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2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1765
Haifeng Liu, Peng Zhang, Zheming Li, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao, Xuan Feng
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1931
Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao, Ming Huo, Chia-fon F. Lee
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0582
Chul-Hee Lee, Andreas A. Polycarpou
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0267
Michael Keir, Bryan Rasmussen, Andrew Alleyne
This paper presents an experimental analysis of the performance of various control strategies applied to automotive air conditioning systems. A comparison of the performance of a thermal expansion valve (TEV) and an electronic expansion valve (EEV) over a vehicle drive cycle is presented. Improved superheat regulation and minor efficiency improvements are shown for the EEV control strategies. The efficiency benefits of continuous versus cycled compressor operation are presented, and a discussion of significant improvements in energy efficiency using compressor control is provided. Dual PID loops are shown to control evaporator outlet pressure while regulating superheat. The introduction of a static decoupler is shown to improve the performance of the dual PID loop controller. These control strategies allow for system capacity control, enabling continuous operation and achieving significant energy efficiency improvements.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1684
Alan P. Druschitz, Heinrich L. Folz, Dick DeVor, Shiv Kapoor, Ashwin Balasubramanian, Katherine Bronk, John Bussema, Martin Glowik, Nicholaus Malkewicz, Scott Etling, Parag Hegde
High strength materials have desirable mechanical properties but often cannot be machined economically, which results in unacceptably high finished component cost. MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron) overcomes this difficultly and provides the highly desirable combination of high strength, excellent low temperature toughness, good machinability and attractive finished component cost. The Machine Tool Systems Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign performed extensive machinability testing and determined the appropriate tools, speeds and feeds for milling and drilling (https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/malkewcz/www/MADI.htm). This paper provides the information necessary for the efficient and economical machining of MADI™ and provides comparative machinability data for common grades of ductile iron (EN-GJS-400-18, 400-15, 450-10, 500-7, 600-3 & 700-2) for comparison.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2495
Haibei Jiang, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
Environmental control and life support systems are usually associated with high demands for performance robustness and cost efficiency. However, considering the complexity of such systems, determining the balance between those two design factors is nontrivial for even the simplest space missions. Redundant design is considered as a design optimization dilemma since it usually means higher system reliability as well as system cost. Two coupled fundamental questions need to be answered. First, to achieve certain level of system reliability, what is the corresponding system cost? Secondly, given a budget to improve system reliability, what is the most efficient design for component or subsystem redundancy? The proposed analysis will continue from previous work performed on series systems by expanding the scope of the analysis and testing parallel systems. Namely, the online and offline redundancy designs for a Lunar Outpost Mission are under consideration.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920513
T.K. Hayes, R.A. White, J.E. Peters
Combustion chamber deposits in spark ignition engines act as thermal insulators and can lead to octane requirement increase. The thermal properties of deposits are not well documented, the reported thermal diffusivity values vary by two orders of magnitude. Two thermal property measurement techniques were compared, the flash and steady illumination laser methods. The steady laser method was more suitable for deposit property measurement. A comparison was made of the thermal properties of deposits grown with a base fuel with the thermal properties of deposits grown with the base fuel doped with reformer bottoms. For the clean fuel the thermal diffusivity ranged from 3.5 to 3.9-7 m2/s, at various locations around the combustion chamber. For the fuel doped with reformer bottoms the thermal diffusivity ranged from 1.1 to 1.9-7 m2/s at different locations within the combustion chamber.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930217
T. K. Hayes, R.A. White, J. E. Peters
Cylinder head combustion chamber and piston temperatures and heat fluxes were measured in a 2.2 L 4 cylinder spark ignition engine. Measurements for the combustion chamber were made at wide open throttle conditions, 1400 rpm to 5000 rpm at 600 rpm increments, additional measurements were made on the combustion chamber at part throttle conditions at 3200 RPM. Piston temperature and heat flux measurements were made at WOT conditions from 1400 to 3200 RPM in 600 RPM increments. Average combustion chamber surface temperatures ranged from 130 deg. C to 248 deg. C, while peak combustion chamber surface temperatures ranged from 142 deg. C to 258 deg. C for WOT conditions. Peak heat flus at the surface for WOT conditions in the combustion chamber ranged from 1.2 MW/m2to 5.0 MW/m2. Central region heat fluxes were 2.3 to 2.8 times greater than those in the end gas regions of the combustion chamber.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931171
