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2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2717
Wei Liang, Jure Medanic, Roland Ruhl
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3782
Craig V. Robertson, Philip J. Smith, Roland L. Ruhl
This paper describes a practical and efficient approach for determining complete transient, as well as steady state response of tractor-trailer air brake systems by recording pushrod displacement and air brake service line pressure as a function to time. The test hardware utilizes easy to fabricate “clip on” transducers to measure pushrod stroke length. Data acquisition is via LABVIEW‚. All transducers are easy to temporarily affix to any tractor- trailer and require no alteration to the vehicle. A complete system check takes less time than manually measuring pushrod stroke as required under FMCSA. This system with one treadle application and release gives digital timing and displacement history of all brakes. Useful information includes: application and release profiles (pushrod velocity), shoe compliance upon seating and crack pressure release points for both tractor and trailer relay valves.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3732
Brent A. Clark, Roland L. Ruhl, Mark G. Strauss, Tim Mahal, Dan A. Fittanto
The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941740
Matthew F. Vande Wiele, Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
In order to test and design vehicle systems it is often necessary to develop prototypes. A vehicle's steering system requires a qualitative analysis since it is difficult to quantify and measure subjective quantities such as the “feel” of a steering system. The virtual prototype system (VPS) provides an effective and flexible way of developing and testing the prototypes for qualitative testing. By creating a computer model of a vehicle's steering system using a dynamic simulation package and linking it to a virtual reality vehicle, a designer can drive the virtual prototype vehicle as if he or she were operating an actual vehicle.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901622
Mark Siemens, Carl Larson
This paper describes and discusses a computer model that can be used to predict the hydraulic pump requirements of an excavator necessary to meet the specified productivity levels for a given set of design conditions. The model predicts the hydraulic cylinder flow rates, pressures, and power necessary to sustain a given work cycle. The study compares the results from a simulation of the excavator with actual test data obtained from a test vehicle taken during a typical work cycle.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931171
Gerry D. Pollock, M. Fouad Ahmad, Paul Corcoran
Environmental concerns have obstructed development of new landfill sites making it essential to efficiently use currently available space. Finite element methods are evaluated for predicting densification by compactors with the intent of eventually optimizing vehicle design with respect to compaction. A geometrically non-linear, plane strain, quasistatic analysis is used to capture the effects of a single rigid wheel. Future work will include multiple wheels and successive passes, three-dimensional simulations, and realistic material characterization.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932422
C. E. Goering, S. Han
Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM) involves use of automated seeders and chemical applicators to make spatially-variable applications to agricultural fields. Soil productivity is spatially variable and thus, SSCM provides an opportunity to reduce total applications of seed and fertilizer without reducing crop yields. Also, more complete crop use of fertilizers with SSCM could reduce the potential for environmental contamination. A key element in SSCM is a Field Information System (FIS) for preparing application maps to control application rates.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
911838
Alan J. Novak, Carl Larson
This paper describes the simulation model of a backhoe excavator. The model uses a prescribed motion cycle and the objective of the program is to determine the power requirements for each of the cylinders as well as the total engine power requirement. Most computer simulations are developed by expressing the differential equations of motion for the system being studied. The known force inputs to the system are applied and the time response of the system is then obtained by numerically integrating the governing differential equations. This paper on the other hand develops the reverse of this. Utilizing a prescribed geometry and trajectory cycle for a linkage system as the input, the program solves for the types of force inputs that are required to achieve that trajectory. With the time dependence of the trajectory known, the total power required and the power required of each cylinder is also evaluated. A typical excavator linkage is shown in Fig. 1.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932378
Eric J. Sevart, Richard C. Coddington
ROPS-TEST is a newly developed, interactive, graphics program that may be used to simulate testing of roll bars. Cross-sections that it currently supports include solid rectangular, rectangular tubing, and circular tubing. ROPS-TEST can be used to simulate testing for crush, rear and side loading. Output from ROPS-TEST includes load-deflection and strain energy-deflection plots. ROPS-TEST does not replace actual testing of prototype roll bars. Rather it serves as a design tool to select the best design options for a particular application prior to actual testing of the prototype roll bars.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932376
Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
Virtual reality is an emerging technology with the potential for many engineering applications including machinery simulation. In this paper the writers describe the hardware and software components of a virtual reality system that simulates machinery. They detail the flow of information that occurs in this system and discuss the functioning of an existing system at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Finally, they describe potential uses of virtual reality in product design, manufacturing, training and marketing.
