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Viewing 1 to 30 of 49
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1881
A. A. Boretti, H. C. Watson
Direct Injection (DI) is believed to be one of the key strategies for maximizing the thermal efficiency of Spark Ignition (SI) engines and meet the ever-tightening emissions regulations. This paper explores the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) liquid phase fuel in a 1.5 liter SI four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and centrally located DI injector. The DI injector is a high pressure, fast actuating injector enabling precise multiple injections of the finely atomized fuel sprays. With DI technology, the injection timing can be set to avoid fuel bypassing the engine during valve overlap into the exhaust system prior to combustion. The fuel vaporization associated with DI reduces combustion chamber and charge temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for knocking. Fuel atomization quality supports an efficient combustion process.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2217
Harry Watson, Mohammad Ali Khan, Gordon Liew, Paul Baker
It is shown that LPG has the potential to be a main stream fuel because of its low particulate emissions and low greenhouse emission potential. The experimental study reported is directed at minimising the cost of LPG optimised engines through the use of gas phase, throttle body injection in an engine with 11.7 compression ratio up from 9.65 of the base gasoline engine. The advantages of throttle body injection, guided by CFD studies, are extension of the lean limit to lambda 1.6, where NOx is low enough to meet Euro4 emission standards without a reducing catalyst, as deduced from bench test results. Comparison is also made between throttle body and both liquid and gas phase multipoint port injection. Differences in the method of mixing significantly affect engine performance. Notable improvements in emissions and thermal efficiencies were achieved when compared with gasoline, eg.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0045
Harry C. Watson, Asanga Ratnawera, Saman Halgamuge
There are two parts to achieving the optimization reported here. The development of an engine simulation model and an optimization algorithm. The engine performance is evaluated using a quasi-dimensional engine combustion model with sub models to incorporate friction, heat losses and abnormal combustion, that is knocking. After extensive search and development a new Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO), has been developed. Optimization includes, for the first time, the search of discontinuous design variables. The input variables considered for this investigation are manifold air pressure, air-fuel ratio, spark timing, compression ratio, valve timing events including valve open duration, maximum valve lift and engine speed. This enables the identification of the maximum thermal efficiency at a given power output at any engine operating speed.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0229
Pedro Orbaiz, Michael J. Brear, Payman Abbasi, Peter A. Dennis
This paper presents an experimental, numerical and theoretical study of the performance of the same spark ignition engine running on four different gaseous fuels: hydrogen, two synthesis gases and natural gas. Measurements of the brake thermal efficiency, the combustion variability, the engine out emissions and the indicated, pumping and friction mean effective pressures are first presented, with particular interest placed on the lean burn performance. Combustion analysis is then undertaken, with the crank angle resolved in-cylinder turbulence and the flame propagation plotted on the so-called ‘Bradley diagram’ for turbulent premixed combustion. The loci of the combustion events on the Bradley diagram are then used to explain the observed, relative performance of the engine running on these four fuels.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0654
Peter A. Dennis, Robert J. Dingli, Payman Abbasi Atibeh, Harry C. Watson, Michael J. Brear, Glen Voice
This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1033
Harry C. Watson, Sunil Alihikari
A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0822
Payman Abbasi Atibeh, Peter A. Dennis, Pedro J. Orbaiz, Michael J. Brear, Harry C. Watson
This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
931908
S. Kumar, T. J. Chalko, H.C. Watson
A new method of solution is presented for the equations governing unsteady flow field during compression and combustion in a spark ignition. The Lagrangian approach, an application of a vortex method to the three-dimensional solution of the continuity and conservation equations, avoids the need for a turbulence model and wall laws close to the surfaces. Vorticity is introduced as blobs close to the wall which diffuse into the main flow. The potential equation is solved by the boundary element method. Combustion is treated as a thin sheet propagating at laminar flame speed using an extension of the simple line interface method to three-dimensions, now called a simple plane interface method. The code is demonstrated in application to a wedge shaped combustion chamber with surface irregularities closely approximating the actual shape.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980044
Jeremy Lawrence, Harry C Watson
Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition (HAJI) is a novel method of maintaining combustion stability during ultra-lean operation of conventional, homogeneously charged, SI engines. When operating with HAJI above λ=2, CO and NOx emissions fall to low levels while HC emissions rise to approximately double their stoichiometric value. HC emissions were investigated by operating a HAJI equipped, optically accessible, four-valve single cylinder engine at 600 r/min, wide open throttle (WOT), and from λ=1 to λ=2.4. A fast flame ionisation detector was used to collect real time hydrocarbon concentration data from behind one of the exhaust valves, inside the HAJI pre-chamber, and from near the combustion chamber wall. Flame images were also obtained. Exhaust port sampling shows that the HC concentration during blowdown and early exhaust is increased, but the concentration at the end of exhaust is decreased.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
971143
R. R. Desai, H. C. Watson
Diesel engines are used in heavy duty applications because of their high efficiency and reliability. However, their high diesel particulates and NOx emissions remain major concerns. An eight cylinder direct injection diesel engine was connected to a partial flow particulate sampling mini-dilution tunnel. Six different grades of diesel fuels were studied for their regular emissions as well as smoke and particulate emissions. Each fuel was tested at three engine speeds and full load. This paper presents the results of these tests which includes analysis of the effects of load, cetane number, 90% distillation temperature, and density for steady state conditions. A correlation was developed for converting smoke numbers in Hartridge Smoke Units (HSU) to the specific particulate emissions by evaluating results of all fuels tests. Another correlation was also developed for diesel particulates and NOx emissions trade-off.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932806
