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Viewing 1 to 30 of 52
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0582
Chul-Hee Lee, Andreas A. Polycarpou
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2495
Haibei Jiang, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
Environmental control and life support systems are usually associated with high demands for performance robustness and cost efficiency. However, considering the complexity of such systems, determining the balance between those two design factors is nontrivial for even the simplest space missions. Redundant design is considered as a design optimization dilemma since it usually means higher system reliability as well as system cost. Two coupled fundamental questions need to be answered. First, to achieve certain level of system reliability, what is the corresponding system cost? Secondly, given a budget to improve system reliability, what is the most efficient design for component or subsystem redundancy? The proposed analysis will continue from previous work performed on series systems by expanding the scope of the analysis and testing parallel systems. Namely, the online and offline redundancy designs for a Lunar Outpost Mission are under consideration.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931171
Gerry D. Pollock, M. Fouad Ahmad, Paul Corcoran
Environmental concerns have obstructed development of new landfill sites making it essential to efficiently use currently available space. Finite element methods are evaluated for predicting densification by compactors with the intent of eventually optimizing vehicle design with respect to compaction. A geometrically non-linear, plane strain, quasistatic analysis is used to capture the effects of a single rigid wheel. Future work will include multiple wheels and successive passes, three-dimensional simulations, and realistic material characterization.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931181
Panos Tamamidis, Dennis N. Assanis
The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931180
Evangelos Karvounis, Dennis N. Assanis
A novel framework for intelligent design of engine systems is introduced. Existing models of engine components and processes are integrated into a multi-purpose, flexible configuration framework. Fundamental thermodynamic elements, including zero-dimensional control volumes, one-dimensional pulsating fluid lines, and continuous flow machines are identified as the constituting components of engine systems. Models of the behavior of these elements, with various degrees of thermodynamic resolution, have been implemented into the framework. The task of the engine designer is, thus, reduced into selecting appropriate thermodynamic elements to model his engine system based on his design objectives. The applicability of the present framework to a wide range of simulation problems is demonstrated.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981034
Terrence R. Meyer, Robert A. White
A geometrically accurate, three-dimensional finite element model of a Diesel engine exhaust valve and cylinder head assembly has been developed to analyze the effect of cylinder head interactions on exhaust valve stresses. Results indicate that a multi-lobed stress pattern occurs around the exhaust valve head due to cylinder head deformation, stiffness variations, and thermal asymmetry. Consequently, peak valve bending and hoop stresses from the three-dimensional model are 48% and 40% higher, respectively, than for the two-dimensional, axisymmetric model. These results indicate the degree of model complexity required for more accurate analyses of exhaust valve operating stresses.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981029
Mark D. Anderson, Tsu-Chin Tsao, Michael B. Levin
Camless actuation offers programmable flexibility in controlling engine valve events. However, a full range of engine benefits will only be available, if the actuation system can control lift profile characteristics within a particular lift event. Control of the peak value of valve lift is a first step in controlling the profile. The paper presents an adaptive feedback control of valve lift for a springless electrohydraulic valvetrain. The adaptive control maintains peak value of lift in presence of variations in engine speed, hydraulic fluid temperature and manufacturing variability of valve assemblies. The control design includes a reduced-order model of the system dynamics. Experimental results show dynamic behavior under various operating and environmental conditions and demonstrate advantages of adaptive control over the non-adaptive type.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970764
G. P. McConville, H. E. Cook
In developing new products and improving existing products, engineers make numerous trade-offs between the cost of a new or modified feature and its value to the customer. One method for estimating value is to ask potential customers their willingness to pay (WTP) for the product change. Their stated WTP may, however, depend upon how the question is framed. Mail survey techniques based upon simulated choice experiments were used for estimating value to the customer. The main objective was to explore how the framing of the survey questions affected the WTP response and if one or more of the methods provided simulated responses in reasonable agreement with actual buyer behavior. It was found that the best way to frame the questions was to give respondents multiple choices for price of the alternative versus the baseline product as opposed to having a choice of only one price or having to write in a price representing their WTP.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970763
E. M. Monroe, H. E. Cook
Product engineers and product planners are routinely faced with trade-off decisions involving the cost of adding a product feature or modifying an existing feature versus its added value to the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a personal computer (PC) for surveying respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for four options - two-tone color, 4x4 drive, sporty trim package, and extended cab -- available on the base 1997 Ford F-150 truck. The results show that the respondents' stated WTP reflected the value of the options as determined from their prices and fraction of sales.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
