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Viewing 1 to 30 of 36
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1783
Ali Aldawood, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amer A. Amer
A multi-objective optimization scheme based on stochastic global search is developed and used to examine the performance of an HCCI model containing a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism, and to study interrelations among different model responses. A stochastic reactor model of an HCCI engine is used in this study, and dedicated HCCI engine experiments are performed to provide reference for the optimization. The results revealed conflicting trends among objectives normally used in mechanism optimization, such as ignition delay and engine cylinder pressure history, indicating that a single best combination of optimization variables for these objectives did not exist. This implies that optimizing chemical mechanisms to maintain universal predictivity across such conflicting responses will only yield a predictivity tradeoff. It also implies that careful selection of optimization objectives increases the likelihood of better predictivity for these objectives.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1219
Orian Welling, James Moss, John Williams, Nick Collings
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement). This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1213
Orian Welling, Nick Collings, John Williams, James Moss
Abstract One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of pre-ignitions at low engine speed. These pre-ignitions may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, pre-ignitions are thought to arise from local autoignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2698
Johannes Arning, Tashiv Ramsander, Nick Collings
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1673
Ali Aldawood, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amer Amer
Results from a large set of HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane are presented and discussed in this paper. The experiments are designed to scrutinize fuel reactivity effects on the operating range of an HCCI engine. The fuel effects on upper and lower operating limits are measured respectively by the maximum pressure rise rate inside the cylinder and the stability of engine operation as determined by cycle-to-cycle variations in IMEP. Another set of experiments that examine the intake air heating effects on HCCI engine performance, exhaust emissions and operating envelopes is also presented. The effects of fuel reactivity and intake air heating on the HCCI ranges are demonstrated by constructing the operating envelopes for the different test fuels and intake temperatures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0237
George Peter Edward Brownbridge, Andrew Smallbone, Weerapong Phadungsukanan, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Bengt Johansson
This paper describes the development of a novel data model for storing and sharing data obtained from engine experiments, it then outlines a methodology for automatic model development and applies it to a state-of-the-art engine combustion model (including chemical kinetics) to reduce corresponding model parameter uncertainties with respect engine experiments. These challenges are met by adopting the latest developments in the semantic web to create a shared data model resource for the IC engine development community. The relevant data can be extracted and then used to set-up simulations for parameter estimation by passing it to the relevant application models. A methodology for incorporating experimental and model uncertainties into the model optimization procedure is presented.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0896
Feilong Liu, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings, Ahmed Soliman
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1117
Ali Aldawood, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft
A dual-fuel approach to control combustion in HCCI engine is investigated in this work. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different ratios of primary reference fuels and operated at different speed and load conditions, and results from these experiments showed a clear potential for the approach to expand the HCCI engine operation window. Such potential is further demonstrated dynamically using an optimized stochastic reactor model integrated within a MATLAB code that simulates HCCI multi-cycle operation and closed-loop control of fuel ratio. The model, which utilizes a reduced PRF mechanism, was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm and then compared to a wide range of engine data.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922322
Neil W. H. Armstrong, Ken N. C. Bray
Abstract Flamelet modelling of premixed turbulent combustion can be applied to spark-ignition engine combustion. To address and validate several modelling criteria, two measurement techniques are used in a burner flame to study the interaction between turbulent flowfields and combustion for subsequent application to engine combustion. Particle Image Velocimetry and Light Sheet Tomography are used together to measure conditional velocities simultaneously in reactant and product mixtures. Correlations of velocity and reaction scalar fluctuations indicate that counter-gradient turbulent diffusion must be accounted for when modelling this flowfield. Comparisons of spatial averaging of instantaneous and ensemble-averaged data are made and the application of similar techniques to engine combustion is discussed.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1362
Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Fabian Mauss, J. Hunter Mack, Robert W. Dibble
We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3276
Stelios Karagiorgis, Nick Collings, Keith Glover, Neil Coghlan, Anthemios Petridis
This paper is concerned with the Residual Gas Fraction measurement and estimation on a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A novel in-cylinder gas sampling technique was employed to obtain cyclic dynamic measurements of CO2 concentration in the compression stroke and in combination with CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stroke, cyclic Residual Gas Fraction was measured. The measurements were compared to estimations from a physical, 4-cylinder, single-zone model of the HCCI cycle and good agreement was found in steady engine running conditions. Some form of oscillating behaviour that HCCI exhibits because of exhaust gas coupling was studied and the model was modified to simulate this behaviour.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3425
Feilong Liu, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, Nick Collings
The cylinder pressure signal, as an instantaneous and direct measure of the engine operation, contains valuable information for closed loop engine control and offers very useful engine monitoring and control capabilities. The estimation technique for cylinder pressure has been investigated for many years. Based on the Frequency Analysis Method, a synthetic estimation method is proposed in this paper to estimate pressure. Methods that are successful in obtaining a more accurate estimated cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angle are reported. Quantitative results obtained from application of the method are also given.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3373
Alex Darlington, Keith Glover, Nick Collings
Simple air-path models for modern (VGT/EGR equipped) diesel engines are in common use, and have been reported in the literature. This paper addresses some of the shortcomings of control-oriented models to allow better prediction of the cylinder charge properties. A fast response CO2 analyzer is used to validate the model by comparing the recorded and predicted CO2 concentrations in both the intake port and exhaust manifold of one of the cylinders. Data showing the recorded NOx emissions and exhaust gas opacity during a step change in engine load illustrate the spikes in both NOx and smoke seen during transient conditions. The predicted cylinder charge properties from the model are examined and compared with the measured NOx and opacity. Together, the emissions data and charge properties paint a consistent picture of the phenomena occurring during the transient. Alternative strategies for the fueling and cylinder charge during these load transients are investigated and discussed.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4058
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0021
Li Cao, Haiyun Su, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Amit Bhave, Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2439
S. Regitz, N. Collings
This paper describes cyclic Air/Fuel ratio (AFR) measurements carried out with a novel device (fUEGO) based on a production Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor, but modified to give an improved frequency response. The results are compared to AFR calculated from a fast CO/CO2 analyser and a fast response flame ionization detector (FID). The direct comparison of the two different methods for determining the cyclic AFR reveals that the electrochemical device is in reasonable agreement with the more complex carbon balance method and can provide reliable cyclic AFR measurements with a reduced requirement for equipment and data post processing. The fUEGO however is sensitive to elevated levels of uHC's (unburned hydrocarbons) during misfires or partial burns and readings during such situations usually show deviations compared to the carbon balance method.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2438
K. S. Kalsi, N. Collings, D. M. Heaton, S. A. Faulkner
It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-2020
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1102
Li Cao, Amit Bhave, Haiyun Su, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Antonis Dris, Robert M. McDavid
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0717
Y. M. Wright, K. Boulouchos, G. De Paola, E. Mastorakos
A multi-dimensional combustion code implementing the Conditional Moment Closure turbulent combustion model interfaced with a well-established RANS two-phase flow field solver has been employed to study a broad range of operating conditions for a heavy duty direct-injection common-rail Diesel engine. These conditions include different loads (25%, 50%, 75% and full load) and engine speeds (1250 and 1830 RPM) and, with respect to the fuel path, different injection timings and rail pressures. A total of nine cases have been simulated. Excellent agreement with experimental data has been found for the pressure traces and the heat release rates, without adjusting any model constants. The chemical mechanism used contains a detailed NOx sub-mechanism. The predicted emissions agree reasonably well with the experimental data considering the range of operating points and given no adjustments of any rate constants have been employed.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0130
Jonathan Etheridge, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Hao Wu, Nick Collings