2000-04-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2105
Rudolf G. Mortimer, Terry L. von Thaden
In order to reduce “Controlled Flight Into Terrain” (CFIT) accidents the FAA proposed, in 1998, the regulation that Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning Systems (EGPWS) should be installed in all turbine powered aircraft with 6 or more seats for passengers, operating under Federal Aviation Regulation Part-135 (commuter and charter operations). We analyzed all Part-135 crashes of this type using NTSB aviation accident data from 1983 to 1998. There were 15 crashes involving CFIT. We asked 26 experienced pilots to examine the brief narratives of the crashes and to estimate the probability that had the aircraft been equipped with EGPWS, the crews would have avoided the crashes. Based on the ratings, the median probability that Part 135 crashes would be avoided using EGPWS was 59%. We describe the nature of the crashes, the human factors involved and the reasons why the enhanced terrain warning is only partly effective.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870791
W. Brent Hall
Techniques developed for structural reliability analysis are applied to mechanical reliability problems, including those with non-normal random variables, complicated design equations, chain and ductile system structures, and screening or testing of components.
1981-04-01
Technical Paper
810681
H. Shirvani, C. E. Goering, S. C. Sorenson
A normally aspirated, four-stroke diesel engine was tested under operation with two alcohol containing fuel blends. The fuels contained ethanol, butanol, heavy virgin distillate, diesel Nos. 2 and 4, and a cetane improver. The proportions of the components were selected to give blends with properties within the range of diesel No. 2. The final blends contained 25 and 43.7 percent alchohols. Test results showed a loss in power due to the reduced heating value of the blends, and some deterioration of performance at light loads. At intermediate to heavy loads, satisfactory performance was obtained.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921652
Richard C. Coddington, Jeffrey J. Ringwald
Basket motion of a cotton picker during the unloading cycle can produce unstable conditions that result in overturning the machine. The potential for overturning increases while operating the machine on a side slope with the basket dumping on the down-hill side. In this paper the writers investigate the influence of tire ballast, wheel weights and operator control of the hydraulic cylinder on the dynamic stability of the machine during the unloading cycle while operating on a side slope. Operator control at the beginning of the unloading cycle and near the end of the cylinder stroke promotes stable operation of the machine on a side slope.
2000-09-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2621
Eric R. Benson, Qin Zhang, John F. Reid, Monte Dickson
Machine operators rely on intuition and experience to evaluate vehicle performance. As we increasingly turn to automation, it is important to automatically evaluate sensor data and system performance. Fuzzy logic allows us to take advantage of domain knowledge to evaluate data and to describe a system linguistically. In this paper, two automated fuzzy evaluation systems are described. In the first, a fuzzy quality module evaluates output from a simulated noisy sensor. In the second system, a fuzzy quality module evaluates the output from a machine vision system. Results from both systems indicate that fuzzy logic was able to accurately categorize the output in support of machinery decision making for automated control.
1999-04-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-1874
Qin Zhang, John F. Reid, Noboru Noguchi
The development of automated guidance for agricultural tractors has addressed several basic and applied issues of agricultural equipment automation. Basic analyses have included the dynamics of steering systems and posture sensors for guidance. Applied issues have evaluated the potential of several commercial sensing systems and a commercial mechanical guidance system. A research platform has been developed based on a Case 7220 Magnum1 2-wheel drive agricultural tractor. An electrohydraulic steering system was used and characterized in support of automated guidance control. Posture sensing methods were developed using GPS, geomagnetic direction sensors (GDS), inertial, and machine vision sensing systems. Sensor fusion of GPS-inertial-machine vision and GPS-GDS-machine vision provided the most flexible and accurate guidance and capable for operation under dynamically changing field conditions.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2854
Hongchu Qiu, Qin Zhang, John Reid, Duqiang Wu
This paper presents system identification methods of using both frequency and time domain analyses to estimate system parameters for a nonlinear electrohydraulic (E/H) tractor steering system. The frequency domain method identified parameters of the system using a linear model with a nonlinear gain function. The time domain method identified those parameters using a discrete time expression. A method of multiple models was used to represent the nonlinear system for both frequency and time domain analyses. Simulation and test results showed that the modified identification method could satisfactorily identify the parameters of the nonlinear E/H tractor steering system.
2002-03-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-1463
Haibo Hu, Qin Zhang
This paper presents a programmable E/H control valve consisting of five individually proportional flow control valves. With a hybrid control algorithm, this valve has programmable valve characteristics, such as adjustable valve deadband and flow control gain, and programmable valve functions, such as different center functions. System analyses and experimental evaluations indicate that this programmable valve is capable of replacing conventional E/H control valves in practical applications.
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