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Technical Paper
Shozo Yoshida, Masato Ehara, Yukio Kuroda
In recent years, engine control systems have become more and more complex because of the growing pressure to develop technical innovations due to social pressures such as global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels. On the other hand, products must be launched on the market in a timely manner and at low cost. For these reasons, calibration processes have become more sophisticated. It is possible to improve the efficiency of calibration by making good use of models, and a calibration process that incorporates models is called model based calibration (MBC). MBC is a valid means of reducing the number of measurement points to some extent by statistical engine modeling and design of experiment (DoE) methodology which places measurement points in order to maximize modeling accuracy. However, it is still necessary to spend much time carrying out boundary detection testing before DoE.
Technical Paper
Shigenori Ichinose, Kiyoshi Iwade, Yoshiharu Hata
Abstract The oil flow in the oil ring groove was observed in order to improve the oil ejection efficiency in the oil ring groove. The oil flow was visualized with a clear head piston using fluorescing agent and particles under motoring condition. The influences of oil ring specification on the direction and the velocity of the oil flow were evaluated. The velocity of the oil ring with oil vent holes was faster than that of the oil ring without oil vent holes. In the case of the oil ring with vent holes, the reverse flow of the oil toward the front side was observed in the back clearance. Therefore, oil vent holes can change the oil flow and improve the oil ejection efficiency in the oil ring groove.
Technical Paper
John Williams, Nozomi Yokoo, Koichi Nakata, Rana Ali, Walter Bunting, Kenichi Ishiwa
Toyota and BP have performed a collaborative study to understand the impact of fuel composition on the combustion and emissions of a prototype 1.8L lean boosted engine. The fuel matrix was designed to understand better the impact of a range of fuel properties on fundamental combustion characteristics including thermal efficiency, combustion duration, exhaust emissions and extension of lean limit. Most of the fuels in the test matrix were in the RON range of 96 - 102, although ethanol and other high octane components were used in some fuels to increase RON to the range 104 - 108. The oxygen content ranged from 2 - 28%, and constituents included biocomponents, combustion improving additives and novel blend components. Performance and emissions tests were conducted over a range of engine operating conditions. Thermal efficiency was mapped at stoichiometric and lean conditions, and the limit of lean combustion was established for different fuels.
Technical Paper
Glenn W. Scheffler, Jake DeVaal, Gery J. Kissel, Jesse Schneider, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, Nate Warner, William Chernicoff
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 7 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to the FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline IC-powered vehicles. The document is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that the document will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. In addition to developing draft revisions to SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 and is developing a new recommended practice on vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579). The documents are written from the standpoint of systems-level, performance-based requirements. A risk-based approach was used to identify potential electrical and fuel system hazards and provide criteria for acceptance.
Market success of the new fuel-cell sedan depends to a large extent on steady installation of hydrogen fueling stations worldwide.
Plenty has changed with Toyota's eighth-generation midsize sedan including new platform and powertrains that deliver a claimed 40% BTE.
Because its engineers have made faster progress than expected, Toyota will offer a fuel-cell car in the U.S. in 2015—earlier than it had planned—the company announced Jan. 6 at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Floyd Allen, Powertrain Systems Executive, FEV Inc. set the tone for a Tuesday morning panel session at the SAE 2012 World Congress in Detroit by saying there is universal agreement that the United States needs to reduce its consumption of petroleum and develop some alternative energy sources capable of powering “at least a meaningful portion of our mobility needs.” Coming up with the solution(s) is the tricky part.
Gasoline-electric technology continues to be a key part of Toyota’s future strategy
BMW Group and Toyota Motor Corp. on Dec. 1 signed a memorandum of understanding for mid- to long-term collaboration on next-generation environment-friendly technologies. One definite area of collaborative research is next-generation lithium-ion battery technologies.
Two recent announcements attest to continuing efforts by government and industry to make the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle viable. On Oct. 5, the U.S. Department of Energy said it would make available $1 million for efforts to "identify cost-effective and efficient materials and processes to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources and natural gas."
In a slight reboot of its hybrid marketing approach, Toyota used the 2016 New York auto show unveil the 2017 Prius Prime, the plug-in hybrid version of the new-generation 2016 Prius launched last year.
The plug-in model, currently undergoing field-testing worldwide, has 12-13 mi (19-21 km) EV range and delivers typical Prius hybrid mileage. The battery pack is lithium-ion-nickel vs. the lower cost nickel-metal-hydride pack in conventional Prius hybrids.
The fourth generation of the pioneering compact crossover utility also gains a conventionally hinged rear liftgate and has an upgraded AWD system. Fuel economy increases to a claimed 31 mpg highway.
Toyota moves toward silicon carbide-based semiconductors to boost efficiency.
With the 2017 Clarity FCV, Honda gets serious about fuel-cell power and a hydrogen infrastructure.
A confident Nikola Motors CEO confirms the promising Nikola One electric Class 8 truck remains on schedule and on target in the mission to eliminate emissions from over-the-road haulers.
The all-new D-segment sedan is the first in its class to bring a full hybrid powertrain—Toyota’s proven input-powersplit Hybrid Synergy Drive system—to the premium midsize segment.
Road test program of new grid-enabled hybrid prototype will help engineers develop the commercial model to come.
The green theme continues as suppliers and automakers stay focused on developing eco-friendly powertrains.
The complexities of developing a global hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle society are massive in terms of design, safety, production, and infrastructure. But an area that is now receiving increasing attention concerns rare earth metals, essential for high-power, lightweight magnets used in electric vehicles and for battery applications.
Reinert, that is. And he has not yet joined the plug-in-electric bandwagon.
Capacitive switches, paddle shifters, TFT displays, and Sport and Eco driving modes are among the many technology features of the fourth-generation Avalon. The car was engineered for much sportier driving compared to its predecessor.
Affordable fuel-cell vehicles are coming to California, it says, as is a practical hydrogen refueling system
Recent government grants should help the U.S. build a lithium-ion production infrastructure, but it will not happen without a lot of design effort.
While Li-ion chemistries dominate future-battery discussions, NiMH's durability is proven and its costs continue to fall.
Hyundai promises Tucson-based model for $500/month lease by next Spring, and is prepared to make as many as it can lease. Honda and Toyota have conservative projections for near-term, but will market FC cars in 2015.
The knock on fusion power is that “It is the energy source of the future, and it always will be.” It has seemed like the same criticism could be levied against fuel cell vehicles, as their seemingly magical ability to turn stored hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into motive power for personal transportation — with only water as a by-product emission —has remained tantalizingly out of reach for decades.
To reduce weight, scale, and improve efficiency for the Prius c, every major component of the hybrid system was redesigned and high-strength steels were used in the chassis, while the NS4 signals Toyota’s new direction in design.
Vehicle transmissions are moving from six speeds a few years ago to the latest 10-speeds entering the market on a number of cars and light trucks for 2017.
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