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2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2977
Victor S. Koscheyev, Aitor Coca, Gloria R. Leon, Robert Treviño
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Abstract Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH (Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology) program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1597
Glenn Lucachick, Aaron Avenido, Winthrop Watts, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0467
Gary A. Davis
Abstract The critical speed method uses measurements of the radii of yawmarks left by vehicles, together with values for centripetal acceleration, to estimate the speeds of the vehicles when the yawmarks were made. Several field studies have indicated that equating the centripetal force with braking friction produced biased estimates, but that the biases tended to be small (e.g. within 10%-15% on average) and led to underestimates, suggesting that the method can be useful for forensic purposes. Other studies, however, have challenged this conclusion. The critical speed method has also seen use in safety-related research, where it is important to have a reliable assessment of the uncertainty associated with a speed estimate. This paper describes a variant of the critical speed method, where data from field tests lead to an informative prior probability distribution for the centripetal acceleration.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2668
Kai Xiao, Chenxing Pei, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson, David Pui
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0290
Gary A. Davis
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2814
Anil Singh Bika, Luke M. Franklin, David B. Kittelson
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0075
Kihoon Han, Youngsun Yoon
Cruise control is one of the most critical issues that manufacturers concern about. But last many researches just focused on engine side control with general step transmission. Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) can cover a wide range of ratios continuously. This makes it possible to operate a combustion engine in more efficient working points than stepped transmission. With this merit, fuel optimal cruise control by CVT ratio control is possible with precise longitudinal dynamic model. Estimation of longitudinal load such as road slope and rolling resistance is essential for precise cruise control of automotive vehicle. In this paper, using model based road slope estimation method with gravity sensor, precise longitudinal dynamic model of automotive vehicle is presented. Real-time adaptive algorithm is also implemented for detecting external driving condition change and compensating bias of g-sensor.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2516
Gloria R. Leon, Victor S. Koscheyev, Birgit Fink, Paul Ciofani, Joe Warpeha, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The subjective aspects of comfort in three different cooling garments, the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and LCVG were evaluated. Six subjects (4 males and 2 females) were tested in separate sessions in each garment and in one of two environmental chamber conditions: 24°C and 35°C. Subjects followed a staged exercise/rest protocol with different levels of physical exertion at different stages. Thermal comfort and heat perception were assessed by ratings on visual analog scales. Ratings of physical comfort of the garment and also garment flexibility in positions simulating movements during planetary exploration were also obtained. The findings indicated that both overall thermal comfort and head thermal comfort were rated highest in the MACS-Delphi at 24°C. The Orlan was rated lowest on physical comfort and less flexible in different body positions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2517
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joe Warpeha, Gloria R. Leon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Birgit Fink, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The most recent goal of our research program was to identify the optimal features of each of three garments to maintain core temperature and comfort under intensive physical exertion. Four males and 2 females between the ages of 22 and 46 participated in this study. The garments evaluated were the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and NASA LCVG. Subjects were tested on different days in 2 different environmental chamber temperature/humidity conditions (24°C/H∼28%; 35°C/H∼20%). Each session consisted of stages of treadmill walking/running (250W to 700W at different stages) and rest. In general, the findings showed few consistent differences among the garments. The MACS-Delphi was better able to maintain subjects within a skin and core temperature comfort zone than was evident in the other garments as indicated by a lesser fluctuation in temperatures across physical exertion levels.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930731
David L. Hofeldt
This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of various alternative fuel technologies for heavy-duty transit applications and compares them to conventional and “ clean” diesel engines. Alternative powerplants considered include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and several electric technologies. The various technologies are ranked according to emissions, operating and capital costs, safety, development status, driveability, and long term fuel supply. A simple spreadsheet-based rating system is presented; it not only provides a versatile, semi-quantitative way to rank technologies using both quantitative and qualitative information, but also helps identify critical areas which limit implementation for a given application. An example is given for urban transit buses.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970676