Gerry D. Pollock, M. Fouad Ahmad, Paul Corcoran
Environmental concerns have obstructed development of new landfill sites making it essential to efficiently use currently available space. Finite element methods are evaluated for predicting densification by compactors with the intent of eventually optimizing vehicle design with respect to compaction. A geometrically non-linear, plane strain, quasistatic analysis is used to capture the effects of a single rigid wheel. Future work will include multiple wheels and successive passes, three-dimensional simulations, and realistic material characterization.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931181
Panos Tamamidis, Dennis N. Assanis
The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931180
Evangelos Karvounis, Dennis N. Assanis
A novel framework for intelligent design of engine systems is introduced. Existing models of engine components and processes are integrated into a multi-purpose, flexible configuration framework. Fundamental thermodynamic elements, including zero-dimensional control volumes, one-dimensional pulsating fluid lines, and continuous flow machines are identified as the constituting components of engine systems. Models of the behavior of these elements, with various degrees of thermodynamic resolution, have been implemented into the framework. The task of the engine designer is, thus, reduced into selecting appropriate thermodynamic elements to model his engine system based on his design objectives. The applicability of the present framework to a wide range of simulation problems is demonstrated.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972945
P. L. Kelly-Zion, J. P. Styron, C.-F. Lee, R. P. Lucht, J. E. Peters, R. A. White
The presence and distribution of liquid fuel within an engine cylinder at cold start may adversely affect the hydrocarbon emissions from port-injected, spark ignition engines. Therefore, high speed videos of the liquid fuel entry into the cylinder of an optical engine were recorded in order to assess the effect of various engine operating parameters on the amount of liquid fuel inducted into the cylinder, the sizes of liquid drops present and the distribution of the fuel within the cylinder. A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark ignition engine was modified so that optical access is available throughout the entire volume of one of the cylinders. A fused silica cylinder is sandwiched between the separated block and head of the engine and a “Bowditch-type” piston extension is mounted to the production piston. The Bowditch piston has a fused silica crown so that visualization is possible through the top of the piston as well as through the transparent cylinder.
1998-02-01
Technical Paper
980143
P. J. Rubas, M. A. Paul, G. C. Martin, R. E. Coverdill, R. P. Lucht, J. E. Peters, K. A. DelVecchio
A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980144
R. E. Foglesong, P. J. Rubas, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. E. Peters
Single-laser-shot measurements of the fuel/air ratio in the cylinder of a motored direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine were obtained using a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique capable of simultaneously probing N2 and CH4. The DING engine was modified for optical access and CARS was used to probe the region near the glow plug. Measurements were acquired at eight different probe volume locations with one crank angle degree resolution for injections starting at 30° and 20° BTDC. The CARS data clearly show the arrival of the fuel jet at the probe volume and, from traversing the probe volume, the location of the centerlines of two fuel jets in the vicinity of the glow plug. The CARS measurements also show large fluctuations in fuel concentration on a shot-to-shot basis indicating the presence of large-scale mixing structures within the fuel jets.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981034
Terrence R. Meyer, Robert A. White
A geometrically accurate, three-dimensional finite element model of a Diesel engine exhaust valve and cylinder head assembly has been developed to analyze the effect of cylinder head interactions on exhaust valve stresses. Results indicate that a multi-lobed stress pattern occurs around the exhaust valve head due to cylinder head deformation, stiffness variations, and thermal asymmetry. Consequently, peak valve bending and hoop stresses from the three-dimensional model are 48% and 40% higher, respectively, than for the two-dimensional, axisymmetric model. These results indicate the degree of model complexity required for more accurate analyses of exhaust valve operating stresses.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981029
Mark D. Anderson, Tsu-Chin Tsao, Michael B. Levin
Camless actuation offers programmable flexibility in controlling engine valve events. However, a full range of engine benefits will only be available, if the actuation system can control lift profile characteristics within a particular lift event. Control of the peak value of valve lift is a first step in controlling the profile. The paper presents an adaptive feedback control of valve lift for a springless electrohydraulic valvetrain. The adaptive control maintains peak value of lift in presence of variations in engine speed, hydraulic fluid temperature and manufacturing variability of valve assemblies. The control design includes a reduced-order model of the system dynamics. Experimental results show dynamic behavior under various operating and environmental conditions and demonstrate advantages of adaptive control over the non-adaptive type.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970764