971033
Michael D. Hudson, Roland L. Ruhl
Air flow through the passages of a Chrysler LH platform ventilated brake rotor is measured. Modifications to the production rotor's vent inlet geometry are prototyped and measured in addition to the production rotor. Vent passage air flow is compared to existing correlations. The inlet modifications show significantly improved vent air flow, over the production rotor. The result improvement in heat transfer and rotor cooling is reported. These benefits in performance should be attainable at very low increases in production cost.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970248
Dean H. Kim, Mark D. Anderson, Tsu-Chin Tsao, Michael B. Levin
A dynamic model for the springless electrohydraulic valvetrain has been developed. The model speeds up the valvetrain development process by simulating effects of parameter changes, thus minimizing the number of hardware variations. It includes dynamic characteristics of check valves that enable energy recovery, hydraulic snubbers that limit seating velocity of the engine valves, and leakage in the control solenoids. A good match of the experimental data has been obtained for a single valve system, and the model calibration and validation have been completed. The known parameters are used together with some unknown calibration constants which have been tuned to match the experimental data. The simulation results for a twin valve system are also presented. The model applications for system performance analysis and for the closed-loop control of the engine valve lift are described. The cyclic variability of the experimental data is also discussed.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920053
L. Daniel Metz, Michael Dover, John Fisher, Victoria McCleary, Errol Shavers
: The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932377
Richard C. Coddington, Cheol Kim, Robert E. Miller
Roll bars are currently a primary source of operator protection for recreational vehicles, for certain lawn and garden tractors and for small agricultural tractors. In this paper we describe a family of nonlinear models to predict the large deflection response of a roll bar due to yielding of the material. This yielding permits the structure to absorb energy. The stress-strain relationship employs a power law model. Subsequent calculation of the complementary energy stored in the structure and application of Castigliano's second theorem yield the deflection at the point of loading. To demonstrate the feasibility of this energy method in the simulation of testing of roll bars, we present numerical results for the side, vertical, and fore-aft loading cases. Results include the load-deflection response for each load case as well as the strain energy stored in the roll bar as it deforms.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941740
Matthew F. Vande Wiele, Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
In order to test and design vehicle systems it is often necessary to develop prototypes. A vehicle's steering system requires a qualitative analysis since it is difficult to quantify and measure subjective quantities such as the “feel” of a steering system. The virtual prototype system (VPS) provides an effective and flexible way of developing and testing the prototypes for qualitative testing. By creating a computer model of a vehicle's steering system using a dynamic simulation package and linking it to a virtual reality vehicle, a designer can drive the virtual prototype vehicle as if he or she were operating an actual vehicle.
1994-04-01
Technical Paper
941116
J. Ghaboussi, M. R. Banan
Abstract Neural networks are massively parallel computational models for knowledge representation and information processing. The capabilities of neural networks, namely learning, noise tolerance, adaptivity, and parallel structure make them good candidates for application to a wide range of engineering problems including diagnostics problems. The general approach in developing neural network based diagnostic methods is described through a case study. The development of an acoustic wayside train inspection system using neural networks is described. The study is aimed at developing a neural network based method for detection defective wheels from acoustic measurements. The actual signals recorded when a train passes a wayside station are used to develop a neural network based wheel defect detector and to study its performance. Signal averaging and scoring techniques are developed to improve the performance of the constructed neural inspection system.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932376
Richard C. Coddington, Dee A. Chapman
Virtual reality is an emerging technology with the potential for many engineering applications including machinery simulation. In this paper the writers describe the hardware and software components of a virtual reality system that simulates machinery. They detail the flow of information that occurs in this system and discuss the functioning of an existing system at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Finally, they describe potential uses of virtual reality in product design, manufacturing, training and marketing.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932378
Eric J. Sevart, Richard C. Coddington
ROPS-TEST is a newly developed, interactive, graphics program that may be used to simulate testing of roll bars. Cross-sections that it currently supports include solid rectangular, rectangular tubing, and circular tubing. ROPS-TEST can be used to simulate testing for crush, rear and side loading. Output from ROPS-TEST includes load-deflection and strain energy-deflection plots. ROPS-TEST does not replace actual testing of prototype roll bars. Rather it serves as a design tool to select the best design options for a particular application prior to actual testing of the prototype roll bars.
