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Viewing 1 to 30 of 34
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1779
Maria El-Zeghayar, Tim Topper, John J. Bonnen
Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1015
Dan Kraehling, David Anderson, Michael Worswick, Tim Skszek
Abstract The effect of stress triaxiality on failure strain in as-cast magnesium alloy AM60B is examined. Experiments using one uniaxial and two notched tensile geometries were used to study the effect of stress triaxiality on the quasi-static constitutive response of super vacuum die cast AM60B castings. For all tests, local strains, failure location and specimen elongation were tracked using two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The uniaxial specimens were tested in two orthogonal directions to determine the anisotropy of the casting. Finite element models were developed to estimate effective plastic strain histories and stress state (triaxiality) as a function of notch severity. It was found that there is minimal, if any, anisotropy present in AM60B castings. Higher stress triaxiality levels caused increases in maximum stress and decreases in elongation and local effective plastic strain at failure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0992
Nikky Pathak, Cliff Butcher, Michael Worswick, Erika Bellhouse, Jeff Gao
Abstract New innovations in the field of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have led to the development of steels with improved stretch-flangeability known as hot-rolled multi-phase (HR) steels. To understand the performance of HR steels, hole expansion tests were conducted on five prototype HR steels and compared with their commercial dual-phase (DP) steel equivalent. A variety of hole edge conditions were considered to study the influence of the shear-affected-zone (SAZ), the surface roughness at the sheared edge and the shear burr orientation. The microstructure of each material was characterized and discussed in relation to its formability for the different edge conditions. It was observed that the bainitic-ferrite microstructure of the HR steels showed superior formability during sheared edge stretching compared to commercial dual-phase steels.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0544
M. Sorine, M. J. Worswick, D. A. Oliveira
One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0092
K. R. Chan, N. Scotchmer, J. Zhao, Y. Zhou
The increased use of zinc coatings on steels has led to a decrease in their weldability. Weld current and time need to be increased in order to achieve sound welds on these materials compared to uncoated steels, and electrode tip life suffers greatly due to rapid alloying and degradation. In this work, typical uncoated Class II electrodes were tested along with a TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) coated electrode. Tests were conducted to study the weldability and process of nugget formation for both electrodes on HDG (hot dipped galvanized) HSLA (high strength low alloys) steels. Current and time ranges were constructed for both types of electrodes by varying either the weld current or weld time while holding all other parameters constant. Analysis of weld microstructures was conducted on cross-sectioned welds using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Using the coated electrodes reduced weld current and times needed to form MWS (minimum weld size) on the coated steels.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0093
Z. Chen, Y. Zhou, Nigel Scotchmer
TiCP/Ni coating has been deposited onto the electrodes by electro-spark deposition to improve electrode life during resistance welding of Zn-coated steels. However, welding results revealed that molten Zn penetrates into coating through the cracks and then reacts with substrate copper alloy to form brasses. In the present work, laser treatment was performed on the TiCP/Ni coated electrodes to eliminate cracks formed in the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating. In addition, a multi-electro-spark deposition of Ni, TiCP/Ni and Ni has also been carried out to improve coating quality. On the other hand, a TiB2 coating was also investigated. those coatings were characterized by electro-microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and micro-hardness tests. The results showed that cracks within the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating could be eliminated with the use of laser treatment or a multi-layer deposition process.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1166
Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920434
R.F. Fischer, J.A. Schey
The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920667
T.H. Topper, M.T. Yu
A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920669
D.L. DuQuesnay, M.T. Yu, T.H. Topper, B.J. Dabell
A ferritic-pearlitic nodular iron automobile suspension knuckle was fatigue tested in the laboratory using a constant amplitude load level that simulated a severe service condition. It was found that cracks always initiated from surface casting defects and that the fatigue life could be extended significantly by machining away the as-cast surface in the fatigue sensitive locations. Both local strain and fracture mechanics approaches were used successfully to predict the fatigue life of the component.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920634
John A. Schey, S.W.A. Watts
Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920632
Gregory M. Dalton, John A. Schey
