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Viewing 1 to 21 of 21
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2170
Alex J. Heltzel, Kevin McCarthy, Soumya Patnaik
Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been widely used to successfully resolve turbulence and boundary layer phenomena induced by microscale flow passages in advanced heat exchanger concepts, the expense of such simulations precludes their use within system-level models. However, the effect of component design changes on systems must be better understood in order to optimize designs with little thermal margin, and CFD simulations greatly enhance this understanding. A method is presented to introduce high resolution, 3-D conjugate CFD calculations of candidate heat exchanger cores into dynamic aerospace subsystem models. The significant parameters guiding performance of these heat exchangers are identified and a database of CFD solutions is built to capture steady and unsteady performance of microstructured heat exchanger cores as a function of the identified parameters and flow conditions.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2023
Timothy Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Mark Bodie, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1995
Patrick McCarthy, Nicholas Niedbalski, Kevin McCarthy, Eric Walters, Joshua Cory, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2045
Timothy Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Byoung Kim, Eric Walters, Mark Bodie, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract Model based design is a standard practice within the aerospace industry. However, the accuracies of these models are only as good as the parameters used to define them and as a result a great deal of effort is spent on model tuning and parameter identification. This process can be very challenging and with the growing complexity and size of these models, manual tuning is often ineffective. Many methods for automated parameter tuning exist. However, for aircraft systems this often leads to large parameter search problems since frequency based identification and direct gradient search schemes are generally not suitable. Furthermore, the cost of experimentation often limits one to sparse data sets which adds an additional layer of difficulty. As a result, these search problems can be highly sensitive to the definition of the model fitness function, the choice of algorithm, and the criteria for convergence.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2224
Stephen Emo, Jamie Ervin, Travis E. Michalak, Victor Tsao
Abstract Numerous previous studies have highlighted the potential efficiency improvements which can be provided to aircraft thermal management systems by the incorporation of vapor cycle systems (VCS), either in place of, or in conjunction with, standard air cycle systems, for providing the needed thermal management for aircraft equipment and crews. This paper summarizes the results of a cycle-based VCS control architecture as tested using the Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) in the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. VCSRF is a flexible, dynamic, multi-evaporator VCS which incorporates electronic expansion valves and a variable speed compressor allowing the flexibility to test both components and control schemes. The goal of this facility is to reduce the risk of incorporating VCS into the thermal management systems (TMS) of future advanced aircraft.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2584
Larry Byrd, Andrew Cole, Brian Cranston, Stephen Emo, Jamie Ervin, Travis E. Michalak
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in cooperation with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and Fairchild Controls Corporation, is building a test facility to study the use of advanced vapor cycle systems (VCS) in an expanded role in aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). It is dedicated to the study and development of VCS control and operation in support of the Integrated Vehicle ENergy Technology (INVENT) initiative. The Two Phase Thermal Energy Management System (ToTEMS1) architecture has been shown through studies to offer potential weight, cost, volume and performance advantages over traditional thermal management approaches based on Air Cycle Systems (ACS). The ToTEMS rig will be used to develop and demonstrate a control system that manages the system capacity over both large amplitude and fast transient changes in the system loads.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2416
Charles E. Oberly, Michelle Bash, Benjamin R. Razidlo, Travis E. Michalak, Fernando Rodriguez
Abstract An IPTMS hardware facility has been established in the laboratories of the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Paterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This hardware capability was established to analyze the transient behavior of a high power Electrical Power System (EPS) coupled virtually to a Thermal Management System (TMS) under fast dynamic loading conditions. The system incorporates the use of dynamic electrical load, engine emulation, energy storage, and emulated thermal loads operated to investigate dynamics under step load conditions. Hardware architecture and control options for the IPTMS are discussed. This paper summarizes the IPTMS laboratory demonstration system, its capabilities, and preliminary test results.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2190
Douglas Johnson, Soumya Patnaik, Jamie Ervin
In this work we present our recent effort in developing a novel heat exchanger based on endothermic chemical reaction (HEX reactor). The proposed HEX reactor is designed to provide additional heat sink capability for aircraft thermal management systems. Ammonium carbamate (AC) which has a decomposition enthalpy of 1.8 MJ/kg is suspended in propylene glycol and used as the heat exchanger working fluid. The decomposition temperature of AC is pressure dependent (60°C at 1 atmosphere; lower temperatures at lower pressures) and as the heat load on the HEX increases and the glycol temperature reaches AC decomposition temperature, AC decomposes and isothermally absorbs energy from the glycol. The reaction, and therefore the heat transfer rate, is controlled by regulating the pressure within the reactor side of the heat exchanger. The experiment is designed to demonstrate continuous replenishment of AC.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2542
