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Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2827
M. T. Afify, R. L. Kushwaha, W. G. Milne, Z. A. El-Haddad, M. Y. El-Ansary
A new prototype of a single unit till-planting system suitable for Egyptian soil was designed, constructed, and tested under soil bin and field conditions. Measurements were taken for draft, soil mean weight diameter, and seedling emergence. Results indicated that there are potential benefits of using this system rather to other tillage systems under dry and hard soil conditions. An optimum seedbed was created for rapid seedling emergence. Combinations of tillage, planting, and fertilizer application were performed in a single operation to reduce power and time requirements for crop production.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2625
S. Panigrahi, A. Rana, R. L. Kushwaha, B. S. Panigrahy
Western Canada has large acreage of oilseed flax, but unfortunately a small percentage of total crop residue (flax straw) produced annually is being commercially used. Therefore, farmers are still burning the flax straw. Flax fiber and straw has highest strength amongst the different natural fibers, therefore, the prospect of using them as biorenewable reinforcement in recycled/ virgin polymer matrices has gained attention in recent years. Flax strawboard has a potential to replace the currently used wood and other crop like wheat/barley straw boards for different industrial application. In this research Oilseed flax straw reinforced composite boards were developed using flax shives with biopolymer binder made out of recycled/ pure thermo plastic and flax fiber. Some advantages of such materials are high strength, low density, good insulation capacity against heat and moisture transfer, and biodegradability.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3496
Jahmy Hindman, Richard Burton, Greg Schoenau
The manufacturing tolerances of off-highway machine linkages have an impact on linkage position during machine use. A study was undertaken to determine the extent of these tolerances on linkage position for standard machining tolerances of each linkage pin joint for a four wheel drive loader linkage. Linkage positions and distributions for each pin joint are shown in order to determine positional accuracy of the working tool connected to the linkage and impact to the machine loads. It is determined that the affect of the machining tolerances on this linkage have a very minor impact on the linkage position when the linkage is in new condition (before use) and the maximum variation in linkage actuation loads is less than 1% of nominal load.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921664
R. T. Johnston, P. B. Hertz, A. E. Krause
The Nexus vehicle was designed and built for Transport Canada at the University of Saskatchewan to demonstrate that a safety compliant single passenger commuter vehicle could attain extremely low fuel consumption rates at modest highway speeds. Experimentally determined steady state fuel consumption rates of the Nexus prototype ranged from 1.6 L/100 km at 61 km/hr up to 2.8 L/100 km at 121 km/hr. Fuel consumption rates for the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) driving cycle tests were 4.5 L/100 km for the SAE Urban cycle and 2.0 L/100 km for the SAE Interstate 55 cycle. The efficiency of the power train was determined using a laboratory dynamometer, enabling the road test results to be compared to the results from an energy and performance simulation program. Predicted fuel economy was in good agreement with that determined experimentally. Widespread use of single passenger commuter vehicles would substantially reduce current transportation energy consumption.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941703
N.D. Klassen, R.J. Wilson, J.N. Wilson, S.N. Pang
This paper describes the development and preliminary field evaluation of a combine feedrate sensor. The sensor employs electrical capacitance sensing techniques in a parallel plate configuration in which one plate is located in the table (or platform) with the other being the table auger. The sensor indicates the mass flowrate (feedrate) of material conveyed by the auger to the feeder. For comparison purposes, the combine harvester was intrumented for measurements of table auger torque and feeder displacement. Conventional bagging techniques of effluent over fixed time intervals were used to establish average feedrate. The results show that the capacitance sensor provides an indication of feedrate and more linear performance over a wider range of feedrate than the other two sensing techniques.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952128
Uriel A. Rosa, R. Lal Kushwaha
The performance of simple tool shapes in terms of draft with speed of operation was evaluated in the soil bin facility of the Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering, University of Saskatchewan. A hydraulic driven monorail system was developed, which was capable of speeds up to 10 m/s. The results showed that the disturbed soil remained close to the cutting path, and the elliptical shape exhibited the lowest draft increment with speed.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932424
Yu Li, J. N. Wilson