This study was undertaken to examine the role of tool finish orientation on the drawing of zinc-coated steel sheets. Beads of average roughnesses of 0.1 μm and 0.2 μm, finished parallel to and perpendicular to sliding, were used in the drawbead test. Lubrication was provided by unblended base oils of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s @ 40°C, used neat and with a boundary additive, 1% stearic acid. Three types of coated sheet (galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized) were compared to bare AKDQ steel sheet. Results show that lubricant viscosity had the greatest effect on friction, while bead finish orientation and coating type influenced the nature of metal transfer and the galling of the strip. Mixed-film lubrication dominated with the medium and heavy lubricants, here contact area and friction were reduced with increasing lubricant viscosity.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0835
J. Gholipour, M. J. Worswick, D. Oliveira
This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1313
O. Vahid, C. R. Urbaniak, A. Khajepour
This paper deals with an identification method for engine rigid body inertia properties based on available accelerometer data at mount locations. Unlike other rigid body direct physical parameter identification methods, here inertia properties are extracted from an assembled engine under operating conditions. In addition to acceleration responses, only mount dynamic stiffness measurements are required and there is no need to measure unbalance forces and moments of engine. Using a linear frequency-domain model of engine, mounts, and chassis, a general algorithm is developed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0092
S. L. Winkler, A. Bardelcik, M. J. Worswick, Y. Ososkov, D. Wilkinson, M. Jain
Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0094
A. Bardelcik, M. J. Worswick
The work presented in this paper utilizes advanced FE models of the pre-bending and hydroforming process to investigate the effect of bending boost and hydroforming end-feed on the hydroformability of a tube. A model of a rotary-draw tube bender was used to simulate pre-bending of DP600 tube after which models of hydroforming of the pre-bent tube were run with various levels of end-feed. By varying bending boost from low (LB), medium (MB) and high (HB), consistent trends in the strain and thickness distribution within the pre-bent tubes were observed. Three end-feed levels were simulated and showed that an increase in end-feed improved formability during hydroforming. The sensitivity of the models to bending boost was shown.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0742
Zengtao Chen, Michael Worswick, Keith Pilkey, David Lloyd
A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-2837
J. N. Dyment, M. J. Worswick, F. Normani, D. A. Oliveira, G. Khodayari
This research examines the effect of endfeed on the thickness and strains during bending of steel tubes. The tubes were bent using an instrumented rotary draw tube bender and subsequently hydroformed into a diamond-profile outside corner fill die. DQAK tubes with an OD of 76.2 mm and a thickness of 1.55 mm were investigated. Endfeed during bending was found to have a significant effect on the thickness and strains within the tube after bending, and numerical models that were generated showed good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown how slight changes in thickness can cause localized failure during hydroforming, and how excessive die clearances can cause large strains in undesired areas.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0687
Yun Wang, John T. W. Yeow
Porous silicon as gas/chemical sensing material has been widely investigated in recent years. In this paper, the humidity sensing property of n-type porous silicon with ordered structure is studied for the first time. The ordered porous silicon used in this experiment has uniform pore size, pore shape and distribution. Both the membrane and closed bottom samples were studied. The resistance change of the porous silicon was measured. A 22-28% decrease of resistance was observed when relative humidity was changed from 1% to 100%. Both the response time and the recovery time were within 10 minutes, and 90% of the response can be reached in 6 minutes for the PS membrane sample. The possible sensing mechanism and future work are also discussed in this paper.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0689
Linda F. Nazar, Si Hyoung Oh
Traditional electrode materials for lithium-ion storage cells are typically crystalline layered structures such as metal oxides, and graphitic carbons. These materials power billions of portable electronic devices in today's society. However, large-scale, high-capacity storage devices capable of powering hybrid electric vehicles (HEV″s) or their plug-in versions (PHEV's) have much more demanding requirements with respect to safety, cost, and the power they must deliver. Recently, nanostructured solid state materials, which are comprised of two more compositional or structural phases, have been found to show exciting possibilities to meet these criteria.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1442
A. Bardelcik, M. J. Worswick
Abstract The Extended Stress-Based Forming Limit Curve (XSFLC) failure criterion has been shown to provide good qualitative and quantitative predictions of failure (necking) in straight tube hydro forming when the on the level of end-feed (EF) used during hydro forming, the failure criterion has a tendency to over predict failure pressure at low Keeler-Brazier (K-B) approximation is used to define the XSFLC failure curve. Depending EF and under predict failure pressure for high EF. The over/under predictions suggest that the strain-space εFLC, which the XSFLC is based on, has too high of a plane-strain intercept (FLCo), when it is obtained using the K-B approximation (developed for sheet metal).
