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Viewing 1 to 28 of 28
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0545
X. M. Chen, M. F. Shi, K. Watanabe, Y. Hayashida, Y. Omiya
Tubular hydroforming is being used extensively for manufacturing various automotive structural parts due to its weight reduction and cost saving potentials. The use of a thin wall advanced high strength steel (AHSS) tube offers great potential to further expand hydroforming applications to upper body components. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations are conducted on a free expansion hydroforming case using various AHSS thin wall tubes. The results are also compared with tubes made from conventional steels and different tubing processes. The appropriate use of the forming limit in hydroforming is also discussed. In numerical study, a new simulation method is developed and validated to handle tube material properties input. Good correlations to the experimental data have been obtained. The new method only requires the flat sheet stress–strain curves as the basic material property. Tube and weld properties are modeled as a pre-strained tubular blank.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0349
Jin Wu, Dajun Zhou, Li Zhang, YongJun Zhou, Chang Q. Du, Ming F. Shi
Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0573
Tau Tyan, Yu-Kan Hu, Dana Sun, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Guofei Chen, Ming Shi
Abstract Motivated by a combination of increasing consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles, more stringent greenhouse gas, and anticipated future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automotive manufacturers are working to innovate in all areas of vehicle design to improve fuel efficiency. In addition to improving aerodynamics, enhancing internal combustion engines and transmission technologies, and developing alternative fuel vehicles, reducing vehicle weight by using lighter materials and/or higher strength materials has been identified as one of the strategies in future vehicle development. Weight reduction in vehicle components, subsystems and systems not only reduces the energy needed to overcome inertia forces but also triggers additional mass reduction elsewhere and enables mass reduction in full vehicle levels.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0044
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1214
Murali D. Tumuluru
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are a class of steels that have a minimum tensile strength of 500 MPa. The advantages of AHSS include superior formability and better crash energy absorption compared with conventional low-strength steels having a minimum tensile strength of 270 MPa. Several steels with a minimum tensile strength of 590 MPa have already found use in current vehicles, and others with minimum tensile strength up to 980 MPa have been qualified for use in future vehicle models. Two 780 MPa steels of interest are 780 DP (Dual Phase) and 780 TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity). In this study, an examination was undertaken to compare the resistance spot-welding behavior of commercially produced 1.6 mm-thick, hot-dipped galvannealed, 780 MPa DP and TRIP steel sheet. Included in the study were evaluations of the weld lobes, weld microhardness, and the shear- and cross-tension strengths of resistance spot welds for the two steels.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1588
Guofei Chen, Aleksy A. Konieczny
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are replacing conventional high strength low-alloyed steels (HSLA) in crash sensitive body in white (BIW) applications. Along with innovative product design, they offer superior crash energy management and vehicle weight reduction potential. However, Controlling springback and dimensional accuracy is one of the major concerns in manufacturing AHSS parts. One of the most effective springback control techniques is to design a part with added geometric features such as side stiffening beads, state beads, top hat beads, and embossments, etc. at the product design stage. On the other hand, product design communities tend to believe that the above listed features may result in premature crash initiation in the part. This paper uses an innovative and experimentally verified finite element method (FEM) for crash sensitive component design and optimization.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0340
A. Konieczny, T. Henderson
The use of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase (DP), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) and stretch flanging (SF) steels of the tensile strength of 600 MPa range are well established in automotive components production. This is due to their superior crash energy absorption ability and vehicle weight reduction potential. Recent trends show rapid growth in applications of even higher strength grades such as 800 MPa and 1000 MPa tensile strength and above. They are mostly used for fabrication of crash sensitive components to meet much higher safety requirements in side impact and roll-over accidents. One of the few concerns during the fabrication of AHSS components is the formability limit in flanging and hole expansion operations. Questions have been raised about the applicability of existing manufacturing experience with conventional high strength low alloy steels (HSLA) to new generations of AHSS.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1514
