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Viewing 1 to 30 of 87
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1115
Daniel P. Parent, Jason Kerrigan, Jeff Crandall
Fatalities resulting from vehicle rollover events account for over one-third of all U.S. motor vehicle occupant fatalities. While a great deal of research has been directed towards the rollover problem, few studies have attempted to determine the sensitivity of occupant injury risk to variations in the vehicle (roof strength), crash (kinematic conditions at roof-to-ground contact), and occupant (anthropometry, position and posture) parameters that define the conditions of the crash. A two-part computational study was developed to examine the sensitivity of injury risk to changes in these parameters. The first part of this study, the Crash Parameter Sensitivity Study (CPSS), demonstrated the influence of parameters describing the vehicle and the crash on vehicle response using LS-DYNA finite element (FE) simulations.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1123
Costin D. Untaroiu, Yuan-Chiao Lu
The THOR-NT dummy has been developed and continuously improved by NHTSA to provide automotive manufacturers an advanced tool that can be used to assess the injury risk of vehicle occupants in crash tests. With the recent improvements of finite element (FE) technology and the increase of computational power, a validated FE model of THOR may provide an efficient tool for the design optimization of vehicles and their restraint systems. The main goal of this study was to improve biofidelity of a head-neck FE model of THOR-NT dummy. A three-dimensional FE model of the head and neck was developed in LS-Dyna based on the drawings of the THOR dummy. The material properties of deformable parts and the joints properties between rigid parts were assigned initially based on data found in the literature, and then calibrated using optimization techniques.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1128
Neng Yue, Jaeho Shin, Costin D. Untaroiu
More than half of occupant lower extremity (LEX) injuries due to automotive frontal crashes are in the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex. To design the injury countermeasures for the occupant LEX, first the biomechanical and injury responses of the occupant LEX components during automotive frontal crashes should be known. The objective of this study is to develop a detailed biofidelic occupant LEX Finite Element (FE) model based on the component surfaces reconstructed from the medical image data of a 50th percentile male volunteer in a sitting posture. Both volumetric (unstructured) and structural mesh methods were used to generate the solid elements (mostly hexahedral type) to enhance the model simulation accuracy. The FE model includes the femur, tibia, fibula, patella, cartilage, ligaments, menisci, patella tendon, flesh, muscle, and skin. The constitutive material models and their corresponding parameters were defined based on literature data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0530
Taewung Kim, Jason Kerrigan, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff Crandall, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero
Abstract Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0541
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall, Andy Svendsen, Nathaniel Saunders, Craig Markusic
Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the three computational surrogates (GHBMC model, WorldSID model, and the FTSS ES-2re model) under the side impact rigid wall sled test condition. The responses of the three computational surrogates were compared to those of post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) and objectively evaluated using the correlation and analysis (CORA) rating method. Among the three computational surrogates, the GHBMC model showed the best biofidelity based on the CORA rating score (GHBMC =0.65, WorldSID =0.57, FTSS ES-2re =0.58). In general, the response of the pelvis of all the models showed a good correlation with the PMHS response, while the response of the shoulder and the lower extremity did not. In terms of fracture prediction, the GHBMC model overestimated bone fracture.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0462
Robert Kendall, Mark Meissner, Jeff Crandall
This research uses simulations of vehicle-pedestrian collisions to determine if the risk of pedestrian head injury is greater from impact with the vehicle or from impact with the ground, and to determine the influence of vehicle speed, vehicle type, and pedestrian stance on the injury risk. Five speeds, two vehicle types and four pedestrian stances are examined. In addition, a smaller set of simulations is included to determine the influence of body orientation just prior to ground impact. As anticipated, risk of head injury from both the vehicle and the ground tends to increase with vehicle speed, but injury risk from the ground is less predictable. At lower speeds, the vehicle tends to pose a greater risk of injury than does the ground, while at higher speeds the probability of injury from both the vehicle and ground is typically very large.
2005-11-09
Technical Paper
2005-22-0011
Richard Kent, Sang-Hyun Lee, Kurosh Darvish, Stewart Wang, Craig S. Poster, Aaron W. Lange, Chris Brede, David Lange, Fumio Matsuoka
The human body undergoes a variety of changes as it ages through adulthood. These include both morphological (structural) changes (e.g., increased thoracic kyphosis) and material changes (e.g., osteoporosis). The purpose of this study is to evaluate structural changes that occur in the aging bony thorax and to assess the importance of these changes relative to the well-established material changes. The study involved two primary components. First, full-thorax computed tomography (CT) scans of 161 patients, age 18 to 89 years, were analyzed to quantify the angle of the ribs in the sagittal plane. A significant association between the angle of the ribs and age was identified, with the ribs becoming more perpendicular to the spine as age increased (0.08 degrees/year, p=0.012). Next, a finite element model of the thorax was used to evaluate the importance of this rib angle change relative to other factors associated with aging.
