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Viewing 1 to 30 of 51
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2814
Anil Singh Bika, Luke M. Franklin, David B. Kittelson
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0075
Kihoon Han, Youngsun Yoon
Cruise control is one of the most critical issues that manufacturers concern about. But last many researches just focused on engine side control with general step transmission. Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) can cover a wide range of ratios continuously. This makes it possible to operate a combustion engine in more efficient working points than stepped transmission. With this merit, fuel optimal cruise control by CVT ratio control is possible with precise longitudinal dynamic model. Estimation of longitudinal load such as road slope and rolling resistance is essential for precise cruise control of automotive vehicle. In this paper, using model based road slope estimation method with gravity sensor, precise longitudinal dynamic model of automotive vehicle is presented. Real-time adaptive algorithm is also implemented for detecting external driving condition change and compensating bias of g-sensor.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2516
Gloria R. Leon, Victor S. Koscheyev, Birgit Fink, Paul Ciofani, Joe Warpeha, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The subjective aspects of comfort in three different cooling garments, the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and LCVG were evaluated. Six subjects (4 males and 2 females) were tested in separate sessions in each garment and in one of two environmental chamber conditions: 24°C and 35°C. Subjects followed a staged exercise/rest protocol with different levels of physical exertion at different stages. Thermal comfort and heat perception were assessed by ratings on visual analog scales. Ratings of physical comfort of the garment and also garment flexibility in positions simulating movements during planetary exploration were also obtained. The findings indicated that both overall thermal comfort and head thermal comfort were rated highest in the MACS-Delphi at 24°C. The Orlan was rated lowest on physical comfort and less flexible in different body positions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2517
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joe Warpeha, Gloria R. Leon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Birgit Fink, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The most recent goal of our research program was to identify the optimal features of each of three garments to maintain core temperature and comfort under intensive physical exertion. Four males and 2 females between the ages of 22 and 46 participated in this study. The garments evaluated were the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and NASA LCVG. Subjects were tested on different days in 2 different environmental chamber temperature/humidity conditions (24°C/H∼28%; 35°C/H∼20%). Each session consisted of stages of treadmill walking/running (250W to 700W at different stages) and rest. In general, the findings showed few consistent differences among the garments. The MACS-Delphi was better able to maintain subjects within a skin and core temperature comfort zone than was evident in the other garments as indicated by a lesser fluctuation in temperatures across physical exertion levels.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970676
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu
The purpose of this study is to compare the dust loading behavior of ten filter media. The filters are used in engine air filtration, self-cleaning industrial air cleaners, building heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC), automotive cabin air filtration, air respirators, and general purpose air cleaning. Several types of filter media are tested. The filters include cellulose, synthetic (felt), glass, dual-layered glass/cellulose, mixed synthetic/glass, gradient packing glass, and electrically charged fibers. The initial pressure drops and fractional collection efficiencies as a function of particle size are reported. The filters were evaluated with two test dusts to investigate the size-dependent dust loading behavior. The two test dusts are SAE fine and submicron alumina powder (median diameter 0.25 μm). The results are analyzed and compared. It was found that the cellulose filters exhibited surface loading behavior and have the fastest growth of pressure drops.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970675
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu, Neville Bugli
The function of the engine air cleaning filter is to remove the particulate matter in the intake air to protect the engine and its components from wear and contamination. For a specific filter, the efficiency is a function of the size of the particles being collected and the air flow velocity through the filter. Traditional tests of engine air cleaners are based on the use of specific test dusts, such as the AC Coarse and AC Fine, to determine the mass collection efficiency. However, they do not provide information on the size dependent performance of the filters, and the variation in filter performance under different particle challenge conditions. The use of a fractional efficiency test method will help to provide this missing information. The purpose of this paper is to describe a fractional efficiency test system that has been designed to evaluate the fractional cleaning efficiency of engine air cleaning filters in the size range between 0.3 and 10 mm particle diameter.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970674
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y. H. Liu