Paul M. McKune
The primary goal of closure design is to achieve a functional, lightweight assembly, while also meeting stiffness, crash, and dent resistance targets. Typical automotive closure assemblies, such as liftgates, decklids, hoods, and doors, usually consist of an inner panel, outer panel, and miscellaneous reinforcements. There are also many attachment methods used; hem flange, spot-weld, laser weld, adhesive, hinges, latches, struts, and bolts. This paper investigates the weight reduction benefits gained from utilizing structural foam to increase stiffness performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to baseline and redesigned versions of a liftgate, door, and decklid assembly to measure the stiffness performance with structural foam application. Performance is measured in terms of maximum displacement and Von Mises stresses incurred from several loading conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0830
A. Konieczny, X. M. Chen, D. A. Witmer, M. F. Shi, Y. Hayashida, Y. Omiya
The tubular hydroforming process has been used to reduce the weight of body-in-white (BIW) components by consolidating parts and eliminating weld flanges. Electric resistance welding (ERW) is the primary joining method for hydroformed tubes made of mild steels and some conventional high strength steels. Due to recently introduced Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), such as dual phase and TRIP steels, laser welded (LW) tubes have also been considered for hydroforming applications, particularly for thin-wall, large-diameter tubes. In this study, LW and ERW tubes are evaluated in a free-expansion hydroforming process using various strength steels including AHSS. The LW tubes made from both DP590 and TRIP590 steels were successfully hydroformed to a 64% expansion ratio(the maximum for the die cavity), an improved performance over the ERW TRIP590 tubes. The ERW tubes made from C-Mn440 and lower strength grades were also free-expansion hydroformed successfully to the maximum die cavity.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0354
X. M. Chen, M. F. Shi, G. Chen, M. Kamura, K. Watanabe, Y. Omiya
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, have been increasingly used in automotive industry. One of the major advantages of AHSS is the excellent crash energy absorption capability. In this study, crash performances were evaluated for four AHSS including DP980, DP780, TRIP780 (780T), and TRIP590 (590T). Axial crush and bending crush tests were performed to evaluate the material crush performance. High strain rate tension test results for those materials were also presented. FEA analyses with parameter sensitivity studies were conducted including strain rate sensitivity effect, part geometry effects, welding models and forming effects. Good correlations between simulation and experimental data were achieved.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0355
Guofei Chen, Xiao Ming Chen, Ming F. Shi, Wayne Li, Tau Tyan
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0093
Kuo-Kuang Chen, Joe Jiyu Chen, Xiao Ming Chen
Corner fill is a simple benchmark conceived to gain knowledge of tube hydroforming. In corner fill of tube hydroforming, an originally long round tube is positioned in a cylindrical die with square cross-section and expands under applied internal pressure to fill the corners of the die. In order to ensure burst of the tubes, the cross-sectional dimension of the square die is chosen to be greater than the outer diameter of the tube. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element model has been developed to study the tube behaviors under applied internal pressure. This model treats the corner fill process more realistically than shell elements models because thickness stress and distortions of a normal segment through the thickness of the tube can be simulated [Chen, 2004]. The calculated results of stress and strain and the change of tube geometry as functions of pressure are presented.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0083
Z. Cedric Xia, Craig E. Miller, Maurice Lou, Ming F. Shi, A. Konieczny, X. M. Chen, Thomas Gnaeupel-Herold
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0836
Todd M. Link, Jeff S. Grimm
Axial drop tower crash tests were carried out on a variety of 70-mm outer-diameter continuous-welded cylindrical steel tubes with several thicknesses (t). Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) ranged from less than 300 MPa for a fully stabilized steel to greater than 800 MPa for the advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the tests, a 520-kg weight is dropped from a height of 3.3 meters to achieve impact velocities of 6.1 to 6.7 m/s (14 to 15 mph). Load and acceleration data are recorded as a function of time as the tube is crushed axially. The results show that, for a given impact condition, the peak and average crush loads of a steel tube is directly proportional to UTS × t2, while axial crush distance is inversely proportional to UTS × t2. As such, crash deformation can be reduced by substituting higher strength steels of the same thickness, or existing crash deformation can be maintained and weight reduction achieved by substituting higher strength steels with reduced thickness.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0832
Hua-Chu Shih, Curt D. Horvath