G. P. McConville, H. E. Cook
In developing new products and improving existing products, engineers make numerous trade-offs between the cost of a new or modified feature and its value to the customer. One method for estimating value is to ask potential customers their willingness to pay (WTP) for the product change. Their stated WTP may, however, depend upon how the question is framed. Mail survey techniques based upon simulated choice experiments were used for estimating value to the customer. The main objective was to explore how the framing of the survey questions affected the WTP response and if one or more of the methods provided simulated responses in reasonable agreement with actual buyer behavior. It was found that the best way to frame the questions was to give respondents multiple choices for price of the alternative versus the baseline product as opposed to having a choice of only one price or having to write in a price representing their WTP.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970762
J. A. Donndelinger, H. E. Cook
Engineers, marketing specialists, and planners responsible for making the numerous cost/benefit trade-offs that arise in the development of a new product need to understand how the attributes of the product generate value to the customer. A recently proposed methodology for benchmarking product value is tested here using five family automobiles competing in the middle product segment. Reasonable agreement is found between value differences estimated from an analysis of demands and prices and those estimated from attribute differences. This finding supports the use of the methodology in forecasting the demands and profits of future products based upon the improvements expected in their attributes.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970763
E. M. Monroe, H. E. Cook
Product engineers and product planners are routinely faced with trade-off decisions involving the cost of adding a product feature or modifying an existing feature versus its added value to the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a personal computer (PC) for surveying respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for four options - two-tone color, 4x4 drive, sporty trim package, and extended cab -- available on the base 1997 Ford F-150 truck. The results show that the respondents' stated WTP reflected the value of the options as determined from their prices and fraction of sales.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980621
M. Pozar, H. E. Cook
A PC based survey tool has been used to measure the value of a luxury vehicle as a function of its interior noise level at 70 mph. Two straight lines were required to fit the change in value (measured in dollars) with noise level depending upon whether noise was greater or less than a baseline level of 66 dB(A). The slopes of the lines differed by a factor of two with the value loss curve asociated with a noise increase from the baseline level being the steeper of the two. A difference in the value relationships between gains and losses in this manner is expected from prospect theory. When the noise level in dB(A) was adjusted to represent a sones-like scale using a conversion based upon a broadband noise spectrum, the measurements followed a single straight line reinforcing the view that the sones scale is more nearly a “pure” psychometric scale than dB(A).
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970106
C. D. Collins, N. R. Miller, W. E. Dunn
The feasibility of automatically detecting refrigerant charge loss in mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems by analyzing inexpensive dynamic measurements was studied. An indicator of the refrigerant inventory of the evaporator was developed. This measure, termed Time to Temperature Turning (TTT), is based on dynamic measurement of the evaporator outlet refrigerant temperature, and correlates strongly with charge level. TTT correlated well with clutch cycling behavior, a metric which is employed in current shop diagnostic practice to indicate refrigerant charge loss. Laboratory data were generated from a factorial experiment design on the following factors: condenser air inlet temperature, condenser air flow rate, evaporator air inlet temperature, compressor speed, and refrigerant charge. Experiments to date were conducted with a dry evaporator.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
971033
Michael D. Hudson, Roland L. Ruhl
Air flow through the passages of a Chrysler LH platform ventilated brake rotor is measured. Modifications to the production rotor's vent inlet geometry are prototyped and measured in addition to the production rotor. Vent passage air flow is compared to existing correlations. The inlet modifications show significantly improved vent air flow, over the production rotor. The result improvement in heat transfer and rotor cooling is reported. These benefits in performance should be attainable at very low increases in production cost.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970248
Dean H. Kim, Mark D. Anderson, Tsu-Chin Tsao, Michael B. Levin
A dynamic model for the springless electrohydraulic valvetrain has been developed. The model speeds up the valvetrain development process by simulating effects of parameter changes, thus minimizing the number of hardware variations. It includes dynamic characteristics of check valves that enable energy recovery, hydraulic snubbers that limit seating velocity of the engine valves, and leakage in the control solenoids. A good match of the experimental data has been obtained for a single valve system, and the model calibration and validation have been completed. The known parameters are used together with some unknown calibration constants which have been tuned to match the experimental data. The simulation results for a twin valve system are also presented. The model applications for system performance analysis and for the closed-loop control of the engine valve lift are described. The cyclic variability of the experimental data is also discussed.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972988