John H. Doty, Jose Camberos, Kirk Yerkes
A unique perspective of system integration is presented in terms of statistical design and analysis. Advanced statistical concepts are employed to quantify the variance of the statistical models as well as to specify model truncation error. Three models are developed for this study: 1) a supersonic wing section; 2) a supersonic turbojet system and; 3) an integrated supersonic wing section and supersonic turbojet. The three models are analyzed and separately and surrogate models are developed for each model independently using Design of Experiments and advanced statistical analyses. The individual surrogate models are statistically validated compared to their respective models. The individual wing and turbojet surrogate models are then used to estimate the performance of the combined wing and turbojet system surrogate model performance.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2585
Rebekah L. Puterbaugh, Jeffrey Brown, Ryan T. Battelle
Integrated system-level analysis capability is critical to the design and optimization of aircraft thermal, power, propulsion, and vehicle systems. Thermal management challenges of modern aircraft include increased heat loads from components such as avionics and more-electric accessories. In addition, on-going turbine engine development efforts are leading to more fuel efficient engines which impact the traditionally-preferred heat sink - engine fuel flow. These conditions drive the need to develop new and innovative ways to manage thermal loads. Simulation provides researchers the ability to investigate alternative thermal architectures and perform system-level trade studies. Modeling the feedback between thermal and engine models ensures more accurate thermal boundary conditions for engine air and fuel heat sinks, as well as consideration of thermal architecture impacts on engine performance.
2008-11-11
Journal Article
2008-01-2927
Jason R. Wells, M. Amrhein, E. Walters, Steve Iden, Austin Page, Peter Lamm, Anthony Matasso
The movement to more-electric architectures during the past decade in military and commercial airborne systems continues to increase the complexity of designing and specifying the electric power system. In particular, the electrical power system (EPS) faces challenges in meeting the highly dynamic power demands of advanced power electronics based loads. This paper explores one approach to addressing these demands by proposing an electrical equivalent of the widely utilized hydraulic accumulator which has successfully been employed in hydraulic power system on aircraft for more than 50 years.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2899
Marco Amrhein, Jason R. Wells, Eric A. Walters, Anthony F. Matasso, Tim R. Erdman, Steven M. Iden, Peter L. Lamm, Austin M. Page, Ivan H. Wong
A primary challenge in performing integrated system simulations is balancing system simulation speeds against the model fidelity of the individual components composing the system model. Traditionally, such integrated system models of the electrical systems on more electric aircraft (MEA) have required drastic simplifications, linearizations, and/or averaging of individual component models. Such reductions in fidelity can take significant effort from component engineers and often cause the integrated system simulation to neglect critical dynamic behaviors, making it difficult for system integrators to identify problems early in the design process. This paper utilizes recent advancements in co-simulation technology (DHS Links) to demonstrate how integrated system models can be created wherein individual component models do not require significant simplification to achieve reasonable integrated model simulation speeds.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3219
Tim C. O'Connell, Jason R. Wells, Peter T. Lamm, Laurence B. DeWitt
The performance of a more-electric aircraft (MEA) power system electrical accumulator unit (EAU) architecture consisting of a 57000 rpm induction machine (IM) coupled to a controllable shaft load and controlled using direct torque control (DTC) is examined through transient modeling and simulation. The simplicity and extremely fast dynamic torque response of DTC make it an attractive choice for this application. Additionally, the key components required for this EAU system may already exist on certain MEA, therefore allowing the benefits of EAU technology in the power system without incurring a significant weight penalty. Simulation results indicate that this architecture is capable of quickly tracking system bus power steps from full regenerative events to peak load events while maintaining the IM's speed within 5% of its nominal value.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2034
Bailey Hall, Benjamin Palmer, Tyler Milburn, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao, Joseph Weimer
Abstract Future aircraft will demand a significant amount of electrical power to drive primary flight control surfaces. The electrical system architecture needed to source these flight critical loads will have to be resilient, autonomous, and fast. Designing and ensuring that a power system architecture can meet the load requirements and provide power to the flight critical buses at all times is fundamental. In this paper, formal methods and linear temporal logic are used to develop a contactor control strategy to meet the given specifications. The resulting strategy is able to manage multiple contactors during different types of generator failures. In order to verify the feasibility of the control strategy, a real-time simulation platform is developed to simulate the electrical power system. The platform has the capability to test an external controller through Hardware in the Loop (HIL).