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu
The purpose of this study is to compare the dust loading behavior of ten filter media. The filters are used in engine air filtration, self-cleaning industrial air cleaners, building heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC), automotive cabin air filtration, air respirators, and general purpose air cleaning. Several types of filter media are tested. The filters include cellulose, synthetic (felt), glass, dual-layered glass/cellulose, mixed synthetic/glass, gradient packing glass, and electrically charged fibers. The initial pressure drops and fractional collection efficiencies as a function of particle size are reported. The filters were evaluated with two test dusts to investigate the size-dependent dust loading behavior. The two test dusts are SAE fine and submicron alumina powder (median diameter 0.25 μm). The results are analyzed and compared. It was found that the cellulose filters exhibited surface loading behavior and have the fastest growth of pressure drops.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970675
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu, Neville Bugli
The function of the engine air cleaning filter is to remove the particulate matter in the intake air to protect the engine and its components from wear and contamination. For a specific filter, the efficiency is a function of the size of the particles being collected and the air flow velocity through the filter. Traditional tests of engine air cleaners are based on the use of specific test dusts, such as the AC Coarse and AC Fine, to determine the mass collection efficiency. However, they do not provide information on the size dependent performance of the filters, and the variation in filter performance under different particle challenge conditions. The use of a fractional efficiency test method will help to provide this missing information. The purpose of this paper is to describe a fractional efficiency test system that has been designed to evaluate the fractional cleaning efficiency of engine air cleaning filters in the size range between 0.3 and 10 mm particle diameter.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970674
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu
The dust holding capacity of air cleaning filter depends on the size distribution of the particles. Traditional test dusts like Arizona road dust consist of a single mode of coarse particles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dust holding capacities of air filters with a bi-modal test dust that simulates the dust in atmospheric environments. The fine mode of the test dust consists of submicron Alumina particles that represent the fine particles in atmosphere. The coarse mode consists of traditional AC fine dust. The fine and coarse dusts are mixed in different mass ratios to simulate different atmospheric conditions. The ratios are 100% fine, 50%/50%, 25%/75%, 10%/90%, and 100% coarse. An engine air filter and a HVAC filter were studied with the bi-modal test dusts. The filter pressure drops were measured as a function of the dust loading. The results show that the flow resistance rises significantly faster as the ratio of fine to coarse fraction increases.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970673
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y.H. Liu, Neville Bugli
The performance of the air cleaning filter is important to the long-term performance and reliability of the engine and its components. In this study, the performances of cellulosic and foam filter media for engine air cleaning application are experimentally investigated. Phenolic and non-phenolic cellulose filters were studied. Both flat-sheet and pleated cellulose filters were included. The foams filters were reticulated polyurethane foam media from 20 to 110 pores-per-inch. We measured the initial air flow resistance, the collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and the behavior of dust loading. We also studied the effect of oil treatment on filter performance. The results show that the efficiencies and pressure drops of the cellulose filters increase rapidly with dust loading. Oil treated cellulose filter was found to exhibit slower increases in pressure drop and collection efficiency, resulting in higher dust holding capacity.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980536
C. J. Du, J. Kracklauer, D. B. Kittelson
This program used a 0.6 liter DI NA single cylinder diesel engine to study the influence of ferrocene as a fuel additive on particulate and NOx emissions and heat release rates. Previous Studies1,15 have shown efficiency and particulate emission benefits only after engine conditioning. Two engine configurations were tested: standard aluminum piston with normal engine deposits and a second test with the engine cleaned to “new engine condition”, but with the piston replaced with a thermal barrier coated piston. Particle concentration and size in roughly the 7.5 to 750 nm diameter range were measured with a condensation nucleus counter and an electrical aerosol analyzer. Heat release rates and IMEPs were calculated from in-cylinder pressure data. Particle number concentrations increased substantially when the 250 ppm dose was first started with both engine configuration, but decreased 30% to 50% with conditioning.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980528
B. R. Graskow, D. B. Kittelson, I. S. Abdul-Khalek, M. R. Ahmadi, J. E. Morris