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2982
Kin Yuen, Christopher Thom, Duane Cronin
Vehicles designed for the Baja SAE competition operate on challenging off-road terrain and may be required to withstand accidental impacts with other vehicles and obstacles. Although significant injuries are not commonly observed in this competition, it is important to understand the performance of these vehicles in crash scenarios to optimize frame design and vehicle performance. A finite element model comprising the vehicle chassis and associated subsystem weights, a Hybrid III occupant, and safety systems was developed to evaluate vehicle impact performance in frontal crash. Impacts velocities up to 36 kph were considered, and no significant risk of head, neck or thoracic injury was predicted. Neck injury (as predicted by Nij) and chest acceleration were found to be the most critical, reaching 66% and 75% of their threshold values, respectively, in the most severe crashes considered.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1370
I. Khan, M. L. Kuntz, Y. Zhou, K. Chan, N. Scotchmer
In this study, a finite element software application (SORPAS®) is used to simulate the effect of pulsing on the expected weld thermal cycle during resistance spot welding (RSW). The predicted local cooling rates are used in combination with experimental observation to study the effect pulsing has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-coated DP600 AHSS (1.2mm thick) spot welds. Experimental observation of the weld microstructure was obtained by metallographic procedures and mechanical properties were determined by tensile shear testing. Microstructural changes in the weld metal and heat affect zone (HAZ) were characterized with respect to process parameters.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1051
Zengtao Chen, Michael Worswick, Oleg Orlov, Mark Finn, David Lloyd
Stretch flange features are commonly found in the corner regions of commercial parts, such as window cutouts, where large strains can induce localization and necking. In this study, laboratory-scale stretch flange forming experiments on AA5182 and AA5754 were conducted to address the formability of these aluminum alloys under undergoing this specific deformation process. Two distinct cracking modes were found in the stretch flange samples. One is radial cracking at the inner edge of flange (cutout edge) while the other is circumferential cracking away from the inner edge at the punch profile radius. Numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operations was conducted with an explicit finite element code-LS-DYNA. A coalescence-suppressed Gurson-based material model is used in the finite element model. Void coalescence and final failure in stretch flange is simulated through measured second-phase particle fields with a so-called damage percolation model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0378
John George, Daniel Gross, Hamid Jahed, Ali Roostaei
Abstract The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0773
M. J. Worswick, A. K. Pilkey, D. Lloyd, S. Court
Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0824
Dino A. Oliveira, M. J. Worswick, M. Finn
Electromagnetic forming of aluminum alloys provides improved forming limits, minimal springback and rapid implementation. The ability to predict the minimum energy required in electromagnetic forming is essential in developing an efficient process. Understanding the development of the strain distribution over time in the blank is also highly desired. A numerical model is needed that offers insight into these areas and the electromagnetic forming process in general that cannot easily be extracted from experiments. To address these concerns, ANSYS/EMAG is used to model the time varying currents that are discharged through the coil in order to obtain the transient magnetic forces acting on the blank. The body forces caused by electromagnetic induction are then used as the boundary condition to model the high velocity deformation of the blank with LS-DYNA, an explicit dynamic finite element code.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0823
Young Lee, Mike Worswick, Steve Truttmann, Hamid Shakeri, Mark Finn, Frank Feng, Bill Christy, Daniel Green
This paper investigates the application of standard formability testing results for aluminum alloy tailor welded blanks (TWB) to full size stampings. The limit strains obtained from formability testing are compared to measured strains in a larger scale part. The measured strains in the full scale part are also compared to predictions from finite element simulation.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0757
B. Hodgins, M. Worswick, D. Thomas, M. Finn, K. Gong
This work outlines the evaluation of static and dynamic dent resistance of medium scale structural assemblies fabricated using AA6111 and AA5754. The assemblies fabricated attempt to mimic common automotive hood designs allowing for a parametric study of the support spacing, sheet thickness and panel curvature. Closure panels of AA6111, of two thicknesses (0.8, and 0.9mm), are bonded to re-usable inner panels fabricated using AA5754 to form the structural assemblies tested. While normal practice would use the same alloy for both the inner and the outer, in the current work, AA5754 was adopted for ease of welding. Numerical simulations were performed using LS DYNA. A comparison of experimental and numerically simulated results is presented. The study attempts to establish an understanding of the relationship between structural support conditions and resulting dent depths for both static and dynamic loading conditions.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1321
R. P. Kaufman, T. S. Lam, A. Thompson, T. H. Topper, A. Dabayeh, F. A. Conle
The paper describes the fabrication and testing of thin sheet metal uniaxial fatigue specimens that have been laminated to prevent buckling. When hot or cold rolled metal thicknesses are below 5 mm, the usual fatigue specimens, having a uniform gauge length of 7.5 mm or more, buckle in the short life region (∼10000 cycles) of strain-life testing. For thinner materials, non-standard specimen designs or anti-buckling guides have been used, but each of these solutions requires additional instrumentation. The results presented in this paper show that laminating multiple sheets of material together to increase the specimen's effective thickness raises the strain level for the onset of buckling of the standard uniaxial specimen. Constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests extending into the high-strain short-life region were performed. Fatigue life data for multiple layer specimens were in good agreement with those obtained for single layer specimens.
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