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2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2173
Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Ryo Michikawauchi, Mikio Nakamura, Hirokuni Tomita
Hydrogen can be produced from various renewable energy sources, therefore it is predicted that hydrogen could play a greater role in meeting society's energy needs in the mid- to long-term. Conventional hydrogen engines have some disadvantages: higher cooling loss results in low thermal efficiency and abnormal combustion (backfire, pre-ignition, higher burning velocity) limits high load operation. Direct injection is an effective solution to overcome these disadvantages, but combustion methods that enable both high efficiency and low NOx have yet to be studied in enough detail. In this research, high-efficiency and low-NOx hydrogen combustion was investigated using a prototype high-pressure hydrogen injector (maximum 30 MPa). Experiments were carried out with a 2.2-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a centrally mounted hydrogen injector, a toroidal shape combustion chamber, and a spark plug in the glow plug position.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2116
Luc Jolly, Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Wenzel Strojek, Walter Bunting
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2237
Tobias Joelsson, Rixin Yu, Xue-Song Bai, Noriyuki Takada, Ichiro Sakata, Hiromichi Yanagihara, Johannes Lindén, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Bengt Johansson
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0336
Ryo Michikawauchi, Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Mutsumi Kanda
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1543
Kosuke Fujimoto, Minoru Yamashita, Toyoharu Kaneko, Motoharu Ishikawa
To evaluate the influence of FAME, which has poor oxidation stability, on engine oil performance, an engine test was conducted under large volumes of fuel dilution by post-injection. The test showed that detergent consumption and polymerization of FAME were accelerated in engine oil, causing a severe deterioration in piston cleanliness and sludge protection performance of engine oil.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0198
Masahiro Fujimoto, Atsushi Fujii, Nobuyuki Matsumiya
Since wear resistance and fatigue strength are key requirements for chassis components, induction hardening is widely used to apply compressive stress for controlling crack growth. Therefore, it is crucial that the influence of defects is examined with compressive residual stress applied to parts. In this report, the relationship between crack depth and compressive residual stress is evaluated using a cylindrical specimen and a torsional fatigue test. The test results were found to be consistent with CAE simulations performed in advance. In the future, it will be necessary to make this method applicable to product design to further improve vehicle safety performance.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0851
Kenji Komiya, Mori Daigoro, Miura Shinpei, Haraikawa Norihiko, Yoshida Kousei, Watanabe Shintaro, Toh Keiji, Kubo Hidehito, Miyahara Mituo, Mikuriya Seiichiro, Tsukahara Makoto
Multi-cylinder hydrogen-absorbing alloy tanks for fuel cell vehicles have 10 to 40 metallic cylinders that are bundled and filled with hydrogen-absorbing alloy. In this system, the cylinders themselves act as a heat exchanger and the working pressure is lowered to 10 to 20 MPa compared with high-pressure MH tanks. Moreover, both heat conduction and mass reduction can be achieved by reducing the wall thickness of the cylinders. A model verification experiment was conducted using a one-quarter-scale prototype of a full size tank, and a conduction simulation model verified in the experiment was used to predict the performance of the full size tank. Results showed that it is possible to fill the tank with hydrogen to 80% of its capacity in a five-minute filling time, although issues related to heat conductivity performance require improvement. Accordingly, it may be possible to adopt this tank as part of a system if the storage amount of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy can be increased.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0578
Tatsuji Mizuno, Juji Suzuki
We, at Toyota, have been working to develop a new DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction) system to decrease both PM and NOx emissions by combining the NOx storage-reduction catalyst for direct injection gasoline engines with the most advanced engine control technologies. The purpose of the DPNR catalyst is to decrease PM and NOx in order to purify automotive exhaust gas. To reduce PM emissions, the PM trapping rate and PM oxidizing performance must be improved. Since the deposition of PM increases the pressure drop across the catalytic converter, it should also be suppressed. To attain these objectives, we have developed a new DPNR catalyst by the adoption of a new porous substrate structure and the improvement of the catalyst coating technique. The new DPNR catalyst will be mounted on the Avensis for commercial use in the European market.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0406
Noriyoshi Terazawa, Toshihiro Wakita, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Tatsuo Uno
In this study, a new practical design method (tool) for engine sound quality in a car interior is proposed. The tool can automatically create the target interior sound using the psychoacoustic index ‘powerfulness’ based on subjective tests. Moreover, it can calculate the intake noise characteristic to create the target interior sound and select the suitable intake specification from the prepared database. By using this method sound engineering can be easily and effectively carried out without manufacturing an experimental car.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1457
Yeongching Lin, Prashant Ramachandra, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Kiyoshi Tawata, Yuichi Yano, Ryusaku Sawada
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1494
Naoko Iwata, Yoshinao Suzuki, Hitoshi Kato, Masahiko Takeuchi, Aiko Sugiura
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1496
Shinji Kojima, Tomohiko Jimbo, Kenji Katoh, Shigeki Miyashita, Masao Watanabe
Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1672
Hiroshi Hosono, Yasuhiko Nagashima
Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing technologies for reductions on the environmental load. This paper reports the following as a part of technological development for the painting process. Prior to the application of the E-coat, vehicle bodies are pretreated with zinc phosphates. This is applied to ensure good adhesion and corrosion resistance of the E-coat film. To obtain an excellent pretreatment film, surface conditioning with titanium colloid is generally applied before pretreatment. Since colloid flocculation control was difficult in the case of a conventional titanium colloid-type surface conditioner, the surface conditioner had to be renewed at approximately two-month intervals. The liquid life, however, increased remarkably as a result of adopting fine zinc-type surface conditioners and adding an organic protective surface layer. The water supply/discharge amount was decreased significantly compared with previous amounts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1671
Kazuhiro Hatano, Seiji Hibi, Masahiro Nakamura
From the viewpoint of measures for environmental issues, the amount of solvents in paint for aluminum wheels needs to be minimized. Environmentally friendly powder coatings have been used widely for primer coating and clear coating, but there is no precedent for its use for base coating. This time, we optimized the condition of surface treatment of pigment and hardening behavior of constituent resin in the melting process and succeeded in developing a metallic powder coating for aluminum wheels that fulfills the appearance and the quality requirements of aluminum wheels.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1729
Daichi Kunishi, Noboru Kikuchi
In FOA (First Order Analysis) any vehicle body structure might be interpreted as a collective simple structure that can be decomposed into 3 fundamental structure types. The first structure is the “BEAM”, whose cross sectional properties as well as its material dominates the mechanical behavior, the second is the “PANEL (shear panel, plate, and shell)”, whose mechanical behavior can be varied by changing its geometrical properties in the thickness direction, i.e. adding beads or flanges. The third structure is the “JOINT”, which connects the proceeding structures, and transfer complex three-dimensional loads with three-dimensional deformation. In the present work, we shall propose a methodology to identify a portion of an arbitrary FE model of an automotive body structure, with a “BEAM” structure in the FOA approach. In the latter chapter of this paper, cross section loads will be related with cross sectional properties in the aspect of the element strain energy concept.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1950
Kazuhiro Akihama, Masahiro Taki, Semon Takasu, Takanori Ueda, Yoshihiro Iwashita, John T. Farrell, Walter Weissman
The effects of fuel octane have been assessed on the efficiency and emissions of a high compression ratio (ε=13) spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. Under low load stratified operation (1200 rpm, ∼20% load), a low octane fuel (RON=84, comprised of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane) yielded higher brake thermal efficiency and significantly lower hydrocarbon emissions than a base gasoline (RON=91). The indicator diagram for the low octane fuel showed evidence for two stage heat release, suggesting the presence of spark induced compression ignition (SICI). These results suggest that higher efficiency under low load stratified conditions can be obtained with lower octane fuels that undergo SICI combustion. The effect of fuel octane under high load was assessed at WOT with a high RON model fuel (RON=103, comprised of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane).
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1954
Manabu Watanabe, Tokuichi Ichikawa, Masanori Hirose, Koji Oyama, Tsuyoshi Ashida, Yasunori Takei, Masanori Okada
Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in wall-guided stratified charged direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines affect combustion significantly because CCD may disturb the air-fuel mixture formation and, as a result, cause emission deterioration. For the design of engines and fuels, it is therefore important to determine the effects of CCD on emissions from DISI engines. In this study, the effects of CCD on emissions from a DISI engine using different fuel distillation properties were investigated. The study results show that, during stratified charged operation, an increase in CCD increased the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions under high speed conditions and the NOx emissions under the low speed conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0838
Morio Sakai, Hideo Haneda, Kazunori Sakamoto, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Yasunori Hasegawa, Osamu Fujimoto, Takaaki Enomoto, Daisuke Itoh
Introduction of occupant classification system which has load sensor with a strain gauge built into the seat structure, and identifies occupant's physique by measuring weight on seat, and meets the United States FMVSS requirements (new FMVSS208 Requirement).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1304
Tetsuhiro Ishikawa, Shigeki Hamaguchi, Tatsuhiko Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Yano, Shoichi Sasaki, Kenji Kato, Masao Ando, Hiroshi Yoshida
Toyota Motor Corporation began leasing a new generation fuel cell vehicle the FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) in December 2002. That vehicle includes a new variable voltage power electronics system and uses the Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery system from the Prius hybrid gasoline electric vehicle. This paper describes on-going efforts to model optimum secondary storage systems for future vehicles. Efficiency modeling is presented for the base Ni-MH storage system, an ultra capacitor system and a Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery system. The Li-ion system in combination with a new high efficiency converter shows a 4% improvement in fuel economy relative to the base system. The ultra capacitor system is not as efficient as the base system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0731
Tomoko Oda, Masako Yamato
In order to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the air, we have paid our attention to the use of plastics that are made from plants (below, bioplastics) as replacements for petroleum-based plastics, and we are conducting research on the application of bioplastics as materials for automobiles. In this study, a case study was set, and from the point of view of CO2 emissions, effects of automobile parts that were produced from bioplastics on the reduction of CO2 emissions were quantified using a method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0730
Takashi Inoh, Yuji Kageyama
We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0906
Takuo Sakai, Motohiko Ueda, Masao Iguchi, Taku Adaniya, Akinobu Kanai, Tadashi Nakagawa