2005-11-09
Technical Paper
2005-22-0008
Costin Untaroiu, Kurosh Darvish, Jeff Crandall, Bing Deng, Jenne-Tai Wang
A finite element (FE) model of the lower limb was developed to improve the understanding of injury mechanisms of thigh, knee, and leg during car-to-pedestrian impacts and to aid in the design of injury countermeasures for vehicle front-ends. The geometry of the model was reconstructed from CT scans of the Visible Human Project Database and commercial anatomical databases. The geometry and mass were scaled to those of a 50th percentile male and the entire lower limb was positioned in a standing position according to the published anthropometric references. A "structural approach" was utilized to generate the FE mesh using mostly hexahedral and quadrilateral elements to enhance the computational efficiency of the model. The material properties were selected based on a synthesis on current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1905
Timothy C. Scott, Larry K. McDonald
Advanced design of modern engine cooling and vehicle HVAC components involves sophisticated simulation. In particular, front end air flow models must be able to cover the complete range of conditions from idle to high road speeds involving multiple fans of varying types both powered and unpowered. This paper presents a model for electric radiator cooling fans which covers the complete range of powered and unpowered (freewheel) operation. The model applies equally well to mechanical drive fans.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1876
Douglas Longhitano, Basem Henary, Kavi Bhalla, Johan Ivarsson, Jeff Crandall
Pedestrian impact protection has been a growing area of research over the past twenty or more years. The results from many studies have shown the importance of providing protection to vulnerable road users as a means of reducing roadway fatalities. Most of this research has focused on the vehicle fleet as a whole in datasets that are dominated by passenger cars (cars). Historically, the influence of vehicle body type on injury distribution patterns for pedestrians has not been a primary research focus. In this study we used the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database of detailed pedestrian crash investigations to identify how injury patterns differ for pedestrians struck by light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles (LTVs) from those struck by cars. AIS 2+ and 3+ injuries for each segment of vehicles were mapped back to both the body region of the pedestrian injured and the vehicle source linked to that injury in the PCDS database.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0013
Richard Kent, Robert Salzar, Jason Kerrigan, Daniel Parent, David Lessley, Mark Sochor, Jason F. Luck, Andre Loyd, Yin Song, Roger Nightingale, Cameron R. 'Dale' Bass, Matthew R. Maltese
No experimental data exist quantifying the force-deformation behavior of the pediatric chest when subjected to non-impact, dynamic loading from a diagonal belt or a distributed loading surface. Kent et al., (2006) previously published juvenile abdominal response data collected using a porcine model. This paper reports on a series of experiments on a 7-year-old pediatric post-mortem human subject (PMHS) undertaken to guide the scaling of existing adult thoracic response data for application to the child and to assess the validity of the porcine abdominal model. The pediatric PMHS exhibited abdominal response similar to the swine, including the degree of rate sensitivity. The upper abdomen of the PMHS was slightly stiffer than the porcine behavior, while the lower abdomen of the PMHS fit within the porcine corridor. Scaling of adult thoracic response data using any of four published techniques did not successfully predict the pediatric behavior.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0012
Kristy B. Arbogast, Sriram Balasubramanian, Thomas Seacrist, Matthew R. Maltese, J. Felipe Garcia-Espana, Terrence Hopely, Eric Constans, Francisco J. Lopez-Valdes, Richard W. Kent, Hiromasa Tanji, Kazuo Higuchi
Previous research has suggested that the pediatric ATD spine, developed from scaling the adult ATD spine, may not adequately represent a child's spine and thus may lead to important differences in the ATD head trajectory relative to a human. To gain further insight into this issue, the objectives of this study were, through non-injurious frontal sled tests on human volunteers, to 1) quantify the kinematic responses of the restrained child's head and spine and 2) compare pediatric kinematic responses to those of the adult. Low-speed frontal sled tests were conducted using male human volunteers (20 subjects: 6-14 years old, 10 subjects: 18-40 years old), in which the safety envelope was defined from an amusement park bumper-car impact.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0010
B. Johan Ivarsson, Daniel Genovese, Jeff R. Crandall, James R. Bolton, Costin D. Untaroiu, Dipan Bose
The likelihood of a front seat occupant sustaining a femoral shaft fracture in a frontal crash has traditionally been assessed by an injury criterion relying solely on the axial force in the femur. However, recently published analyses of real-world data indicate that femoral shaft fracture occurs at axial loads levels below those found experimentally. One hypothesis attempting to explain this discrepancy suggests that femoral shaft fracture tends to occur as a result of combined axial compression and applied bending. The current study aims to evaluate this hypothesis by investigating how these two loading components interact. Femoral shafts harvested from human cadavers were loaded to failure in axial compression, sagittal plane bending, and combined axial compression and sagittal plane bending.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0014
