Viewing 1 to 14 of 14
Technical Paper
Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao, Ming Huo, Chia-fon F. Lee
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper
Alan P. Druschitz, Heinrich L. Folz, Dick DeVor, Shiv Kapoor, Ashwin Balasubramanian, Katherine Bronk, John Bussema, Martin Glowik, Nicholaus Malkewicz, Scott Etling, Parag Hegde
High strength materials have desirable mechanical properties but often cannot be machined economically, which results in unacceptably high finished component cost. MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron) overcomes this difficultly and provides the highly desirable combination of high strength, excellent low temperature toughness, good machinability and attractive finished component cost. The Machine Tool Systems Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign performed extensive machinability testing and determined the appropriate tools, speeds and feeds for milling and drilling ( This paper provides the information necessary for the efficient and economical machining of MADI™ and provides comparative machinability data for common grades of ductile iron (EN-GJS-400-18, 400-15, 450-10, 500-7, 600-3 & 700-2) for comparison.
Technical Paper
Peter Kurath, Yanyao Jiang
Induction hardening of mild steel components often results in significant improvements in the static and cyclic load capability, with comparatively small increases in cost. Members subjected primarily to torsional loading are a relevant subset of the broad range of induction hardened components. Due to the variation of material properties and residual stresses, failures are “initiated” at the traditional geometric locations predicted for homogeneous materials and also at subsurface sites. The introduction of shear based fatigue parameters has necessitated the consideration of the residual stress as a three dimensional quantity, especially when analyzing subsurface failures. Not considering the tensoral nature of the residual stress can lead to serious errors when estimating fatigue life, and for larger magnitude loadings, the residual stress field may relax.
Technical Paper
Darrell Socie, Nishit Dey
Cyclic loading is not as damaging as static loading of ceramics at high temperatures. Microcrack growth retardation has been established as a mechanism for increasing the durability of ceramics at high temperatures. A combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a mechanistic understanding of the deformation and failure processes in ceramic materials at high temperatures. Results demonstrate that the high temperature behavior of some ceramic material systems are controlled by the behavior of the grain boundary phase whose response is considerably different under static and cyclic loading.
Technical Paper
Darrell Socie, Kevin Park
Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper
Thomas L. McKinley, Andrew G. Alleyne
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time.
Technical Paper
Lili Feng, Predrag Hrnjak
Abstract This paper presents the study of refrigerant charge imbalance between A/C (cooling) mode and HP (heating) mode of a mobile reversible system. Sensitivities of cooling and heating capacity and energy efficiency with respect to refrigerant charge were investigated. Optimum refrigerant charge level for A/C mode was found to be larger than that for HP mode, primarily due to larger condenser size in A/C mode. Refrigerant charge retention in components at both modes were measured in the lab by quick close valve method. Modeling of charge retention in heat exchangers was compared to experimental measurements. Effect of charge imbalance on oil circulation was also discussed.
Technical Paper
Steve Memory, Jian-Min Yin, Sam Collier, Mark Gunter, Pega Hrnjak, Steffen Peuker, Stefan Elber, John Manzione, Nicholas Schultz, John Dolney
The US Army uses a light tactical High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) which, due to the amount of armor added, requires air conditioning to keep its occupants comfortable. The current system uses R134a in a dual evaporator, remote-mounted condenser, engine-driven compressor system. This vehicle has been adapted to use an environmentally friendly refrigerant (carbon dioxide) to provide performance, efficiency, comfort and logistical benefits to the Army. The unusual thermal heat management issues and the fact that the vehicle is required to operate under extreme ambient conditions have made the project extremely challenging. This paper is a continuation of work presented at the SAE Alternate Refrigerants Symposium held in Phoenix last June [1].