R. R. Desai, E. Gaynor, H. C. Watson, G. R. Rigby
Oxygen-enriched air supplied to a diesel engine has significant benefits in reducing the particulate emissions of all fuels tested. A Caterpillar 3208 direct injection diesel engine was modified to operate on a wide range of fuel grades including residual fuel oils with oxygen-enriched intake air. The paper focuses on four fuels, two fuels were regular automotive distillate fuels, the third was a low emission diesel fuel and the fourth fuel had high boiling point fractions. Comparison with less extensive work on residual fuel oil is also included. Smoke and particulates decrease by up to 94% at full load with 27% oxygen concentration. Performance with oxygen addition using regular fuels showed comparable smoke and particulates to a premium priced low emission fuel used specifically in underground mines.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950412
Grant Lumsden, Harry C. Watson
The HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) system for S.I. engines utilises direct injection of small amounts of hydrogen to enhance the combustion of a variety of automotive fuels. Although not the primary purpose of HAJI, the hardware, once in place, also lends itself to the possibility of hydrogen-only running during a cold start. Cold-start simulations have been performed using a single cylinder engine. Results are presented, comparing hydrogen-only tests with standard HAJI operation and normal spark-ignition operation. HAJI and spark ignition tests were carried out with gasoline as the main-chamber fuel. Emission levels and combustion stability characteristics were recorded as the engine warmed up. The differences between the various fueling/ignition scenarios are presented and the implications for possible automotive applications are discussed in light of current and proposed emissions legislation.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950689
Grant Lumsden, Harry C. Watson
HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961156
Robert J. Dingli, Harry C. Watson, Marimuthu Palaniswami, Neil Glasson
Abstract An adaptive air fuel ratio (AFR) control system has been implemented on a modern high performance fuel injected four cylinder engine. A pressure transducer in the combustion chamber is used to measure the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for efficiency and cyclic variability feedback. The controller tunes the relative AFR, λ, in the range λ = 1 to λ = 1.5, to maximise the thermal efficiency in real time. The system adaptively accounts for changes in operating conditions such as ambient temperatures and user demands. The IMEP feedback allows the closed loop control system to update every few revolutions with short tune in times in the order of seconds. Open and closed loop test results are presented, demonstrating the incremental efficiency gains over fixed or mapped AFR control. The system continually adjusts the fuelling for maximum efficiency given its constraints and provides a basis for optimisation of future lean burn technologies.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961104
Neil Glasson, Grant Lumsden, Robert Dingli, Harry Watson
The hydrogen assisted jet ignition system (HAJI) replaces the spark plug of an Otto cycle engine and consists of a very small pre-chamber into which a hydrogen injector and spark plug are installed. The HAJI system allows stable combustion of very lean main-chamber hydrocarbon mixtures, leading to improved thermal efficiency and very much reduced NOx emissions. The current investigation focuses on the application of HAJI to a modern pent-roof, four valve per cylinder automotive engine. The development of a new hydrogen injection system and HAJI pre-chamber based on proprietary gasoline and diesel injectors is described. Results from injector and engine performance testing are presented in detail.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1109
Pouria Mehrani, Harry C. Watson
The challenge of tough fuel consumption reduction targets and near zero NOx emission standards can be met by optimization of the full range of engine design variables. Here these are explored through an engine simulation model and the application of an optimizing algorithm that can work in discontinuous data space. The combustion model has main features that include flame propagation, the effects of turbulence, chamber shape interaction and NOx formation. Two engine configurations are used to illustrate the application of the model and optimizer. Both allow the adoption of extra lean burn possible with LPG as fuel and EGR through an external route or cam phasing. In the first the compression ratio and cam profiles are fixed, in the second study they are also optimized.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0745
William Attard, Harry C. Watson
This paper describes the design and development of an engine with constant power for SAE's student Formula race-car competition, allowing the avoidance of gear shifting for much of the Autocross event. To achieve constant power for over 50% of the speed range, turbocharging was adopted with a boost pressure ratio of 2.8 at mid-range speeds and applied to an engine capacity of 430 cc. This engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The capacity was selected to minimise frictional losses and thus increase delivered power along with dry sump lubrication and a three speed gear box. The engine manifolds and plenums were designed using a CAE application and proved to be well suited to the task resulting in excellent agreement between predicted and actual performance.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0072
William Attard, Harry C. Watson, Steven Konidaris, Mohammad Ali Khan
This paper compares the performance of a small two cylinder, 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) and forced induction modes on 98-RON pump gasoline. These modes are defined by variations in the induction system and associated compression ratio (CR) alterations needed to avoid knock and maximize volumetric efficiency (ηVOL). These modes included: (A) NA with carburetion (B) NA with port fuel injection (PFI) (C) Mildly Supercharged (SC) with PFI (D) Highly Turbocharged (TC) with PFI The results have significant relevance in defining the limitations for small downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, with power increases needed via intake boosting to compensate for the reduced swept volume. Performance is compared in the varying modes with comparisons of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), brake power, ηVOL, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (ηTH).
