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Viewing 1 to 30 of 58
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0533
Shinichiro Yoda, Koushi Kumagai, Masayuki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Tsuji
This paper describes a new method to predict the rupture of spot welds, suitable for vehicle crash simulation. In a crash simulation used for vehicle development process, the calculation is performed assuming that the spot welds in the vehicle do not rupture. However, if some spot welds rupture in test of a prototype vehicle, the simulated deformation and test deformation may not match, resulting in inaccurate estimation of deformation from simulation. Therefore accuracy of predicting the rupture of spot welds is crucial in accurately estimating the deformation and improving reliability of vehicle crash simulation results. The new method to predict the rupture of spot welds which relates axial and shear forces and bending moment of spot weld to stress around nugget has been developed by authors. Based on developed method, the rupture risk of spot welds has been estimated. The new method was applied to estimate the spot weld rupture using three types of specimens.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0198
Masahiro Fujimoto, Atsushi Fujii, Nobuyuki Matsumiya
Since wear resistance and fatigue strength are key requirements for chassis components, induction hardening is widely used to apply compressive stress for controlling crack growth. Therefore, it is crucial that the influence of defects is examined with compressive residual stress applied to parts. In this report, the relationship between crack depth and compressive residual stress is evaluated using a cylindrical specimen and a torsional fatigue test. The test results were found to be consistent with CAE simulations performed in advance. In the future, it will be necessary to make this method applicable to product design to further improve vehicle safety performance.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1312
Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Shinji Nakao, Katsutaka Nakagami, Masahiro Shioji, Akira Kato
The ignition delay and combustion characteristics of hydrogen jets in an argon-oxygen atmosphere were investigated to provide fundamental data for operating an argon-circulated hydrogen internal combustion engine. Experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel to study the effects of ambient temperature, ambient pressure, oxygen concentration and injection pressure on a pre-burning system. The hydrogen-jet penetration and flame were also investigated based on high-speed shadowgraph images. The experimental results indicated that the ignition delay (τ) increases as the ambient temperature (Ti) decreases, similar to the results obtained in an air atmosphere. The heat-release rate results also exhibited similar trends.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982410
Masatoshi Matsuda, Takao Nomura, Hisayuki Iwai
Through a polymer design and precise morphology control, The Super Olefin Polymer, TSOP-1 and TSOP-5 were developed for the material consolidation of interior and exterior parts, respectively. Due to a good balance of TSOP performance, several conventional materials were consolidated into one material for each application. Accordingly, considerable amounts of weight reduction and cost savings have been obtained. In addition to the excellent recyclability of TSOP, the coated bumpers collected from the market were re-utilized through paint decomposition technology. The first dashboard construction, molded partially with foam-padded skin, was also realized. The current amount of TSOP used in a vehicle is about 30% of the total amount of plastic materials. Through the usage of TSOP, 70% of the material consolidation has been achieved.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982344
Daisuke Abe, Shigeji Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi Uchiyama
Recently, the demands of vehicle owners have become more diversified. This is particularly true in the paint appearance of the vehicle. Responding to these demands Toyota has developed an ink jet painting system, Toyota Fantasy Print System. This system can illustrate practically any picture which the customer desires. The system utilized a subtractive method of paint mixture which mixes or piles up these four permeable inks. The development of durable ink as well as equipment which can efficiently and effectively apply the ink onto the required contoured surface.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982346
Hideaki Arimoto, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Kouji Kawamura, Masaaki Kondou
This paper describes development of a numerical simulation method for the FMVSS 201 testing. This method considers not only deformation but also fracture of plastic materials. a simplified calculation method for predicting the load during impact of absorbing plastic materials was introduced from the numerical simulation results. By applying this simplified calculator method trial and error in development would be reduced.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982437
Koichi Kurono, Kenyu Akiyama, Miwako Shionoya
Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981446
Satoshi Ashida, Fumio Ueda, Akihiko Ichikawa, Yoshiyuki Furuta, Toshiaki Kuribayashi
For viscous couplings(VCs) as a driving force transmission system of vehicles, requirement of torque characteristics has been getting very stringent. Because the torque characteristics significantly affect four wheel drive vehicles' abilities such as traction performance and driving stability. Furthermore, the recent concerns on high fuel economy, low pollution and low cost require that design of VCs should be increasingly compact, light weighted and excellent in transmitted torque's stability. It is an easy way to increase viscosity of viscous coupling fluids(VCFs) for the compact design of the VC. But it might cause increase in heat load and wear of plates which resulted in degradation of the VCF. The degradation affects VCF's viscosity and impairs stability in torque transmission. Therefore it is indispensable to develop high viscosity VCF which is excellent in long-term viscosity's stability.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1671
Haruyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Oshio, Naohiro Kunieda