The dust holding capacity of air cleaning filter depends on the size distribution of the particles. Traditional test dusts like Arizona road dust consist of a single mode of coarse particles. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dust holding capacities of air filters with a bi-modal test dust that simulates the dust in atmospheric environments. The fine mode of the test dust consists of submicron Alumina particles that represent the fine particles in atmosphere. The coarse mode consists of traditional AC fine dust. The fine and coarse dusts are mixed in different mass ratios to simulate different atmospheric conditions. The ratios are 100% fine, 50%/50%, 25%/75%, 10%/90%, and 100% coarse. An engine air filter and a HVAC filter were studied with the bi-modal test dusts. The filter pressure drops were measured as a function of the dust loading. The results show that the flow resistance rises significantly faster as the ratio of fine to coarse fraction increases.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970673
Wai S. Poon, Benjamin Y.H. Liu, Neville Bugli
The performance of the air cleaning filter is important to the long-term performance and reliability of the engine and its components. In this study, the performances of cellulosic and foam filter media for engine air cleaning application are experimentally investigated. Phenolic and non-phenolic cellulose filters were studied. Both flat-sheet and pleated cellulose filters were included. The foams filters were reticulated polyurethane foam media from 20 to 110 pores-per-inch. We measured the initial air flow resistance, the collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and the behavior of dust loading. We also studied the effect of oil treatment on filter performance. The results show that the efficiencies and pressure drops of the cellulose filters increase rapidly with dust loading. Oil treated cellulose filter was found to exhibit slower increases in pressure drop and collection efficiency, resulting in higher dust holding capacity.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980536
C. J. Du, J. Kracklauer, D. B. Kittelson
This program used a 0.6 liter DI NA single cylinder diesel engine to study the influence of ferrocene as a fuel additive on particulate and NOx emissions and heat release rates. Previous Studies1,15 have shown efficiency and particulate emission benefits only after engine conditioning. Two engine configurations were tested: standard aluminum piston with normal engine deposits and a second test with the engine cleaned to “new engine condition”, but with the piston replaced with a thermal barrier coated piston. Particle concentration and size in roughly the 7.5 to 750 nm diameter range were measured with a condensation nucleus counter and an electrical aerosol analyzer. Heat release rates and IMEPs were calculated from in-cylinder pressure data. Particle number concentrations increased substantially when the 250 ppm dose was first started with both engine configuration, but decreased 30% to 50% with conditioning.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980525
I. S. Abdul-Khalek, D. B. Kittelson, B. R. Graskow, Q. Wei, F. Bear
Exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured from the exhaust of a 1995 direct injection, Diesel engine. Number concentrations ranged from 1 to 7.5×107 particles/cm3. The number size distributions were bimodal and log-normal in form with a nuclei mode in the 7-15 nm diameter range and an accumulation mode in the 30-40 nm range. For nearly all operating conditions, more than 50% of the particle number, but less than 1% of the particle mass were found in the nuclei mode. Preliminary indications are that the nuclei mode particles are solid and formed from volatilization and subsequent nucleation of metallic ash from lubricating oil additives. Modern low emission engines produce low concentrations of soot agglomerates. The absence of these agglomerates to act as sites for adsorption or condensation of volatile materials makes nucleation and high number emissions more likely.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962103
Zhihong Sun, Perry L. Blackshear, David B. Kittelson
Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
1992-08-03
Technical Paper
929466
Songgang Qiu, Terrence W. Simon
Results of visualization experiments are presented for the entry flow to circular tubes under oscillatory flow conditions. Geometries and conditions have been chosen to simulate the flow in a Stirling engine with straight heat exchanger tubes. Since oscillating flow in Stirling engines is unavoidably strongly influenced by the entry conditions, such documentation is useful when engine designs are being considered and is needed when test results are being interpreted. Two entry geometries are explored, one with unrestricted entry to a squared-edged tube and another with entry from one side. The visualization technique is by illumination of neutrally-buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles with laser light, capturing with still photography. Each picture is an ensemble of exposures from 150 cycles. Each entry to the ensemble is taken at the same range in crank position, typically five degrees. Thus, one picture may visualize the flow from 75 to 80 degrees of crank rotation, for instance.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940547
M. L. Franklin, D. B. Kittelson, R. H. Leuer, M. J. Pipho
A two-dimensional optimization process which simultaneously adjusts the spark timing and air-fuel ratio of a lean-burn natural gas fueled engine has been demonstrated. This has been done by first mapping the thermal efficiency against spark timing and equivalence ratio at a single speed and load combination to obtain the 3-D surface of efficiency versus the other two variables. Then the ability of the control system to find and hold the combination of timing and air-fuel ratio which gives the highest thermal efficiency was explored. The control system described in SAE Paper No. 940546 was used to map the thermal efficiency versus equivalence ratio and ignition timing. NOx, CO, and HC maps were also obtained to determine the tradeoffs between efficiency and emissions. A load corresponding to a brake mean effective pressure of 0.467 MPa was maintained by a water brake dynamometer. A speed of 2000 rpm was maintained by a fuel-controlled governor.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940546
M. L. Franklin, D. B. Kittelson, R. H. Leuer, M. J. Pipho