A previously developed Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate combustion in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection Spark Ignition (SI) engine modified to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO). A portion of the fuel is injected during NVO to increase the cylinder temperature and enable HCCI combustion at a compression ratio of 12:1. The model is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for the open valve portion of the engine cycle. The SRM is used to model in-cylinder mixing, heat transfer and chemistry during the NVO and main combustion. Direct injection is simulated during NVO in order to predict heat release and internal Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) composition and mass. The NOx emissions and simulated pressure profiles match experimental data well, including the cyclic fluctuations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0588
Shiyou Yang, Hemanth Kolla, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan
Abstract This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1791
Adam Weall, Nick Collings
The objective of this study was to examine the operating characteristics of a light duty multi cylinder compression ignition engine with regular gasoline fuel at low engine speed and load. The effects of fuel stratification by means of multiple injections as well as the sensitivity of auto-ignition and burn rate to intake pressure and temperature are presented. The measurements used in this study included gaseous emissions, filter smoke opacity and in-cylinder indicated information. It was found that stable, low emission operation was possible with raised intake manifold pressure and temperature, and that fuel stratification can lead to an increase in stability and a reduced reliance on increased temperature and pressure. It was also found that the auto-ignition delay sensitivity of gasoline to intake temperature and pressure was low within the operating window considered in this study.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2009
Andrew P. E. York, Timothy C. Watling, Nicholas P. Ramskill, Lynn F. Gladden, Andrew J. Sederman, Athanasios Tsolakis, Jose M. Herreros, Isaline Lefort
In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0038
Golnoush Ghiasi, Irufan Ahmed, Yuri M. Wright, Jann Koch, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan
Abstract Engines with reduced emissions and improved efficiency are of high interest for road transport. However, achieving these two goals is challenging and various concepts such as PFI/DI/HCCI/PCCI are explored by engine manufacturers. The computational fluid dynamics is becoming an integral part of modern engine development programme because this method provides access to in-cylinder flow and thermo-chemical processes to develop a closer understanding to tailor tumble and swirling motions to construct green engines. The combustion modelling, its accuracy and robustness play a vital role in this. Out of many modelling methods proposed in the past flamelet based methods are quite attractive for SI engine application. In this study, FlaRe (Flamelets revised for physical consistencies) approach is used to simulate premixed combustion inside a gasoline PFI single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0097
Epaminondas Mastorakos, Patton Allison, Andrea Giusti, Pedro De Oliveira, Sotiris Benekos, Yuri Wright, Christos Frouzakis, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2402
Irufan Ahmed, Golnoush Ghiasi, A. Gnana Sagaya Raj, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan, Jann Koch, Karel Steurs, Yuri M. Wright
Abstract Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analysing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on the flow and combustion, which helps to find design improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various models used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion. In this study, a flamelet model with a physics based closure for the progress variable dissipation rate is applied for the first time to a spark ignited IC engine. The predictive capabilities of the proposed approach are studied for one operating condition of a gasoline port fuel injected single-cylinder, four-stroke spark ignited full-metal engine running at 3,500 RPM close to full load (10 bar BMEP) at stoichiometric conditions.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1145
B. R. Graskow, D. B. Kittelson, M. R. Ahmadi, J. E. Morris
Experiments were performed to measure the average and time-resolved particle number emissions and number-weighted particle size distributions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 13 - 90 km/hr. Particle number emissions were measured using a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus counter, and size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Average polydisperse number concentration was found to increase from 1.1 × 108 particles/cm3 at 13 km/hr to 2.8 × 108 particles/cm3 at 70 km/hr. Under a closed-loop, stoichiometric homogeneous charge operating mode at 90 km/hr, number emissions fell to 9.3 × 107 particles/cm3 (at all other operating conditions, the engine was in a lean stratified charge operating mode).
2000-06-19
Technical Paper
2000-01-2018
Brian R. Graskow, Majid R. Ahmadi, Jack E. Morris, David B. Kittelson
Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2870
George Kontarakis, Nick Collings, Tom Ma
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
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