In the first part of this paper, a previously published acceleration compensation methodology for dynamic dent testing [1] was successfully applied to calculate dent loads and applied energy in dynamic dent testing. This procedure was validated utilizing a hydraulic controlled dynamic dent tester on a number of low carbon and bake hardenable steels. In the second part of this study, the impact of strain rate on material bending and hardening in high-speed dynamic dent resistance testing was studied. Previous work [2] investigated these factors in static dent resistance. The procedure utilized in that research was further developed and adapted for high speed testing and used as a basis for a new, single loading incremental dynamic dent test. This new test was used to investigate the effects of material bending and hardening in high-speed dynamic dent resistance. Testing incorporated laboratory produced stretch dome panels with 2% biaxial strains as test specimens.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2885
J.P. McGuire
In the past ten year period, due primarily to government mandates for fuel economy improvement, alternate materials have replaced steel on many closure applications at American OEMs (hoods, decklids, and liftgates). But due to recent cost reduction initiatives set by automakers and the advent of newly developed high strength steels, this trend has been challenged by lighter weight, less costly steel alternatives, with near equal or superior performance. This paper, through case studies undertaken at several North American OEM facilities, examines the cost differential, material property options, manufacturing differences, and performance characteristics between the application of aluminum and steel for common hood, lift gate, and deck lid assemblies for both current and future production parts.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1125
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using dual phase steels for components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections of the components need to be optimized. In this study, Altair HyperMorph™ and HyperStudy® optimization software were used in defining the shape design variables and the optimization problem setup, and non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA® software was used in crush simulations. Correlated crash simulation models were utilized and the square cross-section was selected as the baseline. The optimized cross-sections for bending and axial crush performance resulted in significant mass and cost savings, particularly with the application of dual phase steels.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0978
Guofei Chen, Ming F. Shi, Tau Tyan
Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1693
Ming F. Shi, Xiaoming Chen
More and more advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase steels and TRIP steels are implemented in automotive components due to their superior crash performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. Recent trends show increased applications of higher strength grades such as 780/800 MPa and 980/1000 MPa tensile strength for crash sensitive components to meet more stringent safety regulations in front crash, side impact and roll-over situations. Several issues related to AHSS stamping have been raised during implementation such as springback, stretch bending fracture with a small radius to thickness ratio, edge cracking, etc. It has been shown that the failure strains in the stretch bending fracture and edge cracking can be significantly lower than the predicted forming limits, and no failure criteria are currently available to predict these failures.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1172
Danielle Zeng, Z. Cedric Xia, Hua-Chu Shih, Ming F. Shi
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0981
Xiaoming Chen, Ming F. Shi, Xinghai Zhu, Changqing Du, Z. Cedric Xie, Siguang Xu, Chuan-Tao Wang
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0794
James Dykeman, Dave Hoydick, Todd Link, Haruo Mitsuji
As a result of the increasing usage of high strength steels in automotive body structures, a number of formability issues, particularly bend and edge stretch failures, have come to the forefront of attention of both automotive OEMs and steel makers. This investigation reviews these stamping problems and attempts to identify how certain material properties and microstructural features relate to forming behavior. Various types of dual phase steels were evaluated in terms of tensile, bending, hole expansion, limiting dome height, and impact properties. In addition, the key microstructural differences of each grade were characterized. In order to understand the material behavior under practical conditions, stamping trials were conducted using actual part shapes. It was concluded that material properties can be optimized to maximize local formability in stamping applications. The results also emphasize that the dual phase classification can encompass a broad range of property variations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0389
Mingchao Guo, Ramchandra Bhandarkar, Weidong Zhang, Guofei Chen, Zhenke Teng
