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Viewing 1 to 30 of 42
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1921
M. F. Rosati, P. G. Aleiferis
Hydrogen has been largely proposed as a possible alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Its wide flammability range allows higher engine efficiency with leaner operation than conventional fuels, for both reduced toxic emissions and no CO2 gases. Independently, Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) also allows higher thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption with reduced NOX emissions when compared to Spark-Ignition (SI) engine operation. For HCCI combustion, a mixture of air and fuel is supplied to the cylinder and autoignition occurs from compression; engine is operated throttle-less and load is controlled by the quality of the mixture, avoiding the large fluid-dynamic losses in the intake manifold of SI engines. HCCI can be induced and controlled by varying the mixture temperature, either by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) or intake air pre-heating.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1924
Andreas Birgel, Nicos Ladommatos, Pavlos Aleiferis, Nebojsa Milovanovic, Paul Lacey, Paul Richards
Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in an increasingly severe operating environment for diesel fuel injection systems. The formation of deposits within the holes or on the outside of the injector nozzle can affect the overall system performance. The rate of deposit formation is affected by a number of parameters, including operating conditions and fuel composition. For the work reported here an accelerated test procedure was developed to evaluate the relative importance of some of these parameters in a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The resulting methodology produced measurable deposits in a custom-made injector nozzle on a single-cylinder engine. The results indicate that fuels containing 30%v/v and 100% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) that does not meet EN 14214 produced more deposit than an EN590 petroleum diesel fuel.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1922
P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos, R. Allan, M. Payne, J. Rogerson
Diesel fuels usually comprise a wide range of compounds having different molecular structures which can affect both the fuel's physical properties and combustion characteristics. In future, as synthetic fuels from fossil and sustainable sources become increasingly available, it could be possible to control the fuel's molecular structure to achieve clean and efficient combustion. This paper presents experimental results of combustion and emissions studies undertaken on a single cylinder diesel engine supplied with 18 different fuels each comprising a single, acyclic, non-oxygenated hydrocarbon molecule. These molecules were chosen to highlight the effect of straight carbon chain length, degree of saturation and the addition of methyl groups as branches to a straight carbon chain.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1836
Priyesh Patel, Ramanarayanan Balachandran, Nicos Ladommatos, Paul Richards
The fuel economy and emissions performance of a Diesel engine is strongly influenced by the fuel injection process. This paper presents early results of an experimental investigation into diesel spray development carried out in a novel in-house developed optical pressure chamber capable of operating at pressure up to 50 bar and temperatures up to 900 K. The spatial evolution of a diesel spray tends to experience many transitory macroscopic phenomena that directly influence the mixing process. These phenomena are not considered highly reproducible and are extremely short lived, hence recording and understanding these transient effects is difficult. In this study, high-speed backlight-illuminated imaging has been employed in order to capture the transient dynamics of a short signal duration diesel spray injected into incremental back pressures and temperatures reaching a maximum of 10 bar and 473 K respectively.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1149
Lei Zhou, Kai Hong Luo, Shi-jin Shuai, Ming Jia
Abstract Unlike RANS method, LES method needs more time and much more grids to accurately simulate the spray process. In KIVA, spray process was modeled by Lagrangain-drop and Eulerian-fluid method. The coarse grid can cause errors in predicting the droplet-gas relative velocity, so for reducing grid dependency due to the relative velocity effects, an improved spray model based on a gas-jet theory is used in this work and in order to validate the model seven different size grids were used. In this work, the local dense grid was used to reduce the computation cost and obtain accurate results that also were compared with entire dense grid. Another method to improve computation efficiency is the MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) differencing scheme that was implemented into KIVA3V-LES code to calculate the momentum convective term and reduce numerical errors.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2843
Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland, Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis
Abstract Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0400
Lei Zhou, Zhen Lu, Zhuyin Ren, Tianfeng Lu, K.H Luo