Variable rate nitrogen fertilization (VRNF) is a technique being developed for agricultural applications in recent years. In designing a controller for VRNF system, it is hoped that the process parameters, which are difficult to measure, could be identified on-line so that the model-based digital controllers or adaptive controllers could be used to achieve better system performance. In this paper, the problems associated with the on-line process parameter identification for the control of variable rate nitrogen fertilization are analyzed. Simulation studies and experimental tests were conducted to determine a suitable parameter estimation algorithm and the influence of pseudo random binary signal and external torque disturbance on the parameter identification accuracy. The results from the simulation and experimental studies revealed that the recursive least square algorithm is most suitable for parameter estimation.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932427
N. D. Klassen, R. J. Wilson, J. N. Wilson
The potential exists for significantly reducing operating costs by minimizing missing and overlap in successive agricultural field operations, particularly in areas where the equipment is pull-behind and widths of over fifteen meters are common. This paper reports on the development of a sensor, consisting of a video camera and image processing system, to detect the location of the demarcation line between tilled-and-untilled soil and cut-and-standing crop. The development of hardware and software to achieve real-time operation under a variety of crop, soil and ambient lighting conditions is described.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932428
N. D. Klassen, S. N. Pang, R. J. Wilson, J. N. Wilson
The agricultural combine harvester is one of the most complex of machines used in cereal grain production. It is believed that significant increases in efficiency and productivity could be realized if several of the machine adjustments could be automatically controlled. One of the most important parameters to measure and control is the feedrate, i.e. the mass flow rate of material entering the machine. This paper reports on an investigation of a sensor, using electrical capacitance techniques, to measure feedrate.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932390
Cameron A. Wilson, R. L. Kushwaha, Ajit V. Mehta
The Dyna-Bite®* traction system, developed by the Omitrac corporation, consists of a series of retractable spades which can be placed over a conventional tractor drive tires to improve traction under varying soil conditions. An initial model of the traction system was tested in 1986 (1)**. The performance of this model was compared with a 2WD tractor equipped with single drive tires and a front wheel assist (FWA) tractor. More recently, an improved model DB3-RM was evaluated at the University of Saskatchewan. The results were compared with an equally ballasted IH 1086 2WD tractor equipped with single and dual drive wheels (2). Tests for both studies were conducted on a wide range of soil moisture conditions under a variety of drawbar pull levels. Both models of the traction system provided significant traction improvements. Initial model of the traction system performed nearly as good as FWA while the later model proved superior to both single and dual wheels.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932400
Yun-Qi Zhang, Lei Zuo, Richard Burton, Jim Wilson
This paper introduces two new types of basic components (an Electro-Hydraulic Tube and a Hydraulic Tube) which when connected in an appropriate manner can control flow and pressure for many applications; in addition, one of the devices is readily interfacable to a microprocessor for external control. Some background information about the basic concept and the operation of the two components is introduced. Some of the experimental characteristics will be illustrated and several basic circuit examples will be presented to show how the concept can be implemented. The Electro-Hydraulic Integrated Block (EHIB) and Circuit (EHIC) will be introduced followed by a discussion of the advantages and potential of the EHIC concept.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932401
Yun-Qi Zhang, Si-jin Xin, Richard Burton, Greg Schoenau
The development of high precision flow divider/combiner valves has received considerable attention by the authors over the past decade. Several different valve designs for division and combination of flow have been designed which display small flow dividing/combining error (1-2%) when compared to conventional designs (2-10%). Recent studies have improved upon the design in order to reduce cost, weight and complexity of the valve. This paper will present the latest of the authors research into the development of a high precision, autoregulated flow divider/combiner valve with an integral shuttle valve. The autoregulator extends the operating range of the integrated flow divider/combiner valve (for errors less than 2 %) to 10-50 lpm compared to 30-50 lpm for the unregulated valve.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932382
Jie Shen, R. L. Kushwaha
In order to use computer to carry out quick, accurate and economic design of product shape and colour, a package of AUTOLISP programs was developed which can be run under AUTOCAD main environment. Due to the limitation of AUTOCAD 11.0 and 12.0 in 3-D design of complex curved surface, the 3-D design functions were enhanced in the following aspects: (1) 3-D line JOIN and BREAK commands were developed to join and break 3-D polylines. SPIRAL command was designed to create 3-D cone or cylindrical spiral line. In addition, EFTURN and MEFTURN commands were developed to change the vertex sequence of polyline totally or midway. (2) 3-D elements and characters Existing subroutines were revised to directly generate Box, Cone, Pyramid, Dome or Dish, Torus, Sphere and Wedge ready for solid modeling. Furthermore, CONVEX, HOLE and TUBE commands were developed to generate different kinds of convex, hole and tube respectively.