A system was designed for controlling fuel injection and ignition timing for use on a port fuel injected, gas-fueled engine. Inputs required for the system include manifold absolute pressure, manifold air temperature, a once per revolution crankshaft pulse, a once per cycle camshaft pulse, and a relative encoder pulse train to determine crank angle. A prototype card installed in the computer contains counters and discrete logic which control the timing of ignition and injection events. High current drivers used to control the fuel injector solenoids and coil primary current are optically isolated from the computer by the use of fiber optic cables. The programming is done in QuickBASIC running in real time on a 25 MHz 80486 personal computer. The system was used to control a gas-fueled spark ignition engine at various conditions to map the torque versus air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. Each surface was mapped for a given fuel flow and speed.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950608
Z.-X. Hou, J. Abraham
Results of comparisons of computed and measured soot and NO in a direct-injection Diesel engine are presented. The computations are carried out using a three-dimensional model for flows, sprays and combustion in Diesel engines. Autoignition of the Diesel spray is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local chemical equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent characteristic times. Soot formation is kinetically controlled and soot oxidation is represented by a model which has a combination of laminar kinetic and turbulent mixing times. Soot oxidation appears to be controlled near top-dead-center by mixing and by kinetics as the exhaust is approached. NO is modeled using the Zeldovich mechanism.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950603
Z.-X. Hou, J. Abraham, D. L. Siebers
Results of two- and three-dimensional computations of combustion of Diesel sprays in a very high-pressure chamber are presented. A wide range of experimental conditions are considered. Peak chamber pressure with combustion range from about 6.0 MPa to about 20 MPa. Computed and measured spray penetrations and chamber pressures are compared and shown to be in adequate agreement. Autoignition is modeled using an equation for a progress variable which measures the local and instantaneous tendency of the fuel to autoignite. High temperature chemistry is modeled using a local equilibrium model coupled to a combination of laminar and turbulent characteristic times. It is shown that scaling rules which were found to apply in vaporizing and non-vaporizing sprays also apply in the combusting sprays. The fuel-air mixing rates and burning rates increase as the ratio of the ambient density to injected density increases.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950236
Imad S. Abdul-Khalek, David B. Kittelson
A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940318
Robert J. Hutter, Samuel E. Lee, Kenneth L. Rubow, Benjamin Y. H. Liu
This paper quantifies typical United States in-vehicle cowl area particulate filter parameters such as temperature, humidity and environmental conditions. Secondly, United States and Germany particulate filter fleet results will be included to help quantify the effect of loading on electret nonwoven particulate filter fractional efficiency and demonstrate the amount and types of particulate matter captured. Finally the paper will address the low submicron fractional filter efficiency of a simulated production “wet and dry” plate-fin automotive evaporator core.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960251
David L. Hofeldt, Guoguang Chen
Particulate emissions from heavy-duty buses were measured in real time under conditions encountered during the standard Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses tested were equipped with 1994 Detroit Diesel Engine Corporation 6V92-TA engines, and some included after treatment devices on the exhaust. Instantaneous, time-resolved measurements of CO2 and amorphous carbon concentrations were obtained using an optical extinction technique and compared to simultaneous results obtained using conventional dilution tunnel sampling methods. Good agreement was obtained between the real-time extinction measurements and the diluted CO2 and cycle-integrated filter measurements. The instantaneous measurements revealed that acceleration transients accounted for roughly 80% of the particulate mass emitted during the cycle but only about 45% of the fuel consumption.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960868
Yong Chen, David B. Kittelson
Low emission heavy-duty diesel engines are increasingly utilizing four-valve designs with vertical central injectors. However, two-valve DI diesel engines with inclined injectors offset from the centerline of the piston bowl are likely to continue to be used in medium and light duty applications for some time. In such situations, designing of the hole-type nozzle is very difficult and may cause unavoidable back-drilling problems. The purpose of this paper is to solve back-drilling problems connected with hole-type nozzles and improve fuel-air mixing which leads to more efficient combustion. Based on geometric considerations, this paper introduces single-cone hole-type nozzles, double-cone hole-type nozzles, and the critical principal angles for hole-type nozzles. The single-cone hole-type nozzles and double-cone hole-type nozzles can meet requirements for height of the spray impingement points and spray orifice distribution angle at the same time.
1994-10-01
Technical Paper
941896
Z.-X. Hou, J. Abraham, D. L. Siebers
Results of three-dimensional computations of non-vaporizing and vaporizing Diesel sprays in a very high pressure (up to 18.4 MPa without combustion) environment are presented. These pressures and corresponding density ratios of ambient gas to injected liquid are about a factor of two greater than those in current Diesel engines. The spray model incorporates a line source for drops, heat, mass and momentum exchange between the gas and liquid phases, turbulent dispersion of drops, collisions and coalescences, and drop breakup. The accuracy of the model is assessed by making comparisons of computed and measured spray penetrations. Reasonable agreement is obtained for a broad range of conditions. A scaling for time and axial distance clarifies these results.