1994-12-01
Technical Paper
942485
Patrick Hopkins, L. Daniel Metz
The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940251
Darrell Socie, Nishit Dey
Cyclic loading is not as damaging as static loading of ceramics at high temperatures. Microcrack growth retardation has been established as a mechanism for increasing the durability of ceramics at high temperatures. A combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a mechanistic understanding of the deformation and failure processes in ceramic materials at high temperatures. Results demonstrate that the high temperature behavior of some ceramic material systems are controlled by the behavior of the grain boundary phase whose response is considerably different under static and cyclic loading.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960004
Gregory P. McConville, Harry E. Cook
A method for making value tradeoff decisions between fuel economy and acceleration performance is demonstrated. Attribute value as defined by the S-Model Theory of Quality [1,2] is measured for the attributes of fuel economy and acceleration performance through a vehicle driving clinic. Willingness-to-pay values are found for the attributes at several different levels. The willingness-to-pay values are then used to refine the empirical and economic value curves previously determined for those attributes.
1998-11-16
Technical Paper
983042
William J. Jasinski, Michael S. Selig
An experimental study was performed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to quantify the performance and flowfield effects of two-element open-wheel-race-car front wing configurations. Four distinct configurations were tested in- and out-of-ground effect and at various speeds (Reynolds numbers), angles of attack, and flap positions. A splitter plate was installed in the wind tunnel to act as the ground plane. Data presented include balance force measurements, surface pressure data, and downstream flow measurements using a seven-hole probe. Results show that these elementary factors in the design of race-car front wings have a significant effect on wing performance and behavior of the downstream flowfield.
1997-04-08
Technical Paper
971535
Darrell Socie, Kevin Park
Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
2006-07-04
Technical Paper
2006-01-2329
Sang-Wook Lee, Xudong Zhang
A prediction model for hand prehensile movements was developed and validated. The model is based on a new approach that blends forward dynamics and a simple parametric control scheme. In the development phase, model parameters were first estimated using a set of hand grasping movement data, and then statistically analyzed. In the validation phase, the model was applied to novel conditions created by varying the subject group and size of the object grasped. The model performance was evaluated by the prediction errors under various novel conditions as compared to the benchmark values with no extrapolation. Analyses of the model parameters led to insights into human movement production and control. The resulting model also offers computational simplicity and efficiency, a much desired attribute for digital applications.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0648
Joshua W. Powell, Chia-fon F. Lee
Laser diagnostics of fuel sprays are often hampered by multiple scattering effects. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) and Mie scattering images of a spray are presented, and the effects of multiple signal scattering are explored. A hollow-cone spray is cut in half with a spray cutter, and then imaged from either side. In one set, signal passes through the spray to the camera (back-cut images), and in the other set it does not (front-cut images), showing the effect of passing the signal through the spray to the camera. The cut spray is characterized with a phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) is seen to range from 10-30 μm. Operational guidelines for using the cutter are presented. It was determined that a film forms on the cutter face 3-5 ms after the start of injection (ASOI) depending on the cutter temperature.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2717
Wei Liang, Jure Medanic, Roland Ruhl
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0209
Dongyao Wang, Chia-fon F. Lee
A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly.
2003-06-16
Technical Paper
2003-01-2098
M. B. Bragg, A. P. Broeren, L. A. Blumenthal
Past research on airfoil and wing aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the periods after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This section identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, rime ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice. In these sections the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are reviewed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are briefly summarized.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0386
Thomas L. McKinley, Andrew G. Alleyne
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1388
Valerie L. Stringer, Way Lee Cheng, Chia-fon F. Lee, Alan C. Hansen
Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3225
Luis F. Rodríguez, Haibei Jiang, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
BioSim is a simulation tool which captures many basic life support functions in an integrated simulation. Conventional analyses can not efficiently consider all possible life support system configurations. Heuristic approaches are a possible alternative. In an effort to demonstrate efficacy, a validating experiment was designed to compare the configurational optima discovered by heuristic approaches and an analytical approach. Thus far, it is clear that a genetic algorithm finds reasonable optima, although an improved fitness function is required. Further, despite a tight analytical fit to data, optimization produces disparate results which will require further validation.
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