Technical Paper
J. Drozdek, J. Chappell, C. Cusano, P. Hrnjak, N. Miller, T. Newell
Understanding lubrication failures at the shoe/swashplate contact of automotive swashplate compressors will greatly enhance the reliability of the air conditioning system. Maintaining proper lubrication is not always possible during transient conditions. Therefore, a method for detection of lubricant loss is of great interest to the automotive industry. Three methods for detecting lubrication loss were examined: contact resistance, acoustic emission, and dynamic pressure oscillations. A mobile air conditioning test stand capable of recording many system parameters was used. Oil return to the compressor was monitored using an oil separator and a refrigerant/oil concentration sensor. Data were taken during steady oil return rates and after oil shut off. The electrical contact resistance between the shoe and swashplate was used to indicate changes in the lubrication conditions at this critical interface. Measurements were taken at two oil return rates during steady oil return tests.
Technical Paper
James Solberg, Norman R. Miller, Predrag Hrnjak
A traditional method of controlling evaporator superheat in a vapor compression air conditioning system is the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV). Such systems are often used in automotive applications. The TXV depends on superheat to adjust the valve opening. Unfortunately, any amount of superheat causes that evaporator to operate at reduced capacity due to dramatically lower heat transfer coefficients in the superheated region. In addition, oil circulation back to the compressor is impeded. The cold lubricant almost devoid of dissolved refrigerant is quite viscous and clings to the evaporator walls. A system that could control an air conditioner to operate with no superheat would either decrease the size of its existing evaporator while maintaining the same capacity, or potentially increase its capacity with its original evaporator. Also, oil circulation back to the compressor would be improved.
Technical Paper
S. D. Dimitrakis, F. V. Lawrence
Both the experimental results and the analytical predictions of this study confirm that the poor fatigue performance of weldments with longitudinal attachments is due to poor weld quality which in turn leads to either a cold-lap or a very small weld toe radius. as well as to the combination of a very high 3-D stress concentration, and very high tensile residual stresses. Consequently, a specially designed stress-concentration-reducing part termed “stress diffuser” incorporated in the wrap-around welds at the ends of the longitudinal attachments increased the fatigue strength of longitudinal attachments to equal that of transverse attachments but only when cold-laps were eliminated. The fatigue life predictions made using the a two-stage Initiation-Propagation (IP) Model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Procedures for correcting for the curved shape of the crack path are investigated.
Technical Paper
Michael Soso, Michael S. Selig
Low aspect ratio wings are used extensively on open-wheeled race cars to generate aerodynamic downforce. Consequently, a great deal of effort is invested in obtaining wing profiles that provide high values of lift coefficient. If the wings are designed using 2-D methods, then it is necessary to take into account the change in operating angle of a typical airfoil section that occurs when it operates in the downwash generated by the wing. Accounting for this change during the design phase will ensure that the airfoil sections are optimized for their intended operating conditions. The addition of endplates to the wing serves to counteract the magnitude of the change in operating angle by effectively producing an increase in wing aspect ratio. During the design process at UIUC, an empirical method was used to provide an estimate of the effective aspect ratio of the wing and endplate combination.
Technical Paper
P. C. Wang, H. T. Corten, F. V. Lawrence
An empirical Three Stage Initiation-Propagation (TSIP) model has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds under constant amplitude loading. The improvements of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance caused by changes in weld geometry, residual stresses and material properties variables are discussed with the aid of the model. The TSIP model suggests that, in addition to the influence of geometry, residual stresses at the site of crack initiation greatly influence the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds. The TSIP model predicts that material properties play a subtle role in determining the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds.
Technical Paper
F.V. Lawrence, P.C. Wang, H.T. Corten
An empirical method which is based principally on estimates of the fatigue crack initiation life (NI) has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds in the long life regime. The method uses Basquin’s law and Peterson’s equation to estimate NI and thus is founded on the fatigue behavior of smooth specimens and modelling of the fatigue notch size effect. The fatigue notch factor (Kf) required in this analysis was obtained from Pook’s relationships for the stress intensity factors of tensile-shear spot welds. Estimates of NI are added to estimates of the fatigue crack propagation life NP to obtain the total fatigue life (NT) but in the long life regime NP can usually be neglected. The improvement of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance through manipulation of geometry and material property variables are discussed with the aid of the model.
Viewing 1 to 14 of 14


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