1997-09-08
Technical Paper
972768
R. T. Burton, P. R. Ukrainetz, G. J. Schoenau, C. M. Sargent, X. P. Xu, P. N. Nikiforuk, K. Mertins
In many areas, neural network technology has made a successful transition from theory to practical application, primarily due to the advances that have been made in computer technology and digital signal processing. Research at the University of Saskatchewan over the past few years has focused on applying neural network technology to fluid power systems. This paper will examine four projects that have been initiated by the authors and their graduate students which use neural networks for purposes of open loop pattern following, multiple input - multiple output control, indirect measurement of actuator displacement, and hydraulic component identification. A brief introduction to static and dynamic neural networks is given. Descriptions of the individual project objectives, the experimental implementation of neural networks to achieve these objectives, and some typical experimental results are considered.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952105
Y. Hou, G. J. Schoenau, R. T. Burton
Pulse width modulation (PWM) has been used to alter the performance of on-off hydraulic control valves to make them perform as proportional type flow control valves. Nonlinear performance resulting from time delays in valve switching as well as valve wear due to continuous cycling continue to persist as operational problems. This paper examines a new technique called modified PWM control. The method was found to provide accurate control with a minimum of valve chatter.
2008-10-07
Journal Article
2008-01-2626
Satya Panigrahi, Jimmy Fung, Sujata Panigrahi
Flax, which is known for its linens and oils that are used for industrial products, can also be utilized as a cost effective and environmentally acceptable approach to the creation of a partially biodegradable biocomposite. Biocomposite material is investigated by combining recycled tire rubber, flax and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). The manufacturing process which be used to fabricate the biocomposite product included Extrusion and Compression Molding. Optimizing and studying the composition percentages of the compounds were studied in this paper. Moreover, the properties of the product were observed by using tensile test, tearing test, water absorption test, hardness test and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
2008-10-07
Journal Article
2008-01-2724
S. Panigrahi, R. Oraji, K. S. Arachilage, R. L. Kushwaha, B. S. Panigrahy
This work is based on comparative study of oilseed flax fibre and glass fibre reinforced composite boards for potential application in automotive industries. The material characterizations of flax and glass fibre-composites using unsaturated polyester as matrix were evaluated. Vacuum infusion was used for fabrication of composites. Flexural, tensile, water absorption and color tests were conducted on the composite boards. The density and the moisture content of flax/glass fibre mats were also measured. Three types of composite boards, including flax, glass and flax-glass sandwich were developed and characterized.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901641
R. T. Burton, C. M. Sargent
In much heavy industrial equipment, power transfer is primarily provided by a hydraulic system. Reliable operation of a hydraulic circuit can only be ensured through proper design, effective maintenance and continuous monitoring. Each of these areas requires the expertise of well-trained and experienced individuals. Unfortunately such individuals are not always available. However, the recently introduced technology of “expert” or “knowledge-based” systems can make these individuals' expertise available in the form of a computer program. As part of a long term project in the application of expert systems to hydraulic circuit design, a prototype program has been developed which can successfully configure a variety of circuits including multiple load and add-on circuits. This is currently being expanded to include sequenced circuits, steady-state circuit analysis, which would include component sizing, and dynamic analysis.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921618
Mustafa M. Khalid, R. L. Kushwaha
Understanding the Relationships between plants and soil is important in the development of methods of crop production. Although physical properties of soil conducive to plant growth can be recognized by experienced observers, many of these properties have not been defined satisfactorily in mathematical or physical terms. A method of measuring penetration resistance and energy exerted by a mechanical seedling (a steel probe simulating a seedling) as it moved upward through the soil surface under different levels of surface compaction and soil moisture was examined. Mechanical seedlings with 2.06, 3.19 and 4.65 mm tip diameters were tested at soil moisture levels of 13, 17, and 20%. The penetration rate of the mechanical seedling while moving through the soil was held constant at 10 mm/min. Results showed that the emergence energy increased directly with soil surface compaction pressure, initial soil moisture content, and mechanical seedling diameters.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921741
Yun-Qi Zhang, Xin Si-jin, Richard Burton, Greg Schoenau
A flow divider valve is a device which allows a single stream of fluid to be split into two paths according to a predetermined ratio and independent of variations or differences in the load pressures. A flow combiner valve combines two paths of fluid into one stream such that the ratio of the flow rates coming into the valve remains independent of any variation or difference between the inlet pressures. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of an integrated flow divider/combiner valve. This design maintains the small flow dividing/combining error of high precision valves (less than 1.5% at rated flow) but incorporates the shuttle valve into the main spool system. This new design reduces the weight of the valve by 20% reducing the cost by approximately 10%. The new structure simplifies the construction of high precision valves and reduces a source of flow dividing/combining error (leakage).
