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Viewing 1 to 30 of 225
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1393
Kazuhisa Inagaki, Jyunichi Mizuta, Takayuki Fuyuto, Takeshi Hashizume, Hirokazu Ito, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Kawae, Masaaki Kono
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1427
Takahide Kobayashi, Morise Masaru, Tomoyuki Kano, Mizuki Imafuku, Masanobu Yamada
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1425
Satoshi Kamijo, Hideo Tomomatsu, Makoto Sawada, Takuro Shimazu
TOYOTA has developed the iQ with a 1.3L engine for the Scion brand in USA. Due to the importance of fun-to-drive factor for the Scion brand image, a responsive driving performance is required even with compact packaging and a small engine. In addition, because of the recent attention to global-warming and energy issues on a global scale, development of vehicles with high fuel economy is one of the most important issues for a car manufacturer. Therefore, it is necessary for a vehicle to have both high driving performance and fuel economy. TOYOTA has adopted the CVT-i as the transmission for this purpose. The following were achieved by adopting the CVT-i as the transmission for the iQ(1.3L). 1 Responsive driving performance with shift changes without a time lag.2 Compact transmission for efficient vehicle packaging3 Class-leading fuel economy performance. Moreover, it was developed with adjustments for the US market by improving the shift schedule for a linear acceleration feel.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1413
Akira Yamashita, Hisashi Ohki, Terutoshi Tomoda, Koichiro Nakatani
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1903
D. L. Lance, C. L. Goodfellow, J. Williams, W. Bunting, I. Sakata, K. Yoshida, S. Taniguchi, K. Kitano
In an effort to reduce CO2 emissions, governments are increasingly mandating the use of various levels of biofuels. While this is strongly supported in principle within the energy and transportation industries, the impact of these mandates on the transport stock’s CO2 emissions and overall operating efficiency has yet to be fully explored. This paper provides information on studies to assess biodiesel influences and effects on engine performance, driveability, emissions and fuel consumption on state-of-the-art Euro IV compliant Toyota Avensis D4-D vehicles with DPNR aftertreatment systems. Two fuel matrices (Phases 1 & 2) were designed to look at the impact of fuel composition on vehicle operation using a wide range of critical parameters such as cetane number, density, distillation and biofuel (FAME) level and type, which can be found within the current global range of Diesel fuel qualities.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1933
Ryoji Nishiumi, Toshiya Nakajima, Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Richard H. Clark
Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0741
Shozo Yoshida, Masato Ehara, Yukio Kuroda
In recent years, engine control systems have become more and more complex because of the growing pressure to develop technical innovations due to social pressures such as global warming and the depletion of fossil fuels. On the other hand, products must be launched on the market in a timely manner and at low cost. For these reasons, calibration processes have become more sophisticated. It is possible to improve the efficiency of calibration by making good use of models, and a calibration process that incorporates models is called model based calibration (MBC). MBC is a valid means of reducing the number of measurement points to some extent by statistical engine modeling and design of experiment (DoE) methodology which places measurement points in order to maximize modeling accuracy. However, it is still necessary to spend much time carrying out boundary detection testing before DoE.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1244
Francois Lafossas, Yoshifumi Matsuda, Ali Mohammadi, Akinori Morishima, Mikio Inoue, Maria Kalogirou, Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
To meet future stringent emission regulations such as Euro6, the design and control of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will become more complex in order to ensure their optimum operation over time. Moreover, because of the strong pressure for CO₂ emissions reduction, the average exhaust temperature is expected to decrease, posing significant challenges on exhaust after-treatment. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) are already widely used to reduce CO and hydrocarbons (HC) from diesel engine emissions. In addition, DOC is also used to control the NO₂/NOx ratio and to generate the exothermic reactions necessary for the thermal regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and NOx Storage and Reduction catalysts (NSR). The expected temperature decrease of diesel exhaust will adversely affect the CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) conversion efficiency of the catalysts. Therefore, the development cost for the design and control of new DOCs is increasing.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2294
Masashi Komada, Takayoshi Yoshioka
The new gasoline hybrid car, “the Prius”, has achieved both two-liter class power performance and world top-class gas mileage with the new Toyota Hybrid System “THS II”. Compared with the previous THS, the electric motor drive power of the THS II has been boosted by 50% and the weight of this system has been reduced by 20%. This paper describes the NV problems caused by the improvements to the hybrid system, and the countermeasures for them. It also describes the technologies for reduction of engine start vibration. Finally an evaluation method and countermeasures against interior engine noise are described.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3763
Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Richard Clark
Reduction of vehicle exhaust emissions is an important contributor to improved air quality. At the same time demand is growing for new transportation fuels that can enhance security and diversity of energy supply. Gas to Liquids (GTL) Fuel has generated much interest from governments and automotive manufacturers. It is a liquid fuel derived from natural gas, and its properties - sulphur free, low polyaromatics and high cetane number - make it desirable for future clean light-duty diesel engines. In this paper, the effects of distillation characteristics and cetane number of experimental GTL test fuels on direct injection (DI) diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated, together with their spray behaviour and mixing characteristics. The test results show that the lower distillation test fuels produce the largest reductions in smoke and PM emissions even at high cetane numbers. This is linked to the enhanced air/fuel mixing of the lighter fuel in a shorter time.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0028
Kazuhisa Inagaki, Takayuki Fuyuto, Kazuaki Nishikawa, Kiyomi Nakakita, Ichiro Sakata
A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0788
Kentaro Nishida, Takashi Ogawa, Takeshi Hashizume, Shinobu Ishiyama, Ryo Hasegawa
Abstract Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. This paper describes the improvement of piston bowl geometry to achieve a more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This concept reduced fuel consumption by 2.5% compared to the original piston bowl geometry, while also reducing NOx emissions by 10%.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0851
Kenji Komiya, Mori Daigoro, Miura Shinpei, Haraikawa Norihiko, Yoshida Kousei, Watanabe Shintaro, Toh Keiji, Kubo Hidehito, Miyahara Mituo, Mikuriya Seiichiro, Tsukahara Makoto
Multi-cylinder hydrogen-absorbing alloy tanks for fuel cell vehicles have 10 to 40 metallic cylinders that are bundled and filled with hydrogen-absorbing alloy. In this system, the cylinders themselves act as a heat exchanger and the working pressure is lowered to 10 to 20 MPa compared with high-pressure MH tanks. Moreover, both heat conduction and mass reduction can be achieved by reducing the wall thickness of the cylinders. A model verification experiment was conducted using a one-quarter-scale prototype of a full size tank, and a conduction simulation model verified in the experiment was used to predict the performance of the full size tank. Results showed that it is possible to fill the tank with hydrogen to 80% of its capacity in a five-minute filling time, although issues related to heat conductivity performance require improvement. Accordingly, it may be possible to adopt this tank as part of a system if the storage amount of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy can be increased.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2177
Naoki Hirate, Masashi Komada, Takayoshi Yoshioka, Siegmund Thomann, Franz Brandl
This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2172
Masahiko Yamanouchi, Koji Tsurumura, Takayoshi Yoshioka, Yutaka Ishii
Continuously variable transmission (CVT) and hybrid systems, which have metal belts and electrical units not found in conventional transmissions, are susceptible to extremely High Frequency belt and electromagnetic noise between 5 to 10 kHz. The evaluation and reduction of high frequency (HF) noise of 5 kHz and more is therefore a critical point for improving the quietness of vehicles installed with such systems. This article describes new sound source search technology capable of identifying sources of noise up to 15 kHz in the vehicle interior. Unlike conventional beamforming methods, this new system uses an improved microphone array provided with additional acoustic material. This article outlines the development of the system and its application to sound source identification of HF noise in a hybrid vehicle.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0881
Yusuke Takasu, Satoshi Kaneko, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Yoshikazu Namura, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Matsuei Ueda, Toshihiro Tani
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2515
Ken-ichi Kohashi, Yuichiro Kimura, Motoichi Murakami, Yann Drouvin
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0336
Ryo Michikawauchi, Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Mutsumi Kanda
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2173
Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Ryo Michikawauchi, Mikio Nakamura, Hirokuni Tomita
Hydrogen can be produced from various renewable energy sources, therefore it is predicted that hydrogen could play a greater role in meeting society's energy needs in the mid- to long-term. Conventional hydrogen engines have some disadvantages: higher cooling loss results in low thermal efficiency and abnormal combustion (backfire, pre-ignition, higher burning velocity) limits high load operation. Direct injection is an effective solution to overcome these disadvantages, but combustion methods that enable both high efficiency and low NOx have yet to be studied in enough detail. In this research, high-efficiency and low-NOx hydrogen combustion was investigated using a prototype high-pressure hydrogen injector (maximum 30 MPa). Experiments were carried out with a 2.2-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a centrally mounted hydrogen injector, a toroidal shape combustion chamber, and a spark plug in the glow plug position.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2213
