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Viewing 1 to 27 of 27
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929099
Robert A. Morris, Randy B. Pollack, Daniel J. Carreira, Avelino J. Gonzalez, F. D. McKenzie, R. A. Fleeman, Anita Dhir
Abstract This paper describes a model-based approach to diagnosing electrical faults in electrical power systems. Until recently, model-based reasoning has only been applied to physical systems with static, persistent states, and with parts whose behavior can be expressed combinatorially, such as digital circuits. Our research is one of a handful of recent efforts to apply model-based reasoning to more complex systems, those whose behavior is difficult or impossible to express combinatorially, and whose states change continuously over time. The chosen approach to representation is loosely based on the idea of the equation network proposed in [6]. This requires a more complex component and behavior model than for simpler physical devices. The resulting system is being tested on fault data from the SSM/PMAD power system breadboard being developed at NASA-MSFC [9].
2014-02-26
Article
Researchers at the University of Central Florida have found that by incorporating analysis and monitoring algorithms such as Inductive Monitoring System, neural networks, and recent advances in deep learning within the architecture’s signal processing system engineers have a flexible and powerful end-to-end data analysis and monitoring system for instrumented remote aerospace hardware.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3182
Luis Rabelo, Mario Marin, Lisa Huddleston
Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2158
Anthony Camarano, Thomas Wu, Mitch Wolff, Jon Zumberge
Preliminary investigations of nonlinear modeling of aircraft synchronous generators using neural networks are presented. Aircraft synchronous generators with high power density tend operate at current-levels proportional to the magnetic saturation region of the machine's material. The nonlinear model accounts for magnetic saturation of the generator, which causes the winding flux linkages and inductances to vary as a function of current. Finite element method software is used to perform a parametric sweep of direct, quadrature, and field currents to extract the respective flux linkages. This data is used to train a neural network which yields current as a function of flux linkage. The neural network is implemented in a Simulink synchronous generator model and simulation results are compared with a previously developed linear model. Results show that the nonlinear neural network model can more accurately describe the responsiveness and performance of the synchronous generator.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2388
Luis Rabelo, Tom Clark
Abstract Although a multitude of anomaly detection and fault isolation programs can be found in the research, there does not appear to be any work published on architectural templates that could take advantage of multiple programs and integrate them into the desired systems. More specifically, there is an absence of a methodological process for generating anomaly detection and fault isolation designs to either embed within new system concepts, or supplement existing schemes. This paper introduces a new approach based on systems engineering and the System Modeling Language (SysML). Preliminary concepts of the proposed approach are explained. In addition, a case study is also mentioned.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2397
Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
Abstract In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2263
Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Enrico Cestino, Aman Behal
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2090
Edwin A. Cortes, Luis Rabelo
Complex aerospace engineering systems require innovative methods for performance monitoring and anomaly detection. The interface of a real-time data stream to a system for analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection can require distributed system architectures and sophisticated custom programming. This paper presents a case study of a simplified interface between Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) real-time data output, signal processing, cloud computing, and tablet systems. The discussed approach consists of three parts: First, the connectivity of real-time data from PLCs to the signal processing algorithms, using standard communication technologies. Second, the interface of legacy routines, such as NASA's Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), with a hybrid signal processing system. Third, the connectivity and interaction of the signal processing system with a wireless and distributed tablet, (iPhone/iPad) in a hybrid system configuration using cloud computing.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2082
Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
The term “productivity” all too often has becomes a buzz-word, ultimately diminishing its perceived importance. However, productivity is the major concern of any team, and therefore must be defined to gain an appropriate understanding of how a system is actually working. Here, productivity means the level of contribution to the throughput of a system such as defined in the Theory of Constraints. In the field of space exploration, the throughput is the number of milestones of the mission accomplished as well as the potential survival during extreme events (due to failures or other unplanned events). For a time tasks were accomplished by expert individuals (e.g., an astronaut), but recently team structures have become the norm. It is clear that with increased mission complexity, “no single entity can have complete knowledge of or the abilities to handle all matters” [10].
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2506
Luis Rabelo, Mario Marin, Paul Fishwick PhD, Zach Ezzell
In this paper, we introduce the use of ontologies to implement the information developed and organized by resource planning tools into standard project management documents covering integrated cost, resource modeling and analysis, and visualization. The basic upper ontology used for NASA Space Operations is explained and the results obtained are discussed. This ontology-centered approach is looking for tighter connections between software, hardware, and systems engineering.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2643
Luis Rabelo, Jorge Bardina, Yanshen Zhu, Jeppie Compton
This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV - April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2585
Jason P. Kring, Haydee M. Cuevas, Sara Goudarzi
Social stressors in long-duration spaceflight (LDSF) have serious implications for crew effectiveness and mission safety. This paper reviews potential stressors and presents habitat and organizational design considerations to reduce perceived demand from social stressors in four areas: privacy and personal space, isolation, interpersonal interactions, and cultural differences. Results can serve as guidelines for the design of future LDSF missions and spacecraft, and will benefit attempts to develop an accurate model of stress in the spaceflight domain.