Abstract Detailed chemical kinetics is essential for accurate prediction of combustion performance as well as emissions in practical combustion engines. However, implementation of that is challenging. In this work, dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) is integrated into large eddy simulations (LES) of an n-heptane spray flame in a constant volume chamber (CVC) with realistic application conditions. DAC accelerates the time integration of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for chemical kinetics through the use of locally (spatially and temporally) valid skeletal mechanisms. Instantaneous flame structures and global combustion characteristics such as ignition delay time, flame lift-off length (LOL) and emissions are investigated to assess the effect of DAC on LES-DAC results. The study reveals that in LES-DAC simulations, the auto-ignition time and LOL obtain a well agreement with experiment data under different oxygen concentrations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2729
Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Headen, Stephen Bennington
Abstract Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2577
Arash Hamzehloo, Pavlos Aleiferis
Abstract International obligations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply, indicate a need to diversify towards the use of cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen has been recommended as an encouraging gaseous fuel for future road transportation since with reasonable modifications it can be burned in conventional internal combustion engines without producing carbon-based tailpipe emissions. Direct injection of hydrogen into the combustion chamber can be more preferable than port fuel injection since it offers advantages of higher volumetric efficiency and can eliminate abnormal combustion phenomena such as backfiring. The current work applied a fully implicit computational methodology along with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to study the mixture formation and combustion in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with hydrogen fuelling.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0415
Matthieu De Maillard, Mehrdad Zangeneh
Abstract In many automotive highway/off-highway engine cooling applications the fan has to provide a fairly large pressure rise and operate with a large gap between the tip of the blade and the shroud surface (tip clearance). This can pose difficult design challenges. This paper presents a design process coupling 3D inverse design with a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) for an axial cooling fan. The aim is to reduce the leakage loss and profile losses to improve performance. The inverse design method parameterizes the 3D shape of the axial fan with a reduced number of design parameters allowing a larger exploration of the design space in the optimization process. The methodology is applied to the design of a highway truck engine cooling fan with a tip gap of 8% of blade height.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2524
Arash Hamzehloo, Pavlos Aleiferis
Hydrogen has been largely proposed as a possible fuel for internal combustion engines. The main advantage of burning hydrogen is the absence of carbon-based tailpipe emissions. Hydrogen's wide flammability also offers the advantage of very lean combustion and higher engine efficiency than conventional carbon-based fuels. In order to avoid abnormal combustion modes like pre-ignition and backfiring, as well as air displacement from hydrogen's large injected volume per cycle, direct injection of hydrogen after intake valve closure is the preferred mixture preparation method for hydrogen engines. The current work focused on computational studies of hydrogen injection and mixture formation for direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Hydrogen conditions at the injector's nozzle exit are typically sonic.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972875
Bernadette Queenan, Chris Nightingale, John Bennett
An arrangement of port - injected, stratified-charge, 4 - valve SI engine is proposed, in which fuel is injected in a thin column from an injector which is angled so that the fuel is deflected by one of the inlet valves onto the combustion chamber surface, at a position close to the central spark plug. The injection takes place towards the end of the induction stroke, and the injector is mounted to the side of one of the intake ports. The second intake port is deactivated at part load to establish an axial swirling motion to stabilise the fuel evaporating from the warm combustion chamber surface. Testing has been performed on a single - cylinder research engine to assess the extent of the stratification by measuring pre - flame hydrocarbon concentrations at various positions around the combustion chamber.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960587
T. G. Baker, C. J. E. Nightingale
This paper describes how the use of a computer model, followed by rig and engine testing, were employed to investigate the application of port throttles to a 4-valve SI engine. The results suggested that the throttling should be split between port and plenum throttles as this gave a faster bum rate than port throttling alone. It was argued that port throttling is most applicable to controlling the level of charge dilution on high-performance engines with large valve overlap periods. Port de-activation was also investigated, first separately, and then in combination with port throttles. Alone it increased the tolerance of the engine to EGR very significantly, and in combination it had the ability both to increase the EGR tolerance and to allow the use of a high-overlap camshaft.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961149