Exhaust particulate emissions from a 4-cylinder, 2.25 liter spark ignition engine were measured and characterized. A single-stage ejector-diluter system was used to dilute and cool the exhaust sample for measurement. The particulate measurement equipment included a condensation nucleus counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer. Exhaust measurements were made both upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter using three different fuels. Unlike particulate emissions in diesel engines, spark ignition exhaust particle emissions were found to be highly unstable. Typically, a stable “baseline” concentration on the order of 105 particles/cm3 is emitted. Occasionally, however, a “spike” in the exhaust particle concentration is observed. The exhaust particle concentrations observed during these spikes can increase by as much as two orders of magnitude over the baseline concentration.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980525
I. S. Abdul-Khalek, D. B. Kittelson, B. R. Graskow, Q. Wei, F. Bear
Exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured from the exhaust of a 1995 direct injection, Diesel engine. Number concentrations ranged from 1 to 7.5×107 particles/cm3. The number size distributions were bimodal and log-normal in form with a nuclei mode in the 7-15 nm diameter range and an accumulation mode in the 30-40 nm range. For nearly all operating conditions, more than 50% of the particle number, but less than 1% of the particle mass were found in the nuclei mode. Preliminary indications are that the nuclei mode particles are solid and formed from volatilization and subsequent nucleation of metallic ash from lubricating oil additives. Modern low emission engines produce low concentrations of soot agglomerates. The absence of these agglomerates to act as sites for adsorption or condensation of volatile materials makes nucleation and high number emissions more likely.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962103
Zhihong Sun, Perry L. Blackshear, David B. Kittelson
Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
1997-07-01
Technical Paper
972318
Victor S. Koscheyev, Gloria R. Leon, Donna Tranchida, Timothy J. Taylor
A new methodological tool was developed consisting of a patchwork thermal cool/warm grid with great flexibility to manipulate the temperature on different areas of the body. Through conflicting temperatures on the body surface, it is possible to direct heat current to different distal or proximal areas. The effectiveness of the use of a cooled hood, gloves, socks on the overheated body was evaluated as countermeasures for balancing heat exchange. Temperature in the magistral vessels was the main source of information for understanding the mechanism of the relationship between core and shell, and shell and distal parts of the limb.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929051
Marcus C. Hoyer, Raymond L. Sterling
The third long-term ATES cycle (LT3) was conducted between October 1989 and March 1990. Objectives of LT3 were to demonstrate that high-temperature ATES could supply a real heating load and to simplify the water chemistry modeling. For LT3 the Field Test Facility (FTF) was connected to a nearby campus building to demonstrate the FTF's ability to meet a real heating load. For LT3 the wells were modified so that only the most permeable portions of the Ironton-Galesville aquifer were used to simplify water chemistry comparisons and modeling. The campus steam plant was the source for heat stored during LT3. A total volume of 63.2 x 103 m3 of water was injected at a rate of 54.95 m3/hr into the storage well at a mean temperature of 104.7°C from October through December 1989. Tie-in to the Animal Sciences Veterinary Medicine (ASVM) building was not completed until late December.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929466
Songgang Qiu, Terrence W. Simon
Results of visualization experiments are presented for the entry flow to circular tubes under oscillatory flow conditions. Geometries and conditions have been chosen to simulate the flow in a Stirling engine with straight heat exchanger tubes. Since oscillating flow in Stirling engines is unavoidably strongly influenced by the entry conditions, such documentation is useful when engine designs are being considered and is needed when test results are being interpreted. Two entry geometries are explored, one with unrestricted entry to a squared-edged tube and another with entry from one side. The visualization technique is by illumination of neutrally-buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles with laser light, capturing with still photography. Each picture is an ensemble of exposures from 150 cycles. Each entry to the ensemble is taken at the same range in crank position, typically five degrees. Thus, one picture may visualize the flow from 75 to 80 degrees of crank rotation, for instance.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950400
J. F. McDonald, D. L. Purcell, B. T. McClure, D. B. Kittelson
As part of an ongoing program to control the emissions of diesel-powered equipment used in underground mines, the U. S. Bureau of Mines evaluated exhaust emissions from a compression ignition engine using oxygenated diesel fuels and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). The fuels include neat (100%) soy methyl ester (SME), and a blend of 30% SME (by volume) with 70% petroleum diesel fuel. A Caterpillar 3304 PCNA engine was tested for approximately 50 hours on each fuel. Compared with commercial low-sulfur diesel fuel (D2), neat SME increased volatile organic diesel particulate matter (DPM) but greatly decreased non-volatile DPM, for a net decrease in total DPM. The DOC further reduced volatile and total DPM NOx emissions were slightly reduced for the case of neat SME, but otherwise were not significantly affected. Peak brake power decreased 9% and brake specific fuel consumption increased 13 to 14% for the neat methyl soyate because of its lower energy content compared with D2.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940547