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3094
Luis Rabelo, Jose Sepulveda, Mario Marin, Jaebok Park
This paper describes the development of a distributed environment for spaceport simulation modeling. This distributed environment is the result of the applications of the High-Level Architecture (HLA) and integration frameworks based on software agents and XML. This distributed environment is called the Virtual Test Bed (VTB). A distributed environment is needed due to the nature of the different models needed to represent a spaceport. This paper provides two case studies: one related to the translation of a model from its native environment and the other one related to the integration of real-time weather.
2004-11-02
Technical Paper
2004-01-3095
José Sepúlveda, Luis Rabelo, Jeppie Compton
This paper features a distributed environment and the steps taken to incorporate the Virtual Range model into the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) infrastructure. The VTB is a prototype of a virtual engineering environment to study operations of current and future space vehicles, spaceports, and ranges. The High-Level Architecture (HLA) is the main environment. The VTB/HLA implementation described here represents different systems that interact in the simulation of a Space Shuttle liftoff. An example implementation displays the collaboration of a simplified version of the Space Shuttle Simulation Model and a simulation of the Launch Scrub Evaluation Model.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling applications using forced air produced by axial fans, the main objective in fan design is to generate high static pressure head, high volumetric flow rate, and high efficiency over a wide operating range of rotational speed (1x∼3x) and ambient pressure (0.2∼1 atm). In this paper, a fan design based on a fan diameter of 86 mm, fan depth (thickness) of 25.4 mm, and hub diameter of 48 mm is presented. The blade setting angle and the chord lengths at the leading and trailing edges are varied in their suitable ranges to determine the optimal blade profiles. The fan static pressure head, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity are calculated at various ambient pressures and rotational speeds. The optimal blade design in terms of maximum total-to-total pressure ratio and efficiency at the design point is obtained via CFD simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1997
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract The aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure caused by overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to access the failure probability of EMA fans with the goal of improving their mean time to failure (MTTF) from ∼O(5×104) to ∼ O(2.5×109) hours without incurring heavy weight penalty and high cost. The dual-winding and dual-bearing approaches are analyzed and a contra rotating dual-fan design is proposed. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. To have a full understanding of fan reliability, all possible failure mechanisms and failure modes are taken into account.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2219
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis C. Chow, Quinn Leland
Abstract The scaling laws of fans express basic relationships among the variables of fan static pressure head, volume flow rate, air density, rotational speed, fan diameter, and power. These relationships make it possible to compare the performance of geometrically similar fans in dissimilar conditions. The fan laws were derived from dimensionless analysis of the equations for volumetric flow rate, static pressure head, and power as a function of fan diameter, air density and rotational speed. The purpose of this study is to characterize a fan's performance characteristics at various rotational speeds and ambient pressures. The experimental results are compared to the fan scaling laws.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2160
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow
Abstract In this paper, we address the thermal management issues which limit the lifespan, specific power and overall efficiency of an air-cooled rotary Wankel engine used in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). Our goal is to eliminate the hot spots and reduce the temperature gradients in the engine housing and side plates by aggressive heat spreading using heat pipes. We demonstrate by simulation that, for a specific power requirement, with heat spreading and more effective heat dissipation, thermal stress and distortion can be significantly reduced, even with air cooling. The maximum temperature drop was substantial, from 231°C to 129°C. The temperature difference (measure of temperature uniformity) decreased by 8.8 times (from 159°C to 18°C) for a typical UAV engine. Our heat spreaders would not change the frontal area of the engine and should have a negligible impact on the installed weight of the propulsion assembly.
2008-11-11
Journal Article
2008-01-2928
Krishna M. Kota, Louis C. Chow, Quinn H. Leland
This paper presents the concept of a dual latent heat sink for thermal management of pulse heat generating electronic systems. The focus of this work is to verify the effectiveness of the concept during charging through experimentation. Accordingly, custom components were built and a prototype version of the heat sink was fabricated. Experiments were performed to investigate the implementation feasibility and heat transfer performance. It is shown that this heat sink is practicable and helps in arresting the system temperature rise during charging (period of pulse heat load).
