bohda, Yukio Miyairi, Ryozo Echigo
A one-dimensional numerical calculation has been performed on a new reciprocating heat engine proposed on the basis of super-adiabatic combustion in porous media. The system consists of two pistons and a thin porous medium in a cylinder; one being a displacer piston and the other a power piston. These create reciprocating motions with a phase relation angle. By means of the reciprocating flow system, the residual combustion gas enthalpy is effectively regenerated to induce enthalpy increase in the mixture through the porous medium. Due to heat recirculation, the thermal efficiency reaches to 58% under the condition of the compression ratio of 2.3.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922208
Takeyuki Kamimoto, Shigeharu Kobori, Seok Hong Noh, Yoshiteru Enomoto
Local heat flux from the flame to the combustion chamber wall, q̇, was measured the wall surfaces of a rapid compression-expansion machine which can simulate diesel combustion. Temperature of the flame zone, T1, was calculated by a thermodynamic two-zone model using measured values of cylinder pressure and flame volume. A local heat transfer coefficient was proposed which is defined as q̇/(T1-Tw). Experiments showed that the local heat transfer coefficient depends slightly on the temperature difference, T1-Tw, but depends significantly on the velocity of the flame which contacts the wall surface.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922210
Young-Ho Won, Hidenori Kosaka, Takeyuki Kamimoto
Soot concentration is very high in the periphery near the head of an unsteady spray flame which is achieved in a quiescent atmosphere in a rapid compression machine. To reduce soot concentration in this region, it was intended to improve fuel-air mixing by letting the flame impinge on a turbulence-generating plate. Two types of turbulence-generating plates, one donut-type, the other cross-type, were tested. Soot concentration in the flame was imaged using the laser shadow technique. The effect of injection pressure on soot reduction by the flame impingement was also investigated. The overall soot concentration is reduced significantly in the case when the flame impinges on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 50 mm (333 nozzle diameters) from the nozzle exit. The flame impingement on the cross-type turbulence-generating plate at 333 nozzle diameters makes soot reduction little dependent on injection pressures.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920114
Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka
: The formation and oxidation processes of soot particles in unsteady spray flames were investigated in a quiescent atmosphere using 2-D laser sheet visualization. The mid-plane of a flame was illuminated twice during a short time-interval by a laser sheet from a double-pulsed YAG laser. An image pair of the scattered light from soot particles was taken by two intensified gated cameras in succession. The velocity vectors of soot clouds at various location in the sooting region were estimated using the spatial correlation between the image pair. The results of temporal and spatial variation of velocity and scattering intensity in the evolving soot clusters made it clear that soot is mainly formed in the periphery of the flame tip where the air entrainment is less and flame temperature favors soot formation.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920107
Hidenori Kosaka, Young-Ho Won, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The structure of dense sprays was investigated using 2-D imaging techniques. To investigate the mechanism of atomization, the liquid phase in a non-evaporating spray was visualized by a thin laser sheet formed by a single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser at the distance from 4 to 19 mm from the nozzle orifice with the injection pressure and the surrounding gas density as parameters. A new technique for the visualization of vapor phase in an evaporating spray, the SSI (Silicone particle Scattering Imaging) method, was proposed to investigate the structure of the vapor phase regions of the spray.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941953
Chi-Nan Yeh, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka, Shigeharu Kobori
A new method to determine simultaneously the temperature and the fuel vapor concentration inside an evaporating spray was described by using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. A TMPD doped base fuel composed of C12H26: 22%, C13H28: 54% and C14H30: 30% was injected into the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine which is filled with a high temperature and high pressure nitrogen. The laser sheet was used for incident light, which was reflected by a prism located inside the combustion chamber and propagated through the center of an evaporating spray. The laser induced fluorescence intensity was imaged by a high speed-gated intensifier from a direction perpendicular to the incident light. The results shows that mixtures with high equivalence ratio are observed in the central region, while low equivalence ratio mixtures are observed in the periphery of the spray. It is also observed that the temperature of richest mixture is 50 K as low as the surrounding gas temperature.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952514
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto
A rapid compression-expansion machine was developed, which can simulate intake, compression, expansion and exhaust strokes in a single Diesel cycle by an electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated driving system. The whole system which is composed of a hydraulic actuator, fuel injector and a valve driving device, is sequentially controlled by a micro-computer. The machine features; 1) accurate control of piston position at TDC, 2) no effect of lubricant on HC emission due to the use of dry piston rings; 3) independent control of local wall temperature; and 4) high power output to drive heavy piston at high frequency. The single cycle operation permits Diesel combustion experiments under a wide range of operating conditions and easy access of optical diagnostics with minimized amount of test fuel. The performance test showed that the machine can drive a DI Diesel type piston with a 100 mm bore at a maximum frequency of 16.7 Hz at a maximum compression pressure of 15 MPa.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952433
Hidenori Kosaka, Takao Suzuki, Takeyuki Kamimoto
The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960321
Shigeharu Kobori, Takeyuki Kamimoto, Hidenori Kosaka
In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
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