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2172
Megan Kania, Justin Koeln, Andrew Alleyne, Kevin McCarthy, Ning Wu, Soumya Patnaik
Modern air vehicles face increasing internal heat loads that must be appropriately understood in design and managed in operation. This paper examines one solution to creating more efficient and effective thermal management systems (TMSs): vapor cycle systems (VCSs). VCSs are increasingly being investigated by aerospace government and industry as a means to provide much greater efficiency in moving thermal energy from one physical location to another. In this work, we develop the AFRL (Air Force Research Laboratory) Transient Thermal Modeling and Optimization (ATTMO) toolbox: a modeling and simulation tool based in Matlab/Simulink that is suitable for understanding, predicting, and designing a VCS. The ATTMO toolbox also provides capability for understanding the VCS as part of a larger air vehicle system. The toolbox is presented in a modular fashion whereby the individual components are presented along with the framework for interconnecting them.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2027
Brett Robbins, Kevin J. Yost, Jon Zumberge
Abstract Detailed machine models are, and will continue to be, a critical component of both the design and validation processes for engineering future aircraft, which will undoubtedly continue to push the boundaries for the demand of electric power. This paper presents a survey of experimental testing procedures for typical synchronous machines that are applied to brushless synchronous machines with rotating rectifiers to characterize their operational impedances. The relevance and limitations of these procedures are discussed, which include steady-state drive stand tests, sudden short-circuit transient (SSC) tests, and standstill frequency response (SSFR) tests. Then, results captured in laboratory of the aforementioned tests are presented.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2187
Larry Byrd, Andrew Cole, Stephen Emo, Jamie Ervin, Travis E. Michalak, Victor Tsao
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in cooperation with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and Fairchild Controls Corporation, is operating an in-house advanced vapor compression refrigeration cycle system (VCS) test rig known as ToTEMS (Two-Phase Thermal Energy Management System). This test rig is dedicated to the study and development of VCS control and operation in support of the Energy Optimized Aircraft (EOA) initiative and the Integrated Vehicle ENergy Technology (INVENT) program. Previous papers on ToTEMS have discussed the hardware setup and some of the preliminary data collected from the system, as well as the first steps towards developing an optimum-seeking control scheme. A key goal of the ToTEMS program is to reduce the risk associated with operating VCS in the dynamic aircraft environment.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2241
Anthony Puntel, Stephen Emo, Travis E. Michalak, Jamie Ervin, Larry Byrd, Victor Tsao, Thomas Reitz
Vapor compression systems (VCS) offer significant benefits as the backbone for next generation aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). For a comparable lift, VCS offer higher system efficiencies, improved load temperature control, and lower transport losses than conventional air cycle systems. However, broad proliferation of VCS for many aircraft applications has been limited primarily due to maintenance and reliability concerns. In an attempt to address these and other VCS system control issues, the Air Force Research Laboratory has established a Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) to explore the practical application of dynamic VCS control methods for next-generation, military aircraft TMS. The total refrigerant mass contained within the closed refrigeration system (refrigerant charge) is a critical parameter to VCS operational readiness. Too much or too little refrigerant can be detrimental to system performance.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2140
Kevin McCarthy, Patrick McCarthy, Ning Wu, Andrew Alleyne, Justin Koeln, Soumya Patnaik, Stephen Emo, Joshua Cory
Abstract As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3905
Christopher Sielski, Ryan Eggert, Derryl Williams
The Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display (WICID) program developed a method for pilots to remotely control and display carry-on laptop based applications from the aircraft cockpit. Because flight safety concerns do not allow the pilot/copilot to use the standard keyboard and mouse devices during flight, the WICID program developed a multifunction display (MFD) that uses customized input devices such as bezel keys and a touch screen. The subsequent design of the WICID system became especially valuable in enhancing certain technologies critical to the military cockpit. This paper will address how the WICID system topology is uniquely suited to improve cockpit access to four main technology categories: Enhanced Situation Awareness (SA), Mission Planning/On-board Replanning, Enhanced Communication, and Navigation Aids.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3904
R. Eggert, C. Sielski, D. Williams
The Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display (WICID) program originated as a request to remotely control and display laptop based applications from a cockpit without use of the standard keyboard and mouse devices. The resulting system utilized multifunction displays to allow control and display from a single device. The foundations of this system are divided into three technologies: 1) remote display, 2) customized input interface, and 3) application control. This modular approach provides a highly flexible and extendible system capable of remotely controlling several Microsoft Windows based applications, hosted across several processors, without requiring any modifications to those applications.
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