Viewing 1 to 20 of 20
Technical Paper
Adam B. Cooper, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper
Bryon J. Sohns, Jeffrey L. Stein, Loucas S. Louca
Vital to the effectiveness of simulation-based design is having a model of known quality of the system being designed. The purpose of this paper is to validate a simplified dynamic model of an FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles) for a range of system parameters using a previously developed technique for determining model robustness and accuracy within a design space. The literature provides an algorithm called AVASIM (Accuracy and Validity Algorithm for Simulation) for assessing model validity systematically and quantitatively. AVASIM assess the validity of a model based on a specific input and set of system parameters. The literature also defines a procedure for evaluating the robustness and accuracy of a model with respect to input and system parameter variations based on the AVASIM algorithm.
Journal Article
Yuanzhan Wang, Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou
Abstract This paper addresses scheduling of quantized power levels (including part load operation and startup/shutdown periods) for a propane powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybridized with a lithium-ion battery for a tracked mobile robot. The military requires silent operation and long duration missions, which cannot be met by batteries alone due to low energy density or with combustion engines due to noise. To meet this need we consider an SOFC operated at a few discrete power levels where maximum system efficiency can be achieved. The fuel efficiency decreases during transients and resulting thermal gradients lead to stress and degradation of the stack; therefore switching power levels should be minimized. Excess generated energy is used to charge the battery, but when it’s fully charged the SOFC should be turned off to conserve fuel.
Journal Article
Andrej Ivanco, Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann, Zoran S. Filipi
Abstract Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
Technical Paper
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
Abstract This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types. The paper includes analysis of crashes producing truck driver fatalities or injuries, a review of regulatory development and industry safety initiatives including barriers to implementation.
Technical Paper
James David, Narasimhamurthi Natarajan
Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper
G. J. Brereton, K. Morrison, H. A. Chishty, G. Schwartz, D. J. Patterson
The exhaust emissions of off-road and utility engines have recently come under increasingly thorough scrutiny and are now becoming the subject of federal regulations. While the most straightforward emissions guidelines relate to steady-state engine performance, it is well known that duty cycles of many small engines have a transient content and that its significance can vary strongly from application to application. Hence, it is important to examine how measured emissions change when the transient content of a test cycle is varied, and what kinds of steady-state and transient test cycles might realistically imitate operational conditions. These questions have been addressed in an experimental study in which several small two- and four-stroke engines have been tested under steady state and transient cycles. The same tests were also carried out when these engines had been adjusted to operate at leaner air-fuel ratios, as might be required by forthcoming regulations.
Technical Paper
G. S. Nusholtz, J. Wu, D. Wang, E. B. Wylie
Deployment of an airbag or charging of a tank by an inflator-canister system is a highly dynamic process. Quantification of energy storage, energy flux, work done, flow rates, thermodynamic properties, and energy conservation are essential to describe the deployment process. The concepts of available work and entropy production are presented as useful parameters when evaluating airbag aggressivity from tank test results for different types of inflators. This paper presents a computational methodology to simulate a pyro- and a hybrid-inflator-canister-airbag system to predict the force pattern that could occur on an out-of-position occupant when the airbag deploys. Comparisons with experimental data have been made in all cases where data were available. These include driver-, passenger-, and side-airbag designs.
Technical Paper
Deanna M. Winton, David R. Dowling
High-fidelity overall vehicle simulations require efficient computational routines for the various vehicle subsystems. Typically, these simulations blend theoretical dynamic system models with empirical results to produce computer models which execute efficiently. Provided that the internal combustion engine is a dominant source of vehicle vibration, knowledge of its dynamic characteristics throughout its operating envelope is essential to effectively predict vehicle response. The present experimental study was undertaken to determine the rigid body modal content of engine block vibration of a modern, heavy-duty Diesel engine. Experiments were conducted on an in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine (nominally rated at 470 BHP) which is used in both commercial Class-VIII trucks, and on/off-road military applications. The engine was mounted on multi-axis force transducers in a dynamometer test cell in the standard three-point configuration.
Technical Paper
Gary J. Green, Timothy J. Henly, Michael E. Starr, Dennis N. Assanis, Michalis Syrimis, Fadi Kanafani
A program to explore the effects of natural and additive-derived cetane on various aspects of diesel performance and combustion has been carried out. Procedures have been developed to measure diesel engine fuel consumption and power to a high degree of precision. These methods have been used to measure fuel consumption and power in three heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engines. The fuel matrix consisted of three commercial fuels of cetane number (CN) of 40-42, the same fuels raised to CN 48-50 with a cetane improver additive, and three commercial fuels of base CN 47-50. The engines came from three different U.S. manufacturers and were of three different model years and emissions configurations. Both fuel economy and power were found to be significantly higher for the cetane-improved fuels than for the naturally high cetane fuels. These performance advantages derive mainly from the higher volumetric heat content inherent to the cetane-improved fuels.