D. Salters, P. Williams, A. Greig, D. Brehob
A test facility was constructed at University College London to study fuel spray structure within a gasoline direct injection engine. The facility consisted of a single cylinder research engine with extensive optical access and a novel video imaging and analysis system. The engine used an experimental prototype 4-valve cylinder head with direct in-cylinder high pressure fuel injection, provided by a major automotive manufacturer. The fuel spray was illuminated using a pulsed copper-vapour laser. Results are presented that illustrate the spray behaviour within the fired research engine. A laser light sheet provided an insight into the inner spray cone behaviour.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961119
S. D. Jackson, P. A. Williams, T. Ma
An air-assisted fuel vaporiser (AAFV), designed to replace the conventional fuelling system has been tested on a 3.0-litre development engine under simulated cold-Start conditions. Providing the cold engine with pre-vaporised fuel removed the need for an enriched mixture during start-up. Comparisons between the AAFV and standard fuelling systems were performed. Engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emissions were measured during cold-start and the ensuing two minutes. Fuel spray characterisation was also conducted using a steady flow test rig designed to mimic inlet port conditions of air flow and manifold pressure over a wide range of engine operation.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982700
Paul A. Williams, Martin H. Davy, Diana D. Brehob
A study to investigate the influence of fuel injection timing on exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) research engine was performed. Experimental results were obtained for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Images showing the variation of liquid-phase fuel distribution with changing injection timing were obtained in a firing optically-accessed engine of similar design. A correlation between measured emissions and observed liquid-phase fuel distribution was performed. This correlation was supported by development of phenomenological models that permit explanation of the variation of CO, HC, and NOx emissions with changes in air-fuel mixture preparation.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982699
Martin H. Davy, Paul A. Williams, Richard W. Anderson
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on the spatial and temporal development of injected fuel sprays within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. It was found that the structure of the injected fuel sprays varied significantly with the timing of the injection event. During the induction stroke and the early part of the compression stroke, the development of the injected fuel sprays was shown to be controlled by the state of the intake and intake-generated gas flows at the start of injection (SOI).The relative influence of these two flow regimes on the injected fuel sprays during this period was also observed to change with injection timing, directly affecting tip penetration, spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. Later in the compression stroke, the results show the development of the injected fuel sprays to be dominated by the increased cylinder pressure at SOI.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1260
J. W. G. Turner, G. Pitcher, P. Burke, C. P. Garner, G. Wigley, P. Stansfield, H. Nuglisch, N. Ladommatos, R. Patel, P. Williams
There is a great deal of interest in new technologies to assist in reducing the CO2 output of passenger vehicles, as part of the drive to meet the limits agreed by the EU and the European Automobile Manufacturer's Association ACEA, itself a result of the Kyoto Protocol. For the internal combustion engine, the most promising of these include gasoline direct injection, downsizing and fully variable valve trains. While new types of spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) combustion systems are finally set to yield the level of fuel consumption improvement which was originally promised for the so-called ‘first generation’ wall- and air-guided types of GDI, injectors for spray-guided combustion systems are not yet in production to help justify the added complication and cost of the NOx trap necessary with a stratified combustion concept.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1606
M. Franchetta, T. G. Bancroft, K. O. Suen
Underhood thermal management is an important area in new vehicle design, consuming substantial engineering resources and requiring extensive access to costly prototype vehicles throughout a development programme. Simulation-based design methods and computational tools have been validated for steady-state investigations of forced flows within engine bays. However, transient analyses with a long timescale, such as the simulation of natural convective flow under the hood during heat soak, are still unfeasible due to the high computing requirements. The present paper intends to define a reliable computation procedure that will enable time-marching Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations to be performed with significantly reduced CPU time usage. The performance of the proposed methodology was evaluated through model comparison with a fully transient CFD solution.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3343