M. L. Franklin, D. B. Kittelson, R. H. Leuer, M. J. Pipho
A two-dimensional optimization process which simultaneously adjusts the spark timing and air-fuel ratio of a lean-burn natural gas fueled engine has been demonstrated. This has been done by first mapping the thermal efficiency against spark timing and equivalence ratio at a single speed and load combination to obtain the 3-D surface of efficiency versus the other two variables. Then the ability of the control system to find and hold the combination of timing and air-fuel ratio which gives the highest thermal efficiency was explored. The control system described in SAE Paper No. 940546 was used to map the thermal efficiency versus equivalence ratio and ignition timing. NOx, CO, and HC maps were also obtained to determine the tradeoffs between efficiency and emissions. A load corresponding to a brake mean effective pressure of 0.467 MPa was maintained by a water brake dynamometer. A speed of 2000 rpm was maintained by a fuel-controlled governor.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940546
M. L. Franklin, D. B. Kittelson, R. H. Leuer, M. J. Pipho
A system was designed for controlling fuel injection and ignition timing for use on a port fuel injected, gas-fueled engine. Inputs required for the system include manifold absolute pressure, manifold air temperature, a once per revolution crankshaft pulse, a once per cycle camshaft pulse, and a relative encoder pulse train to determine crank angle. A prototype card installed in the computer contains counters and discrete logic which control the timing of ignition and injection events. High current drivers used to control the fuel injector solenoids and coil primary current are optically isolated from the computer by the use of fiber optic cables. The programming is done in QuickBASIC running in real time on a 25 MHz 80486 personal computer. The system was used to control a gas-fueled spark ignition engine at various conditions to map the torque versus air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. Each surface was mapped for a given fuel flow and speed.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950608
Z.-X. Hou, J. Abraham
Results of comparisons of computed and measured soot and NO in a direct-injection Diesel engine are presented. The computations are carried out using a three-dimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in Diesel engines. Autoignition of the Diesel spray is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local chemical equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent characteristic times. Soot formation is kinetically controlled and soot oxidation is represented by a model which has a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent mixing times. Soot oxidation appears to be controlled near top-dead-center by mixing and by kinetics as the exhaust is approached. NO is modeled using the Zeldovich mechanism.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950603
Z.-X. Hou, J. Abraham, D. L. Siebers
Results of two- and three-dimensional computations of combustion of Diesel sprays in a very high-pressure chamber are presented. A wide range of experimental conditions are considered. Peak chamber pressure with combustion range from about 6.0 MPa to about 20 MPa. Computed and measured spray penetrations and chamber pressures are compared and shown to be in adequate agreement. Autoignition is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar and turbulent characteristic times. It is shown that scaling rules which were found to apply in vaporizing and non-vaporizing sprays also apply in the combusting sprays. The fuel-air mixing rates and burning rates increase as the ratio of the ambient density to injected density increases.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950236
Imad S. Abdul-Khalek, David B. Kittelson
A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940302
Huel C. Scherrer, David B. Kittelson
The effectiveness of a centralized Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) program, implemented in a major U.S. metropolitan area in 1991, is directly measured through ambient CO monitor data. A multi-factoral analysis is developed which quantifies effects due to the interaction of hourly traffic levels with wind vector and ambient temperature conditions, allowing a better measure of I/M effectiveness. The time-trend of the measured CO levels is seen to closely match those predicted by the analysis throughout the 7 year study period. An average ambient CO reduction of 1.3 ± 1.4 percent attributable to I/M is measured, with individual results of +1.5 percent, +5.8 percent, and -3.4 percent obtained for the three monitor locations studied.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940250
Mary J. Wickham, Dale R. Galliart, Christopher J. Nachtsheim, Donald R. Riley
The determination of loads applied to a structure is often necessary in the design process. In some situations it is not feasible to insert a load cell in the system to measure these applied loads. In these cases, it would be advantageous to utilize the structure itself as a load transducer. This can be accomplished by measuring strains at a number of locations on the structure. The precision with which the applied loads can be estimated from measured structural responses depends on the number of strain gages utilized and their placement on the structure. This paper presents a computational methodology which utilizes optimal experimental design techniques to select the number, locations and angular orientations of the strain gages which will provide the most precise load estimates based on the generalized load vector. Selection is made from a candidate set created using a finite element analysis.
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