Abstract This paper describes static and fatigue behavior of resistance spot welds with the stack-up of conventional mild and advanced high strength steels, with and without adhesive, based on a set of lap shear and coach peel coupon tests. The coupons were fabricated following specified spot welding and adhesive schedules. The effects of similar and dissimilar steel grade sheet combinations in the joint configuration have been taken into account. Tensile strength of the steels used for the coupons, both as-received and after baked, and cross-section microstructure photographs are included. The spot weld SN relations between this study and the study by Auto/Steel Partnership are compared and discussed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0499
Hua-Chu Shih
Low carbon steels are being replaced by advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to high demand of the future lighter weight vehicle, while still maintaining good or even better crash performance. However, sidewall curl and springback (section opening) have been found to increase as the strength of the sheet metal increases. Experiments have been conducted on the bending under tension (BUT) test to seek an effective control methodology regarding the applications of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in this study. Steels that were studied included a low carbon steel (DQSK), two dual phase steels (DP) and a transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Two different gauges of each AHSS were also included for a gauge sensitivity study. Different processing variables (four different diameter pins combining with five different back tension forces) were applied to the tests, and the springback angle and sidewall curl were measured for bend and bend-unbend areas of the specimen.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1048
X. M. Chen, D. A. Witmer, M. Kamura, Y. Omiya
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, have been used successfully for making light weight vehicles and their usage is growing. Now, the automotive industry is expanding the use of AHSS to higher strength levels for further mass reduction. In a 2003 SAE paper, the material and formability characteristics for such steels were presented for steel grades of DP980, high yield type DP780 (780YM), low yield type DP780 (780YL), TRIP780, and TRIP590. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the formability of these high strength steels using a T-channel, which incorporates several different forming modes in automotive stamping. The feasibility of computer simulation technology for the formability analyses of AHSS is also addressed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0351
Guofei Chen, Mingchao Guo
Abstract Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been extensively used in the automotive industry for vehicle weight reduction. Although AHSS show better parent metal fatigue performance, the influence of material strength on spot weld fatigue is insignificant. To overcome this drawback, structural adhesive can been used along with spot weld to form weld-bond joints. These joints significantly improve spot weld fatigue performance and provide high joint stiffness enabling down-gauge of AHSS structures. However, modeling the adhesive joints using finite element methods is a challenge due to the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this study, the formulation of cohesive element based on the traction-separation constitutive law was applied to predict the initiation and propagation of the failure mode in the adhesively bonded joints for lap shear and coach peel specimens subjected to quasi-static loadings.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0690
X. M. Chen, P. M. McKune, D. G. Prince
A typical forming operation of chassis components (control arms, cross members, etc.) often involves edge stretching and/or hole expansion. As a result, the edge split is a common forming failure mode. To overcome this problem, Japanese and European automakers use stretch flange high strength (SFHS) steel due to its high strength and excellent edge stretch capability. Recently, SFHS steel has gained greater attention in North America and is currently being used for upper and lower control arm applications. This paper includes a discussion on general edge stretch issues in forming operations, including material data that demonstrate the higher stretch limit of SFHS steel as compared to other high strength steels. In a case study, SFHS steel is applied to a control arm and finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted to evaluate forming and structural performance.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0521
Aleksy A. Konieczny
The issue of cost and weight reduction at optimum car crash safety is a driving force behind the growing use of advanced high strength steels, particularly in Europe and Japan. Recent developments in the availability of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in North America; in particular transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, offer an attractive option to the automotive designer for weight reduction and improved safety performance. For example, the use of TRIP steels, as opposed to more conventional steel products such as high strength low alloy (HSLA), in some applications may result in up to 40% part weight reduction at similar vehicle crash performance. When the excellent formability of TRIP steel is considered at product design stage, it may also lead to reducing part count and tooling cost. In this paper the formability of TRIP steels of various gauges is assessed. Experimental forming limit curves (FLCs) are determined for T600 grade.
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