Norimasa Kobayashi, Masami Habuchi, Hiroo Yamaoka
The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2193
Hiroshi Sugimura, Yasushi Donoue, Masayuki Takei, Hiroo Yamaoka
1 ABSTRACT To predict accurately low frequency vibration caused by the power train, it is essential to consider both the non-steady state characteristics of the engine exciting force and the frequency and amplitude dependent non-linear characteristics of the various components of the transfer system. Conventional steady-state linear analysis using finite element methods (FEM) is unable to handle these characteristics, and as a result, its prediction accuracy is insufficient. This research is based on a multi-body dynamics (MBD) model that is capable of handling non-steady state and non-linear analysis, into which in-cylinder pressure prediction methods were incorporated. The technology developed took into consideration the non-linear characteristics of the transfer system and thereby enabled highly accurate predictions of all systems associated with the vibration reaching the vehicle body.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1649
Satoshi Taniguchi, Masahiko Masubuchi, Koji Kitano, Kazuhisa Mogi
The Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) vehicle is one of the technologies to convert diesel vehicles for natural gas usage. The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of a DDF vehicle to meet emission standards for diesel vehicles. This research was done for small passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles. The exhaust emissions compliance of such vehicles in a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode which was composed of Urban Driving Cycles (UDC) and an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) was evaluated. (see APPENDIXFigure A1) In this study, the passenger vehicle engine, compliant with the EURO4 standard, was converted to a DDF engine. Engine bench tests under steady state conditions showed similar result to previous papers. Total hydrocarbon (HC) emission was extremely high, compared to diesel engine. The NEDC mode emissions of the DDF vehicle were estimated based on these engine bench test results.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0483
Shin Noumura, Shogo Matsumoto, Toshio Tanahashi
The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0310
Junji chisaki, Kazuya Yoshijima, Takashi Kikuchi, Shoichiro Morinaka, Kenichi Yamada, Masaaki Okamoto, Tsutomu Oda, Keisuke Manabe
Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0368
Masashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Muneo Yorinaga, Toshinari Sano, Mitsuaki Tomita
The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0366
Toshinari Sano, Mitsuaki Tomita, Masashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Muneo Yorinaga
This report proposes a rheological model and a thermal analysis model for oil films, which transmit power through a variator, as a prediction method for the maximum traction coefficient, and then describes the application and verification of this method. The rheological model expresses the conditions inside the contact ellipse using a combination of viscosity and plasticity. The thermal analysis model for oil films was confirmed by comparison of previously obtained temperatures directly measured from the traction contact area of the four-roller experimental apparatus [1]. The measurement used a thin-film temperature sensor and the consistency between the calculated and measured values was verified in the estimation model by reflecting the precise thermal properties of the thin film. Most values were consistent with the calculated values for the middle plane local shear heating model inside the oil film.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0367
Kunio Hattori, Shinya Toyoda, Daisuke Inoue, Yuya Shimozato
Toyota has developed a new belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) for 1.5-liter compact vehicles. To improve both driveability and fuel economy over previous CVTs, pressure management was adopted as the shift control method. The new shift control system was designed using a model-based control method which uses a two-degree-of-freedom system composed of feedback and feedforward controls. Smooth shifting in all the target shift speed regions was realized by combining a feedback loop that considers the output limit of the pulley thrust into the feedforward controller. Furthermore, shift response was improved while maintaining or even improving stability. This paper describes the details of this shift control system.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0350
Hayato Nakada, Gareth Milton, Peter Martin, Akiyuki Iemura, Akira Ohata
This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0689
Masaaki Kono, Masatoshi Basaki, Masaharu Ito, Takeshi Hashizume, Shinobu Ishiyama, Kazuhisa Inagaki
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0623
Tomoaki Furukawa, Ryuji Ibaraki, Hiroaki Kimura, Koichi Kondo, Masato Watanabe, Tatsuhiko Mizutani, Hiroyuki Hattori, Akira Takasaki
Recently, due to mounting concerns regarding the environment and energy conservation, demand for compact and hybrid vehicles with good fuel economy has been increasing. Toyota Motor Corporation has developed its first hybrid transaxle for installation in sub-compact class vehicles. This new hybrid transaxle is both smaller and lighter than the P410 hybrid transaxle for compact class vehicles, including the 2009 Prius. This was accomplished by creating new designs of the gear train, motor, and motor cooling system, and by adopting advanced technology. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transaxle in detail.
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