David Poulard, Damien Subit, John-Paul Donlon, David J. Lessley, Taewung Kim, Gwansik Park, Richard W. Kent
The objective of the study was to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact spine posture on impact response by subjecting a finite element human body model (HBM) to whole-body, lateral impacts. Seven postured models were created from the original HBM: one matching the standard driving posture and six matching pre-impact posture measured for each of six subjects tested in previously published experiments. The same measurements as those obtained during the experiments were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation were established to compare the response of HBM to that of the cadavers. HBM responses showed good correlation with the subject response for the reaction forces, the rib strain (correlation score=0.8) and the overall kinematics. The pre-impact posture was found to greatly alter the reaction forces, deflections and the strain time histories mainly in terms of time delay.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0012
Qi Zhang, David J. Lessley, Patrick Riley, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Lockerby, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Jeremy Seppi, Jeff R. Crandall, Jason R. Kerrigan
Rollover crashes are a serious public health problem in United States, with one third of traffic fatalities occurring in crashes where rollover occurred. While it has been shown that occupant kinematics affect the injury risk in rollover crashes, no anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has yet demonstrated kinematic biofidelity in rollover crashes. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to assess the kinematic response biofidelity of six ATDs (Hybrid III, Hybrid III Pedestrian, Hybrid III with Pedestrian Pelvis, WorldSID, Polar II and THOR) by comparing them to post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) kinematic response targets published concurrently; and the secondary goal was to evaluate and compare the kinematic response differences among these ATDs.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0014
Jason L. Forman, Francisco Lopez-Valdes, David J. Lessley, Patrick Riley, Mark Sochor, Sara Heltzel, Joseph Ash, Rafal Perz, Richard W. Kent, Thomas Seacrist, Kristy B. Arbogast, Hiromasa Tanji, Kazuo Higuchi
In far-side impacts, head contact with interior components is a key injury mechanism. Restraint characteristics have a pronounced influence on head motion and injury risk. This study performed a parametric examination of restraint, positioning, and collision factors affecting shoulder belt retention and occupant kinematics in far-side lateral and oblique sled tests with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Seven PMHS were subjected to repeated tests varying the D-ring position, arm position, pelvis restraint, pre-tensioning, and impact severity. Each PMHS was subjected to four low-severity tests (6.6 g sled acceleration pulse) in which the restraint or position parameters were varied and then a single higher-severity test (14 g) with a chosen restraint configuration (total of 36 tests). Three PMHS were tested in a purely lateral (90° from frontal) impact direction; 4 were tested in an oblique impact (60° from frontal). All subjects were restrained by a 3-point seatbelt.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0015
Matthew W. Kindig, Anthony G. Lau, Jason L. Forman, Richard W. Kent
To improve understanding of structural coupling and deformation patterns throughout the loaded ribcage, the present study reports the force-displacement and kinematic responses under a highly localized loading condition using three PMHS ribcages (ages 44, 61, and 63 years). The ribcages were quasi-statically loaded locally to a non-failure displacement (nominally 15% of the ribcage depth at the loaded rib level) at approximately 25 unilateral locations and 5-7 geometrically symmetric bilateral locations on the anterior surface of each ribcage, for a total of 94 tests. The translations of 56 points distributed around the anterior, lateral, and posterior portions of the superficial surface of the ribcage were measured while under loading. Each of the first through sixth rib levels was then separated from the remaining ribs, and this "rib ring" structure was individually loaded at the sternum in the anterior-posterior direction.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0014
David Lessley, Greg Shaw, Daniel Parent, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, Matthew Kindig, Patrick Riley, Sergey Purtsezov, Mark Sochor, Thomas Gochenour, James Bolton, Damien Subit, Jeff Crandall, Shinichi Takayama, Koshiro Ono, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980857
C. R. Bass, J. R. Crandall, C. Wang, W. D. Pilkey, C. Chou