Trivalent chromate coating is replacing the conventional hexavalent chromate coating applied on zinc plating. Zinc plating uses one of three types of plating baths (zincate, cyanide and chloride) according to the characteristics required of subject parts. It has been recognized that trivalent chromate coating provides different corrosion resistance depending on the type of zinc plating bath used. Zinc plating with chromate coating were analyzed to clarify the cause of the corrosion resistance variation with the type of zinc plating bath. It has been revealed that the chromate coating thickness and the condition of top SiO2 layer vary with the type of zinc plating bath, resulting in corrosion resistance variation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0753
Akira Nishimura, Akitsugu Kondo, Susumu Umemura, Masahiro Hashimoto, Shingo Okubo, Hukuji Suzuki
Color design is playing a more important role recently when establishing automotive commercial value. High chroma TiO2 pigments which have less than 1/3 the aspect ratio of the current interfere pigments have been developed. Anatase type TiO2 pigments, which have high photo-catalytic activity can now also be used for automotive paints.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0418
Naokazu Yamamura
1 ABSTRACT The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1494
Naoko Iwata, Yoshinao Suzuki, Hitoshi Kato, Masahiko Takeuchi, Aiko Sugiura
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1672
Hiroshi Hosono, Yasuhiko Nagashima
Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing technologies for reductions on the environmental load. This paper reports the following as a part of technological development for the painting process. Prior to the application of the E-coat, vehicle bodies are pretreated with zinc phosphates. This is applied to ensure good adhesion and corrosion resistance of the E-coat film. To obtain an excellent pretreatment film, surface conditioning with titanium colloid is generally applied before pretreatment. Since colloid flocculation control was difficult in the case of a conventional titanium colloid-type surface conditioner, the surface conditioner had to be renewed at approximately two-month intervals. The liquid life, however, increased remarkably as a result of adopting fine zinc-type surface conditioners and adding an organic protective surface layer. The water supply/discharge amount was decreased significantly compared with previous amounts.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1954
Manabu Watanabe, Tokuichi Ichikawa, Masanori Hirose, Koji Oyama, Tsuyoshi Ashida, Yasunori Takei, Masanori Okada
Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in wall-guided stratified charged direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines affect combustion significantly because CCD may disturb the air-fuel mixture formation and, as a result, cause emission deterioration. For the design of engines and fuels, it is therefore important to determine the effects of CCD on emissions from DISI engines. In this study, the effects of CCD on emissions from a DISI engine using different fuel distillation properties were investigated. The study results show that, during stratified charged operation, an increase in CCD increased the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions under high speed conditions and the NOx emissions under the low speed conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0617
Akitsugu Kondo, Masahiko Ishii
Currently, to achieve the desired design in automotive paint, absorption pigments, such as organic pigments, are used in combination with brilliant pigments (ex. aluminum or mica etc.). However, many beautiful colors exist in the world, especially in the natural world. Until now, automotive paints have not been able to replicate those colors. In this project, by first analyzing the coloring principles of the natural world, we have focused on the development of a previously non-existent coloring technology (structural color). By combining this with nanostructure control technology, we have established a radically new coloring process enabling the design of hues, chromaticity and reflection intensity. This technology has tangible results, as new pigments are available for paint formulations.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0618
Fumitaka Yoshinaga, Takeshi Bessho
In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0730
Takashi Inoh, Yuji Kageyama
We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0731
Tomoko Oda, Masako Yamato
In order to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions in the air, we have paid our attention to the use of plastics that are made from plants (below, bioplastics) as replacements for petroleum-based plastics, and we are conducting research on the application of bioplastics as materials for automobiles. In this study, a case study was set, and from the point of view of CO2 emissions, effects of automobile parts that were produced from bioplastics on the reduction of CO2 emissions were quantified using a method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2816
Tetsuro Fukuhara, Shinichi Suefuji, Kenichi Yasunaga, Hajime Hasegawa
Toyota is implementing various technical developments in various fields for protection of environment. Reducing the fuel consumption is a matter of great urgency for the reduction of CO2 emissions. In the technology of vehicle body development, mass reduction and the improvement of aerodynamics are mainly important for fuel economy. As the one of way for this, we adopted resin glass as the back door glass of ES3, small-sized low-fuel consumption vehicle. (Figure 1,2,3) The first advantage of resin glass is the low density that weights about a half of inorganic glass. However resin glass is needed higher thickness for equivalent rigidity, as the result approximately 41% mass reduction was achieved. However resin glass is relatively expensive. Therefore it seems to be difficult to expand the usage of resin for this application. Then, we focused on additional advantage of resin glass, in order to make good use of resin glass. The second advantage of resin glass is design flexibility.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2833
Shoji Kojima, Yasuaki Ohmi, Eizaburo Nakanishi, Takao Mori
In the initial design stage, it is important to discuss what kind of body concept is effective from a viewpoint of environment burden reduction. This paper describes the importance of both weight reduction and recycling through conducting LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) for four kinds of body structures. In addition, using each software, DFMA (Design for Manufacture and Assembly), DFE (Design for Environment) and LCA to parts unit, each effectiveness was discussed through the assessment of the material-hybrid body.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0055
Mikito Nishii, Hiroyuki Arai, Takanori Nakada, Hideyuki Tami