The environment is one of the most important issues currently facing the world and the automobile industry is required to respond with eco-cars. To meet this requirement, the hybrid vehicle is one of the most optimal solutions. The hybrid system automatically stops engine idling (idling stop), or stops the engine during deceleration to recover energy. The engine stop however creates a problem concerning the vehicle's climate control system. Because the conventional climate control system incorporates a compressor driven by engine belt, there is almost no cooling performance while the engine is stopped. Until now, when a driver needed more cooling comfort the engine has been switched back on as a compromise measure. To realize cabin comfort that is consistent with fuel saving, a 2-way driven compressor has been developed that can be driven both by engine belt while the engine is running and by electric motor when the engine is stopped.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0865
Masayoshi Ohta, Hiroaki Nimura, Yasuyuki Hagino
In this paper, the dynamic movement of a driveshaft with imbalance is calculated from the bending stress of a driveshaft at a vehicle test. The synthesis movement is simulated using vertical and horizontal bending models with the centrifugal force induced by the imbalance. Thus, the mechanism that bending stress arises at a driveshaft of a general power train is clarified. The analysis using the simulation shows the relationship between vertical and horizontal stiffness of a power train and dynamic movement of a driveshaft. As a result, a method to reduce bending stress of a driveshaft is proposed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0977
Hisato Hirooka, Sachio Mori, Rio Shimizu
In enhancing the performance of automotive internal combustion engines, increasing the compression ratio offers an effective means of improving engine thermal efficiency. If the compression ratio is increased, however, the problem of knock occurs in exchange for improvement in engine thermal efficiency. In other words, an increase in compression ratio causes in-cylinder compressive end gas temperature to rise, resulting in the occurrence of knock. This in turn requires ignition timing retard to combat the knock. This trade-off makes it difficult to achieve the theoretical maximum combustion efficiency. In this paper, we clarify the feasibility of suppressing the occurrence of knock by increasing the burn rate. Specifically, we increase the burn rate by injecting high-pressure air directly into the combustion chamber, causing highly turbulent in-cylinder flow.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0953
Yoshiyuki Kasai, Shinichi Miwa, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Kouji Senda, Yoshitsugu Ogura
The regulation of emissions discharged from diesel engines has become stricter worldwide. The regulatory values allowed for particulate matter (PM) as well as NOx will be lowered, especially in the Europe Euro 5, the U.S. EP 07, and the new Japanese long-term regulations. Since there is a tradeoff between the PM and NOx that are discharged from diesel engines, new emission reduction measures will be needed in order to greatly reduce both at the same time. By coating DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters), which have been studied before, with NOx storage reduction catalysts, it has been found that simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx is possible, and so research was carried out in order to optimize a DPF for this type of system use. The DPF developed was used in the European DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) subject vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation, and actual trial runs in Europe were performed.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0057
Masayuki Furutani
The increase in automobile accidents has heightened the awareness of safety in the general public, and serious safety measures have been pushed forward in various countries. Although those efforts have achieved a certain level of success, more effective methods are needed to cope with further increases of automobile ownership.Besides the collision safety, measures that prevent accidents or reduce the possibility of accidents will now be necessary to reduce the number of injuries.Here, we will present the current development status and issues for an obstacle recognition system that reduces the likelihood of accidents by utilizing radars and image sensors.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0063
Tatehito Ueda, Akira Ohata
High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1635
Hideaki Takahara, Hideki Yasue, Ryoji Habuchi, Tadashi Ishihara, Shigeo Tsuzuki, Jiro Maeda
As requirements for protecting the global environment are being heightened on a worldwide scale in recent years, the development of low fuel consumption technologies in order to inhibit the discharge of CO2 is an important issue for the automotive industry. Recently, Toyota has developed a Super CVT for the 1.3-to 1.5-liter class vehicles to further improve their fuel economy. This CVT has been adopted on vehicles equipped with the ‘idling stop system’. The ‘idling stop system’ automatically stops the engine when the vehicle is stopped and the transmission shift lever is in the ‘D’ position (e.g. when the vehicle is at a stoplight). This improves the fuel economy of the vehicle by eliminating fuel consumption while the vehicle is stopped. The conventional CVT poses unique conditions such as startoff time lag or shock after the engine is restarted. These conditions occur because the CVT oil pump cannot generate hydraulic pressure while the engine is stopped.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0741
Shozo Yoshida, Masato Ehara, Yukio Kuroda
In recent years, engine control systems have become more and more complex because of the growing pressure to develop technical innovations due to social pressures such as global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels. On the other hand, products must be launched on the market in a timely manner and at low cost. For these reasons, calibration processes have become more sophisticated. It is possible to improve the efficiency of calibration by making good use of models, and a calibration process that incorporates models is called model based calibration (MBC). MBC is a valid means of reducing the number of measurement points to some extent by statistical engine modeling and design of experiment (DoE) methodology which places measurement points in order to maximize modeling accuracy. However, it is still necessary to spend much time carrying out boundary detection testing before DoE.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0874
Masayuki Komatsu, Toshifumi Takaoka
Abstract Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in two years.

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