Originally designed for measuring closed-loop contours such as those around a human thorax, the External Peripheral Instrument for Deformation Measurement (EPIDM), or chestband, was developed to improve the measurement of dummy and cadaver thoracic response during impact. In the closed-loop configuration, the chestband wraps around on itself forming a closed contour. This study investigates the use of the chestband for dynamic deformation measurements in an open-loop configuration. In the open-loop configuration, the chestband does not generally form a closed contour. This work includes enhanced procedures and algorithms for the calculation of chestband deformation contours including the determination of static and dynamic chestband contours under several boundary conditions.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980636
J.R. Crandall, C.R. Bass, S.M. Duma, S.M. Kuppa
This paper evaluates the biofidelity of the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy relative to seven small female cadavers tested as out-of-position drivers in static air bag deployment tests. In the out-of-position tests, the chest was positioned against the air bag module in an effort to recreate a worst-case loading environment for the thorax. Two pre-depowered production air bags and a prototype dual-stage air bag were evaluated. Thoracic accelerometers and chestbands were used to compare chest compression, velocity, acceleration, and Viscous Criteria. A statistical comparison of dummy and cadaver results indicate acceptable biofidelity of the Hybrid III dummy with significant differences observed only in the Viscous Criteria.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970124
Stefan M. Duma, Rodney W. Rudd, Tyler A. Kress, David J. Porta
This paper examines an originally designed airbag deployment system for use in static experimental testing. It consists of a pressure vessel and valve arrangement with pneumatic and electric controls. A piston functions like a valve when operated and is activated pneumatically to release the air in the tank. Once released, the air fills the attached airbag. The leading edge velocity can be controlled by the initial pressure in the tank, which can range up to 960 kPa. Three different test configurations were studied, which resulted in leading edge deployment speeds of approximately 20 m/s, 40 m/s, and 60 m/s. In experiments using this system, seven types of airbags were tested that differed in their material, coating, and presence of a tether. Data for each series of tests is provided. High speed video and film were used to record the deployments, and a pressure transducer measured the airbag's internal pressure.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970575
P. G. Martin, J. R. Crandall, W. D. Pilkey, C. C. Chou, B. B. Fileta
The University of Virginia is investigating the use of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) angular rate sensor to measure head angular acceleration in impact testing. Output from the sensor, which measures angular velocity, must be differentiated to produce angular acceleration. As a precursor to their use in actual testing, a torsional pendulum was developed to analyze an MHD sensor's effectiveness in operating under impact conditions. Differentiated and digitally filtered sensor data provided a good match with the vibratory response of the pendulum for various magnitudes of angular acceleration. Subsequent head drop tests verified that MHD sensors are suitable for measuring head angular acceleration in impact testing.
1997-11-12
Technical Paper
973324
C. R. Bass, S. M. Duma, J. R. Crandall, R. Morris, P. Martin, W. D. Pilkey, S. Hurwitz, N. Khaewpong, R. Eppinger, E. Sun
Recently there has been a greater awareness of the increased risk of certain injuries associated with air bag deployment, especially the risks to small occupants, often women. These injuries include serious eye and upper extremity injuries and even fatalities. This study investigates the interaction of a deploying air bag with cadaveric upper extremities in a typical driving posture; testing concentrates on female occupants. The goals of this investigation are to determine the risk of upper extremity injury caused by primary contact with a deploying air bag and to elucidate the mechanisms of these upper extremity injuries. Five air bags were used that are representative of a wide range of air bag ‘aggressivities’ in the current automobile fleet. This air bag ‘aggressivity’ was quantified using the response of a dummy forearm under air bag deployment.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920563
Kennerly H. Digges, Gayle D. Dalrymple
Since 1966 the federal government, through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, has promulgated regulations governing the crash safety of motor vehicles, with particular attention to passenger cars. However, during the next four years, most of the regulations will also apply to light trucks and vans. There are now 53 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). These standards primarily regulate the safety of new vehicles. For many disabled persons, especially those confined to wheelchairs, vehicles must be extensively modified to allow them to drive, or to ride as passengers. The objective of this paper is to examine the safety level intended to be afforded to able bodied persons by the crashworthiness FMVSS and to make observations on the special requirements of modified vehicles to afford the same level of safety to disabled persons. We will emphasize the safety needs of those who use vans since vans are the vehicles most extensively modified.