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0036
William Attard, Harry C. Watson, Peter Stryker
This paper describes the design and development of a gasketless interface, which was used successfully to couple an aluminium cylinder head to an open deck design cylinder block. The cylinder block was manufactured from aluminium, featuring shrink fit dry cast iron liners. Extensive CAE modelling was employed to implement the gasketless interface and thus avoid using a conventional metal or fiber based cylinder head gasket. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a 430 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC) twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The new design removed the conventional head gasket and relied on the correct amount of face pressure generated by interference between the cylinder head and block to seal the interface. This had advantages in improving the structural integrity of the weak open deck design.
2006-12-05
Technical Paper
2006-01-3637
William Attard, Harry C. Watson, Steven Konidaris
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0672
Pouria Mehrani, Harry C. Watson
In spark ignited engine maximum thermal efficiency is found with lean mixtures. The authors' models for optimizing engine design show a preference for burning at the lean limit which to date has been found from experimental measurements. Hence ignoring combustion variability in the modeling can cause significant error in engine performance and emissions at or close to the lean limit. To aid in optimizing engine design, a model is needed that allows the inclusion of variability in the search for lean operation solutions. Here a useful addition to modeling is presented - a physically based lean limit model that can allow the lean limit to be set as non-dimensional COV of IMEP or as a variance in IMEP. The current work focuses on predicting the increase of cyclic variability due to the dilution of the mixture, whether by EGR and residual gas or by excess air.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0246
Paul Baker, Harry Watson
This paper presents a parametric, experimental study of the performance of gas and liquid propane injection in a spark ignition, multi-point port injected (MPI) engine. An inline, six cylinder engine is used over a wide range of speeds and torques, and the air/fuel ratio, compression ratio and injection timing are all varied. The engine was mapped at the standard compression ratio of 9.65:1 with the original, gasoline MPI system, propane gas MPI, and single point, throttle body, propane gas injection. Gas and liquid propane MPI are then tested at a compression ratio of 11.7:1. Contour plots of thermodynamic efficiency and the specific emissions of HC, NOx, CO2 and CO over the torque/speed range are presented and compared. The results show significant differences in performance between gas and liquid propane MPI injection, as well as the MPI and throttle body gas injection.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1653
A. A. Boretti, F. Lodi, H. C. Watson, M. J. Brear, R. Dingli, S. H. Jin, G. Voice, F. Will
This paper presents experimental and computational results obtained on an in line, six cylinder, naturally aspirated, gasoline engine. Steady state measurements were first collected for a wide range of cam and spark timings versus throttle position and engine speed at part and full load. Simulations were performed by using an engine thermo-fluid model. The model was validated with measured steady state air and fuel flow rates and indicated and brake mean effective pressures. The model provides satisfactory accuracy and demonstrates the ability of the approach to produce fairly accurate steady state maps of BMEP and BSFC. However, results show that three major areas still need development especially at low loads, namely combustion, heat transfer and friction modeling, impacting respectively on IMEP and FMEP computations. Satisfactory measurement of small IMEP and derivation of FMEP at low loads is also a major issue.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0083
William P. Attard, Steven Konidaris, Elisa Toulson, Harry C. Watson
In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3552
Harry C. Watson, Pham Xuan Phuong
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3551
Pouria Mehrani, Harry C. Watson
In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3553
Harry C. Watson, Andrew Gauci, Faeez Yousuff, Alberto Boretti
Several race car competitions seek to limit engine power through a rule that requires all of the engine combustion air passes through a hole of prescribed diameter. As the approach and departure wall shapes to this hole, usually termed orifice or restrictor are not prescribed, there is opportunity for innovation in these shapes to obtain maximum flow and therefore power. This paper reports measurements made for a range of restrictor types including venturis with conical inlets and outlets of various angles and the application of slotted throats of the ‘Dall tube’ type. Although normal venturis have been optimized as subsonic flow measuring devices with minimum pressure losses, at the limit the flow in the throat is sonic and the down stream shocks associated with flow transition from sub-sonic to sonic are best handled with sudden angular changes and the boundary layer minimized by the corner slots between the convergent and divergent cones.
2007-08-05
Technical Paper
2007-01-3623
William P. Attard, Steven Konidaris, Ferenc Hamori, Elisa Toulson, Harry C. Watson
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-3005
Harry C. Watson, Alberto A. Boretti, Patrick Chow, Tony Wallis
The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2943
Alberto A. Boretti, Harry C. Watson
Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
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