The protection of the environment has become a worldwide concern. To reduce the effects of engine coolant on the environment, ways to minimize the amount of coolant released into the environment were investigated. One option is to develop a super long-life coolant. The key issue in developing a long-life engine coolant is selecting an appropriate inhibitor. The inhibitor should be stable over time and completely anticorrosive. In general carboxylic acids are considered to be the class of inhibitors with the highest stability. However, various lab studies have shown the long-term use of monocarboxylic acid could form the foreign substance that causes blockage in radiators. Therefore, the mechanism leading to the formation of foreign substance was determined. A series of carboxylic acids and additives were evaluated. An optimum formulation was then determined, resulting in the development of the Super Long Life Coolant.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2756
Takashi Inoh, Yuji Kageyama
We studied the application of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, major improvement is required for thermal and impact performance. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase CO2 emissions, we attempt to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both thermal and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which lead to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2775
Kenzo Fukumori, Mitsumasa Matsushita, Hirotaka Okamoto, Norio Sato, Katsumasa Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki
A new material recycling technology for crosslinked rubber was developed using the continuous reactive processing method. In this process of producing reclaimed rubber, breakage of crosslinking points in the crosslinked rubber occurs selectively under the controls of shear stress, reaction temperature, and internal pressure in a modular screw type reactor. Deodorization during the process has also become possible by a newly developed method. The reclaimed rubber obtained from rubber waste generated from both automobile manufacturing products and post-consumer products shows excellent mechanical properties applicable to new rubber compounds. Furthermore, an enhanced rubber recycling process for producing thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on rubber waste has been established. The obtained TPE exhibits highly recoverable rubber elasticity and mechanical properties comparable to commercial TPE.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0805
Yoshihide Segawa, Tomomi Hase, Takeru Yoshida
Stringent emission regulations call for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. However, substrates with higher cell density increase backpressure, thinner cell wall substrates have lower mechanical characteristics. Therefore we will focus on cell configurations that will show a positive effect on backpressure and emission performance. We found that hexagonal cells have a greater effect on emission and backpressure performance versus square or round cell configurations. This paper will describe in detail the advantage of hexagonal cell configuration versus round or square configurations with respect to the following features: 1 High Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) performance due to uniformity of the catalyst coating layer 2 Low backpressure due to the large hydraulic diameter of the catalyst cell 3 Quick light off characteristics due to efficient heat transfer and low thermal mass
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0438
Takumi Kataoka, Yukikazu Suzuki, Naoya Kato, Takashi Kikuchi, Yuji Mihara
We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1049
Debasish Banerjee, Minjuan Zhang, Masahiko Ishii
Abstract Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1461
Junya Ogawa, Kazuyuki Kuwano, Yoshiyuki Noritake
“Anti-scratch performance” is the highest in customer's needs of paint. To achieve anti-acid and anti-scratch performance, we selected 2K-urethane because of a high degree of freedom in paint design. In addition, we have done a precise molecular design of the acrylic polyol and the isocyanate. As a result, “a highly durable, soft, fine-crosslinking paint film” was achieved, and “anti-scratch clear coat” that surpassed the current clear coats was developed.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1265
Yukiyoshi Ueno, Hirofumi Iisaka, Kazuhiko Dohmae
The development of an alternative oxygen reduction electrocatalyst to platinum based electrocatalysts is critical for practical use of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Transition metal sulfide chalcogenides have recently been reported as a possible candidate for Pt replacement. Our work focused on chalcogenides composed of ruthenium, molybdenum, and sulfur (RuMoS). We elucidate the factors affecting electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported RuXMoY SZ catalyst. This was demonstrated through a correlation of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the catalysts with structural changes resulting from designed changes in sulfur composition in the catalysts.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1266
Keisuke Kishita, Hiroyasu Saka, Kotaro Kuroda, Watabe Akira, Takeo Kamino
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a powerful tool for studying catalyst materials at nano-size and/or atomic level. Conventional TEM usually needs to be observed at room temperature in high vacuum conditions. A gaseous atmosphere and high temperature condition may change the properties of catalyst materials. Recently we developed an in situ observation system in TEM for observing the oxidation and reduction under a gas atmosphere at high temperature. Using the new in situ observation system in TEM, the morphological changes of the nano particle and support were observed in the heated gaseous atmosphere at atomic level in real time.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0019
Terufumi Takayama, Kentaro Komabayasi, Masafumi Itou, Yuichi Miyake
Technological development of materials derived from plants (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA), and the like) is required to break dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2. PLA has inferior hydrolysis resistance, impact resistance, and molding ability than polypropylene (PP), and in order to overcome these disadvantages, a novel PP/PLA alloy has been conceived where PLA is incorporated into a PP matrix. By optimizing compatibilizer and elastomer addition, PLA has been successfully dispersed into a PP matrix at a sub-micron order, and interior parts have been successfully developed that fulfill the performance, appearance, and mass-production capability requirements for practical application.
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