2000-09-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2593
S. R. Habibi
This paper compares the characteristics of a high-precision hydrostatic actuator to that of conventional hydraulic systems using servovalves. Servovalve controlled hydraulic actuators retain their market share as they provide precision movement and offer a very high torque to mass ratio at the final actuation point. The input current/output torque relationship of a conventional hydraulic actuation system is reviewed in a robotic context. This relationship is summarized by a mathematical model that can be expressed in a generalized form. This model is used for the analysis of flow and dynamic characteristics. The design and modeling of a recently proposed high-performance hydrostatic actuation system referred to as the ElectroHydraulic Actuator (EHA) is briefly reviewed. A prototype of this actuator has been produced and has demonstrated a comparable performance to servovalve controlled conventional hydraulic systems.
2000-09-11
Technical Paper
2000-01-2619
S. R. Habibi, V. Pastrakuljic, A. A. Goldenberg
A hydrostatic actuation system referred to as the Electro Hydraulic Actuator (EHA) has been designed and prototyped. In this paper, a mathematical model of the EHA is reviewed and analyzed. This theoretical analysis is supported by open-loop experimental results that indicate the presence of nonlinearities but at a degree that is considerably less than that of conventional hydraulic systems with servo-valves. The behavior of the system can be approximated as piece-wise linear with the damping ratio and natural frequency changing according to a piece-wise operating region. The EHA model is used in conjunction with experimentation and numerical optimization for quantifying the influence of unknown parameters in this system. A parametric model for the EHA is subsequently proposed and validated.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2853
Saeid Habibi, Andrew Goldenberg
This paper describes the design strategy adopted for developing a new high performance actuation system referred to as the ElectroHydraulic Actuator (EHA). The design approach can be divided into fives phases that include: pre-conceptual analysis, conceptual design, preliminary design, detailed design and, integration and test. An important aspect of the design process is the use of modeling and simulation for the analysis, sizing and selection of off-the-shelf parts, and for the detailed design of new custom made components. EHA is based on hydrostatic transmission. It is a unique device with its own characteristics and requires hydraulic components that are specifically tailored to its needs. A prototype of EHA has been produced and has demonstrated an extremely high level of performance. The performance of this prototype complies with design requirements and validates the chosen design approach.
1998-09-14
Technical Paper
981967
D. Mourre, R. T. Burton, P. R. Ukrainetz
Most fertilizer application systems are not capable of variable rate adjustments “on-the-fly”. To change the application rate, the farmer must dismount the tractor and change the gear ratio mechanically (i.e. via gears, chains, etc.). Air seeder manufacturers have come up with their own unique solutions to address this problem, usually involving electrohydraulics. At present there are older seeding units that perform adequately, but do not have the variable rate option. A retrofit is therefore very desirable for these units. In this paper, the feasibility of a simple hydraulic proportional valve and variable speed motor circuit is employed to replace the gears and chains. The unit is integrated with a microcontroller to provide compensation to the nonlinear properties of a proportional valve, and in turn provide a very accurate feedrate. In addition, direct user input from the cab of the tractor is possible, allowing on-the-go rate changes.
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