2006-02-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-1963
Damrongrit Piyabongkarn, John Grogg, Qinghui Yuan, Jae Lew, Rajesh Rajamani
This paper focuses on modeling of torque-biasing devices of a four-wheel-drive system used for improving vehicle stability and handling performance. The proposed driveline system is based on nominal front-wheel-drive operation with on-demand transfer of torque to the rear. The torque biasing components of the system are an electronically controlled center coupler and a rear electronically controlled limited slip differential. Kinematic modeling of the torque biasing devices is introduced including stage transitions during the locking stage and the unlocking/slipping stage. Analytical proofs of how torque biasing could be used to influence vehicle yaw dynamics are also included in the paper. A yaw control methodology utilizing the biasing devices is proposed. Finally, co-simulation results with Matlab®/Simulink® and CarSim® show the effectiveness of the torque biasing system in achieving yaw stability control.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0319
Z. Gerald Liu, Victoria N. Vasys, Thaddeus A. Swor, David B. Kittelson
The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2347
Victor S. Koscheyev, Gloria R. Leon, Aitor Coca, Jinny Ferl, David Graziosi
The shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) developed by the University of Minnesota group was compared with the standard NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) garment during physical exertion in comfort (24°C) and hot (35°C) chamber environments. In both environmental conditions, the SLCWG was just as effective as the LCVG in maintaining rectal temperature (Tre) in a thermal comfort range; sweat production on the face was less; and subjective perception of overall and local body comfort was higher. The findings indicate that the SLCWG produces the same or greater comfort level as that achieved with the LCVG's total coverage of the body surface.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3179
Heejung Jung, David B. Kittelson, Michael R. Zachariah
Earlier work [1] shows that kinetics of Diesel soot oxidation is different from that of ethylene diffusion flame soot oxidation [2], possibly due to metals from lube oil. This study investigates the influence of metals on soot oxidation and the exhaust particle emissions using lube oil dosed fuel (2 % by volume). This method does not simulate normal lube oil consumption, but is used as a means of adding metals to particles for oxidation studies. This study also provides insight into the effect of systems that mix lube oil with fuel to minimize oil change service. The HTO-TDMA (High Temperature Oxidation-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) technique [1] was used to measure the surface specific oxidation rate of Diesel particles over the temperature range 500-750 °C. Diesel particles sampled from the exhaust stream of a Diesel engine were size segregated by differential mobility and oxidized in situ in air in a heated flow tube of known residence time and temperature profile.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0637
Xin He, Russell P. Durrett, Zongxuan Sun
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0648
Anil Singh Bika, Luke M. Franklin, David B. Kittelson
A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1993
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joo-Young Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Gloria R. Leon, Sung Kwon, Michael L. Gernhardt
A series of demonstration studies were conducted with the aim of better understanding how to regulate body heat and thus enhance thermal comfort of astronauts during EVA requiring intensive physical exertion. The first study evaluated body zone heat transfer under different cooling temperatures in a liquid cooling garment (LCG), confirming the effectiveness of areas with high density tissue. The second study evaluated different configurations of hoods and neck scarves to maximize heat extraction from these key areas for heat release. The third study explored the possibility of regulating body heat by control of the water temperature circulating through selected body zones in the LCG, or blocking heat dissipation from particular body areas. The potential of heat insertion/removal from the head, hands, and feet to stabilize body comfort was evaluated in terms of the ability to advance this heat current “highway” from the core.
2006-12-05
Technical Paper
2006-01-3654
Mark Claywell, Donald Horkheimer
A typical means of limiting the peak power output of race car engines is to restrict the maximum mass flow of air to the engine. The Formula SAE sanctioning body requires the use of an intake restrictor to limit performance, keep costs low, and maintain a safe racing experience. The intake restrictor poses a challenge to improving engine performance. Methods to better understand the ramifications of the restrictor on the engine lead to performance improvements that allow an edge over the competition. A one-dimensional gas exchange simulation code coupled with three-dimensional CFD is used to simulate various concepts in the improvement of restrictor performance. Ricardo's WAVE and VECTIS are the respective simulation codes. Along with this, the interaction of intake manifold and restrictor are considered. The effects of different diffuser geometries and plenum dimensions were first explored using WAVE, and then a series of different diffuser angles were simulated using WAVE-VECTIS.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0753
Benjamin Wolk, Isaac Ekoto, William Northrop
Abstract Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
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