1993-10-01
Technical Paper
932342
C. Sean Brossia, Robert G. Kelly
The electrochemical and corrosion behavior of metals in aqueous environments has received substantial attention. However, relatively little work has been devoted to the electrochemistry and corrosion of metals in non-aqueous environments. Now, with greater pressures to increase fuel efficiencies and decrease exhaust emissions, alternatives and additives to gasoline (including methanol and ethanol) are receiving increased attention from government agencies and automobile manufacturers. Unfortunately, fundamental studies of the corrosion behavior of metals in these solutions are scarce. The objective of the present work is to investigate the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of iron in methanolic solutions containing Cl, H+, SO42-, and H2O. To accomplish this, a full factorial design test matrix was developed to systematically evaluate the effects of these impurities on the corrosion behavior of iron.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940810
Michael J. O'Connor, F. E. Wawner
Selectively reinforced, squeeze cast automotive pistons contain a boundary between the reinforced and unreinforced regions. This boundary is known as the macro-interface. Due to the difference in CTE between the composite and unreinforced matrix, the macro-interface can be the site of residual stress formation during cooling from the casting or heat treatment temperature. Subsequent thermal exposure, particularly thermal cycling, may produce cyclic stress at this interface causing it to experience fatigue. It has been found that matrix precipitates at the macro-interface and the aging behavior of the matrix also may play a role in defining the strength of the macro-interface during thermal cycling conditions.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940711
Jeff R. Crandall, Stephen M. Klisch, Gregory S. Klopp, Edwin Sieveka, Walter D. Pilkey, Peter Martin
The University of Virginia is investigating the biomechanical response and the injury tolerance of the lower extremities. This paper presents the experimental and simulation work used to study the injury patterns and mechanisms of the ankle/foot complex. The simulation effort has developed a segmented lower limb and foot model for an occupant simulator program to study the interactions of the foot with intruding toepan and pedal components. The experimental procedures include static tests, pendulum impacts, and full-scale sled tests with the Advanced Anthropomorphic Test Device and human cadavers. In these tests, the response of the lower extremities is characterized with analogous dummy and cadaver instrumentation packages that include strain gauges, electrogoniometers, angular rate sensors, accelerometers, and load cells. An external apparatus is applied to the surrogate's lower extremities to simulate the effects of muscle tensing.
1994-11-01
Technical Paper
942206
Richard M. Morgan, Rolf H. Eppinger, Mark P. Haffner, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Anthony Sances, Jeff R. Crandall, Walter D. Pilkey, Gregory S. Klopp, Dimitrios Kallieris, Erich Miltner, Rainer Mattem, Shashi M. Kuppa, Cheryl L. Sharpless
Sixty-three simulated frontal impacts using cadaveric specimens were performed to examine and quantify the performance of various contemporary automotive restraint systems. Test specimens were instrumented with accelerometers and chest bands to characterize their mechanical responses during the impact. The resulting thoracic injury severity was determined using detailed autopsy and was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. The ability of various mechanical parameters and combinations of parameters to assess the observed injury severities was examined and resulted in the observation that belt restraint systems generally had higher injury rates than air bag restraint systems for the same level of mechanical responses. To provide better injury evaluations from observed mechanical parameters without prior knowledge of what restraint system was being used, a dichotomous process was developed.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960094
Jeff R. Crandall, Peter G. Martin, Walter D. Pilkey
Drop testing of the Hybrid III dummy head was conducted to determine variations in Head Injury Criteria values with the point of head impact, and how the variations relate to actual head injuries. Head drop tests indicated that impacts to the temple and lower forehead posed the greatest injury risks. Moreover, the application of chamois or chalk over the head, a common practice among safety researchers to detect racial lacerations and head contacts, was found to significantly lower Head Injury Criteria values for all impact locations.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960721
Klaus Brun, Ronald D. Flack
The 3-D flow field inside an automotive torque converter was measured using laser velocimetry. For the tests, a torque converter completely machined from Plexiglas was operated at the 0.065 and 0.800 turbine/pump speed ratio, and detailed velocities were measured in 13 planes throughout the torque converter. Digital shaft encoder information was used to correlate measured velocities with the pump/turbine angular positions to generate blade-to-blade profiles, 3-D vector plots, and contour through flow plots. Results showed large flow separation regions, jet/wake flows, circulatory secondary flows, and significant flow unsteadiness in all three torque converter elements (pump, turbine, and stator). From the measured velocities, torque converter performance parameters such as mass flows, input/output torque, element incidence angles, slip factors, and vorticities were determined.
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