Technical Paper
Paul S. Fancher
Analytical methods are used to evaluate the braking and steering performance of tractor-semitrailer, truckfull trailer, double, and triple combinations that have mechanical properties corresponding to current design and usage practices in the United States.
Technical Paper
X. Sun, G. Brereton, K. Morrison, D. Patterson
As the federal regulations of on-road engine exhaust emissions become more and more stringent, the exhaust emissions of small utility engines are now under close study and are becoming subject to federal regulations. This paper reports the on-going research on emissions and test procedures for small utility engines at the University of Michigan. A group of small utility engines, selected by the National Fuels and Emissions Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), were tested at various air/fuel ratios under steady state and transient operation. Mass rate of emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), total hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were measured using dilute sampling. The lean operation limit of some engines was studied to find a compromise among emissions, engine power, and engine life. Experimental research was also undertaken to study emission control techniques; such as catalytic conversion, air injection, and fuel injection.
Journal Article
Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
Technical Paper
Young Jae Kim, Zoran Filipi
The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator, and this provides part of the motivation for a simulation-based approach to development of the system power management. The vehicle is based on the HMMWV platform, a 4×4 off-road truck weighing 5112 kg.
Technical Paper
Przemyslaw Zagrodzki, Todd D. Farris
Thermal distortions of friction disks caused by frictional heating modify pressure distribution on friction surfaces. Pressure distribution, in turn, determines distribution of generated frictional heat. These interdependencies create a complex thermoelastic system that, under some conditions, may become unstable and may lead to severe pressure concentrations with very high local temperature and stress. The phenomenon is responsible for many common thermal failure modes of friction elements and is known as frictionally excited thermoelastic instability (TEI). In the paper, one of the cases of TEI is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The study involves a two-disk structure with one fiction disk and one matching steel disk that have one friction interface. An unsteady heat conduction problem and an elastic contact problem are modeled as axisymmetric ones and are solved using the finite element method.
Technical Paper
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Sergey Medyanik
In the Energy Finite element Analysis (EFEA) method, the governing differential equations are formulated for an energy variable that has been spatially averaged over a wavelength and time averaged over a period. A finite element approach is used for solving the differential equations numerically. Therefore, a library of elements is necessary for modeling the various wave bearing domains that are present in a structural-acoustic system. Discontinuities between wave bearing domains always exist due to the geometry, from a change in material properties, from multiple components being connected together, or from different media interfacing with each other. Therefore, a library of joints is also necessary for modeling the various types of physical connections which can be encountered in a structural-acoustic system.
Technical Paper
Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
Abstract This paper presents a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion in the air gap of an electric machine. The model calculates heat flux at the boundaries of the rotor and stator as a function of the rotor and stator temperatures and rotor speed. It is shown that, under certain assumptions, this mapping has the homogeneity property. This property, among others, is used to pose a structure for the proposed model. The coefficients of the model are then determined by fitting the model to the results of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation program. The accuracy of the new model is compared to the CFD results, shown an error of less than 0.3% over the studied operating range.
Technical Paper
Zhigang Wei, Jason Hamilton, Fulun Yang, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, HongTae Kang, Pingsha Dong
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Journal Article
Weiran Jiang, Alyssa Bennett, Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Matthew Castanier, Ravi Thyagarajan
Abstract Assessing the dynamic performance of multilayer plates subjected to impulsive loading is of interest for identifying configurations that either absorb energy or transmit the energy in the transverse directions, thereby mitigating the through-thickness energy propagation. A reduced-order modeling approach is presented in this paper for rapidly evaluating the structural dynamic performance of various multilayer plate designs. The new approach is based on the reverberation matrix method (RMM) with the theory of generalized rays for fast analysis of the structural dynamic characteristics of multilayer plates. In the RMM model, the waves radiated from the dynamic load are reflected and refracted at each interface between layers, and the waves within each layer are transmitted with a phase lag. These two phenomena are represented by the global scattering matrix and the global phase matrix, respectively.
Journal Article
Jacqueline O'Connor, Meghan Borz, Daniel Ruth, Jun Han, Chandan Paul, Abdurrahman Imren, Daniel Haworth, Jonathan Martin, Andre Boehman, Jian Li, Kevin Heffelfinger, Samuel McLaughlin, Richard Morton, Arne Andersson, Anders Karlsson
Abstract This paper describes a novel design and verification process for analytical methods used in the development of advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines (ICE). The objective was to improve brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as part of the US Department of Energy SuperTruck program. The tools and methods herein discussed consider spray formation and injection schedule along with piston bowl design to optimize combustion efficiency, air utilization, heat transfer, emission, and BTE. The methodology uses a suite of tools to optimize engine performance, including 1D engine simulation, high-fidelity CFD, and lab-scale fluid mechanic experiments. First, a wide range of engine operating conditions are analyzed using 1-D engine simulations in GT Power to thoroughly define a baseline for the chosen advanced engine concept; secondly, an optimization and down-select step is completed where further improvements in engine geometries and spray configurations are considered.
Viewing 1 to 20 of 20


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