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2919
Louis J. Turek, Daniel P. Rini, Benjamin A. Saarloos, Louis C. Chow
A power electronics module was equipped with an evaporative spray cooling nozzle assembly that served to remove waste heat from the silicon devices. The spray cooling nozzle assembly took the place of the standard heat sink, which uses single phase convection. The purpose of this work was to test the ability of spray cooling to enable higher power density in power electronics with high temperature coolant, and to be an effective and lightweight system level solution to the thermal management needs of aerospace vehicles. The spray cooling work done here was with 95 °C water, and this data is compared to 100 °C water/ propylene glycol spray cooling data from a previous paper so as to compare the spray cooling performance of a single component liquid to that of a binary liquid such as WPG. The module used during this work was a COTS module manufactured by Semikron, Inc., with a maximum DC power input of 180 kW (450 VDC and 400 A).
2006-11-07
Technical Paper
2006-01-3041
Jie Chen, Thomas Wu, Jay G Vaidya, James Tschantz
An innovative nonlinear simulation approach for high power density synchronous generator systems is developed and implemented. Due to high power density, the generator operates in nonlinear region of the magnetic circuit. Magnetic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) makes nonlinear simulation possible. Neural network technique provides nonlinear functions for system level simulation. Dynamic voltage equation provides excellent mathematical model for system level simulations. Voltage, current, and flux linkage quantities are applied in Direct-Quadrature (DQ) rotating frame. The simulated system includes main machine, exciter, rectifier bridge, bang-bang control, and PI control circuitry, forming a closed loop system. Each part is modeled and then integrated into the system model.
2002-10-29
Technical Paper
2002-01-3261
Y. R. Lin, T. Y. Chung, J. H. Du, L. C. Chow, M. Bass, D. P. Rini
Effective thermal management and removal of the waste heat generated at diode arrays is critical to the development of high-power solid-state lasers. Thermal design must be considered in the packaging of these arrays. Two different packages with heat dissipation through spray cooling are evaluated experimentally and numerically. Their overall performance is compared with other packaging configurations using different heat removal approaches. A novel packaging design is proposed that can fulfill the requirements of low thermal resistance, temperature uniformity among emitters in the diode array, low coolant flow rate, simplicity and low assembly cost. The effect of temperature uniformity on the pumping efficiency for gain media is examined for our novel packaging design. The thermal stress induced by temperature variation within an emitter is also considered.
2000-10-31
Technical Paper
2000-01-3622
Y. R. Lin, K. B. Sundaram, L. C. Chow
This paper demonstrates that the on-resistance of a power MOSFET decreases significantly when the operating temperature decreases. The decrease in on-resistance under cryogenic temperature allows the device to operate at a much higher power and current condition. Also, it is demonstrated that the MOSFET device can be effectively kept at cryogenic temperature by spray cooling with liquid nitrogen. Over 80 W of heat generated can be removed continuously with spray cooling.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3864
Serge N. Sala-Diakanda, Luis C. Rabelo, José A. Sepúlveda
With the development and licensing of inland, state-owned spaceports, and the ongoing development of several new reusable launch vehicles (RLV), the space launch industry is undergoing a significant transformation. As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. Furthermore, an important aspect of launch risk analysis which gives rise to its complexity is its multidisciplinary nature. In analyzing such risk, the physics of and interactions between the varieties of hazards produced by launch vehicles breakups must be captured, modeled and, their effects analyzed. In this paper we discuss how a well-designed multidisciplinary modeling and analysis platform could be a significant step toward reducing the complexity just mentioned.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2017
Catherine Ninah, Brian Strevens, Cole Barcia, Isabelle Labbe, Michael Frenna, Austin Faulconer, Keon Habbaba, Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Alexa Frost, Andrew Foran, Robert Brown, Luis Rabelo
Abstract The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainment of civilization on the planet Mars. This research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still unknown to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software environment, the research team has been able to simulate the fuel production process on Mars.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2022
Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
Abstract The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an unmanned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2018
Won Il Jung, Larry Lowe, Luis Rabelo, Gene Lee, Ojeong Kwon
Abstract Operator training using a weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. In addition, governments are under intense scrutiny to provide security, yet they must also strive for efficiency and reduce spending. In other words, they must do more with less. Virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed in an economical manner. Unfortunately, the training is completed in limited scenarios without objective levels of training factors for an individual operator to optimize the weapon effectiveness. Thus, the training will not be effective. For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator through usability assessments, big data, and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations.
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