D. E. Whelen, P. L. Kelly-Zion, C.F. Lee, J. E. Peters, R. A. White
Drop size measurements were performed in the intake port of a motoring engine using a laser diffraction particle sizing technique. The experimental parameters which were varied include number of injection cycles, start of injection timing, engine speed and manifold pressure. Two injectors having different atomization and dispersion characteristics were used in the study, a production dual jet injector which produced Sauter Mean Diameters (SMDs) in the range of 250 to 400 μm and an air assist injector which had a line-of-sight SMD of 39 μm. In measurements with the dual jet injector, after initial injection, the quantity of fuel present in the intake port was observed to increase with each subsequent injection event, reaching a steady state value after 6 to 10 injection cycles. The SMD produced by the back-flow atomization was independent of the number of injection events and independent of engine speed over a range of 750 to 1500 RPM.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920053
L. Daniel Metz, Michael Dover, John Fisher, Victoria McCleary, Errol Shavers
: The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932377
Richard C. Coddington, Cheol Kim, Robert E. Miller
Roll bars are currently a primary source of operator protection for recreational vehicles, for certain lawn and garden tractors and for small agricultural tractors. In this paper we describe a family of nonlinear models to predict the large deflection response of a roll bar due to yielding of the material. This yielding permits the structure to absorb energy. The stress-strain relationship employs a power law model. Subsequent calculation of the complementary energy stored in the structure and application of Castigliano's second theorem yield the deflection at the point of loading. To demonstrate the feasibility of this energy method in the simulation of testing of roll bars, we present numerical results for the side, vertical, and fore-aft loading cases. Results include the load-deflection response for each load case as well as the strain energy stored in the roll bar as it deforms.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932422
C. E. Goering, S. Han
Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM) involves use of automated seeders and chemical applicators to make spatially-variable applications to agricultural fields. Soil productivity is spatially variable and thus, SSCM provides an opportunity to reduce total applications of seed and fertilizer without reducing crop yields. Also, more complete crop use of fertilizers with SSCM could reduce the potential for environmental contamination. A key element in SSCM is a Field Information System (FIS) for preparing application maps to control application rates.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941740
Matthew F. Vande Wiele, Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
In order to test and design vehicle systems it is often necessary to develop prototypes. A vehicle's steering system requires a qualitative analysis since it is difficult to quantify and measure subjective quantities such as the “feel” of a steering system. The virtual prototype system (VPS) provides an effective and flexible way of developing and testing the prototypes for qualitative testing. By creating a computer model of a vehicle's steering system using a dynamic simulation package and linking it to a virtual reality vehicle, a designer can drive the virtual prototype vehicle as if he or she were operating an actual vehicle.
1994-04-01
Technical Paper
941116
J. Ghaboussi, M. R. Banan
Abstract Neural networks are massively parallel computational models for knowledge representation and information processing. The capabilities of neural networks, namely learning, noise tolerance, adaptivity, and parallel structure make them good candidates for application to a wide range of engineering problems including diagnostics problems. The general approach in developing neural network based diagnostic methods is described through a case study. The development of an acoustic wayside train inspection system using neural networks is described. The study is aimed at developing a neural network based method for detection defective wheels from acoustic measurements. The actual signals recorded when a train passes a wayside station are used to develop a neural network based wheel defect detector and to study its performance. Signal averaging and scoring techniques are developed to improve the performance of the constructed neural inspection system.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932376
Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
Virtual reality is an emerging technology with the potential for many engineering applications including machinery simulation. In this paper the writers describe the hardware and software components of a virtual reality system that simulates machinery. They detail the flow of information that occurs in this system and discuss the functioning of an existing system at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Finally, they describe potential uses of virtual reality in product design, manufacturing, training and marketing.
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