Paul W. Loustalan, Paul A. Williams, Martin H. Davy
The effects of impinging airflow on the near nozzle characteristics of an inwardly opening, high pressure-swirl atomiser are investigated in an optically-accessed, steady-state flow rig designed to emulate the intake flow of a typical, side-injected, 4-valve gasoline direct-injection combustion system. The results indicate that the impinging airflow has a relatively minor effect on the initial break-up of the fuel spray. However, the secondary break-up of the spray, i.e. the break-up of liquid ligaments, the spatial distribution of droplets within the spray and the location of the spray within the cylinder are significantly affected by the impinging air.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3102
Paul W. Loustalan, Martin H. Davy, Paul A. Williams
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the liquid sheet break-up mechanisms of high-pressure swirl atomizers of the type commonly used in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. Sheet disintegration was investigated at two fuel pressures: 5 and 10 MPa, and three ambient back pressures: 50, 100 (atmospheric) and 200 kPa for a pre-production DISI injector. Microscopic images of the near-nozzle spray region were obtained with a high-speed rotating drum camera and copper vapour laser. For the range of conditions considered, the results show the initial break-up to occur in ‘perforated-sheet’ mode. A novel ‘void fraction’ analysis technique was applied to multiple images from the steady-state period of a single injection event in order to characterise and quantify details of the sheet break-up process. The sheet break-up lengths obtained by the authors were compared with the break-up lengths predicted by three commonly employed models from the literature.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3100
Edwin Y. L. Yeoh, Martin H. Davy
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of droplet size distribution on fuel transport and air-fuel mixing in a gasoline direct-injection (GD-I) engine. The engine grid was generated using the K3PREP grid generator and the simulations were carried out using the KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Three size distribution functions were considered, namely the Chi-squared (χ2) and two Rosin-Rammler functions with dispersion parameter, q of 3.5 and 7.5 (RRq=3.5 and RRq=7.5). A new subroutine, which arranges the fuel droplets into a spherical cloud of droplets, was developed to allow the in-cylinder placement of fuel droplets with different droplet size distribution. Two cases of intake valve timing were considered. Results of the simulation showed droplet size distribution to affect fuel dispersion under the influence of the in-cylinder gas flows.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1384
M. Franchetta, K. O. Suen, P. A. Williams, T. G. Bancroft
Underhood simulations are proving to be crucially important in a vehicle development program, reducing test work and time-to-market. While Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for steady forced flows have demonstrated reliable, studies of transient natural convective flows in engine compartments under heat-soak (key-off condition with engine and turbocharger emitting high heat flux) are not yet carried out due high computing demands and lack of validated work. The present work aims to computationally characterize the thermally-driven flow in a simplified half-scaled underhood compartment and to experimentally determine the validity of the CFD approach. The commercial software VECTIS was employed for the numerical simulations. Surface temperatures of components as well as the spatial distribution of the air temperature were measured under both steady state and transient (cooling) condition.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1626
Rishin Patel, Nicos Ladommatos, Philip A. Stansfield, Graham Wigley, Colin P. Garner, Graham Pitcher, James W. G. Turner, Hans Nuglisch
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1591
J. Serras-Pereira, P. G. Aleiferis, D. Richardson, S. Wallace
Recent pressures on vehicle manufacturers to reduce their average fleet levels of CO2 emissions have resulted in an increased drive to improve fuel economy and enable use of fuels developed from renewable sources that can achieve a net reduction in the CO2 output of each vehicle. The most popular choice for spark-ignition engines has been the blending of ethanol with gasoline, where the ethanol is derived either from agricultural or cellulosic sources such as sugar cane, corn or decomposed plant matter. However, other fuels, such as butanol, have also arisen as potential candidates due to their similarities to gasoline, e.g. higher energy density than ethanol. To extract the maximum benefits from these new fuels through optimized engine design and calibration, an understanding of the behaviour of these fuels in modern engines is necessary.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1578
Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos, Robert Allan, John Williams, John Rogerson
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which can be used as a direct replacement for fossil Diesel fuel as a calorific source in Diesel Engines. It consists of fatty acid mono-alkyl esters, which are produced by the trans-esterification reaction of plant oils with monohydric alcohols. The Plant oils and alcohols can both be derived from biomass, giving this fuel the potential for a sustainable carbon dioxide neutral life-cycle, which is an important quality with regard to avoiding the net emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Depending on its fatty ester composition, Biodiesel can have varying physical and chemical properties which influence its combustion behaviour in a Diesel engine. It has been observed by many researchers that Biodiesel can sometimes lead to an increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared to fossil Diesel fuel, while emitting a lower amount of particulate mass.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4032
Z. van Romunde, P.G. Aleiferis, R.F. Cracknell, H.L. Walmsley
Extensive literature exists on spray development, mixing and combustion regarding engine modeling and diagnostics using single-component and model fuels. However, often the variation in data between different fuels, particularly relating to spray development and its effect on combustion, is neglected or overlooked. By injecting into a quiescent chamber, this work quantifies the differences in spray development from a multi-hole direct-injection spark-ignition engine injector for two single-component fuels (iso-octane and n-pentane), a non-fluorescing multi-component model fuel which may be used for in-cylinder Laser Induced Fluorescence experiments, and several grades of pump gasoline (with and without additives). High-speed recordings of the sprays were made for a range of fuel temperatures and gas pressures. It is shown that a fuel temperature above that of the lowest boiling point fraction of the tested fuel at the given gas pressure causes a convergence of the spray plumes.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0125
Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos, John Williams, Robert Allan, John Rogerson
Synthetic bio-fuels, which can be obtained through the gasification of biomass into synthesis gas and the subsequent catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas into liquid fuel molecules, could play a key-role in providing a sustainable source of automotive fuels during the coming decades. This paper presents an attempt to understand the effect of molecular structure of potential oxygenated synthetic bio-fuel molecules of different structure on the diesel combustion process in both stratified and homogeneous combustion modes. Specifically, the effects of molecular structure on the energy release rates, gaseous exhaust emissions and the sub-micron particulate matter distribution were examined. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using a specially adapted common-rail fuel-system which allowed the injection of small single-molecule fuel samples at high pressure.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2383
A. Birgel, N. Ladommatos, P. Aleiferis, S. Zülch, N. Milovanovic, V. Lafon, A. Orlovic, P. Lacey, Paul Richards
Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in increasingly severe operating environment for the injection system. Formation of deposits within the holes of the injector nozzle or on the outside of the injector tip may have an adverse effect on overall system performance. This paper provides a critical review of the current understanding of the main factors affecting deposit formation. Two main types of engine test cycles, which attempt to simulate field conditions, are described in the literature. The first type involves cycling between high and low load. The second involves steady state operation at constant speed either at medium or high load. A number of influences on the creation of deposits are identified. This includes fouling through thermal condensation and cracking reactions at nozzle temperatures of around 300°C. Also the design of the injector holes is an influence, because it can influence cavitation.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1414
Philip A. Stansfield, Graham Wigley, Colin P. Garner, Rishin Patel, Nicos Ladommatos, Graham Pitcher, Jamie W. G. Turner, Hans Nuglisch, Jerome Helie
The effect on the intake flow field, air fuel mixing processes, thermodynamic performance and emissions output has been investigated for a range of valve operating profiles. A standard speed load point of 2000 rpm and 2.7 bar IMEP720° has been reached by throttling the intake whilst running standard cam profiles, by early closing of both inlet valves (EIVC) and by early closing of each inlet individually to generate bulk swirl motions within the cylinder. Data has been recorded at stoichiometric air fuel ratios for both direct injection and port fuelled operation. The valve profiles have been applied to two single cylinder homogeneous gasoline direct injection (GDI) spark ignition engines, developed to investigate the potential of controlling engine load by limiting the inducted air mass using fully variable valve timing (FVVT) to reduce pumping losses at part load.
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