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Viewing 1 to 30 of 44
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1660
Ienkaran Arasaratnam, Saeid Habibi, Christopher Kelly, Tony J. Fountaine, Jimi Tjong
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0737
Kush Aggarwal, Ruth Urbanic, Luv Aggarwal
Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0569
Ishika Zonina Towfic, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract The development of a collision severity model can serve as an important tool in understanding the requirements for devising countermeasures to improve occupant safety and traffic safety. Collision type, weather conditions, and driver intoxication are some of the factors that may influence motor vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify the major determinants or contributors to fatal collisions based on various driver, vehicle, and environment characteristics obtained from collision data from Transport Canada. The developed model will have the capability to predict similar collision outcomes based on the variables analyzed in this study. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network model with feed-forward back-propagation architecture is used to develop a generalized model for predicting collision severity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0849
Ahmad Fadel, Biao Zhou
The implementation of fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles requires a supervisory control strategy that manages the power distribution between the fuel cell and the energy storage device (i.e., battery). Several advanced control methods have already been developed and published in literature. However, most control methods have been developed for different vehicle types and using different mathematical models. The performance of these power management methods have not been directly compared for the same application. This study aims at obtaining direct analytical comparisons, which will provide useful insight in selecting a power management method for fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0696
Kohei Fukuda, Abbas Ghasemi, Ronald Barron, Ram Balachandar
Clean diesel engines are one of the fuel efficient and low emission engines of interest in the automotive industry. The combustion chamber flow field and its effect on fuel spray characteristics plays an important role in improving the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emission in a direct injection diesel engine, in terms of influencing processes of breakup, evaporation mixture formation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. Ultra-high injection pressure fuel sprays have benefits in jet atomization, penetration and air entrainment, which promote better fuel-air mixture and combustion. CFD modeling is a valuable tool to acquire detailed information about these important processes. In this research, the characteristics of ultra-high injection pressure diesel fuel sprays are simulated and validated in a quiescent constant volume chamber. A profile function is utilized in order to apply variable velocity and mass flow rate at the nozzle exit.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970416
Andrew Spicer, Michael H. Wang, Pável Zamudio-Ramirez, Larry Daniels
Currently, the recycling of automobiles can be considered to be a success story. However, it is hoped by the automakers that the current automotive recycling infrastructure can adapt to include more disassembly of plastics for recycling. The success of this option depends on the economics involved. Therefore, a method for evaluating the economics of disassembly for recycling is utilized to see how changes in recycling prices, disassembly costs, or design might affect the practices of dismantlers.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1141
Qian Wang, Tanya Kapoor, William Altenhof, Likun Chen, Andrew Howard
This research focuses on the injury potential of children seated in forward facing child restraint seats during frontal vehicle crashes. Experimental sled tests were completed in accordance to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213 using a Hybrid III three-year-old dummy in a five point child restraint system. A full vehicle crash test was completed in accordance to the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208 with the addition of a three-year-old Hybrid III crash test dummy, seated behind the passenger seat, restrained in the identical five-point child safety seat. Different child restraint finite element models were developed incorporating a subset of the apparatus used in the two experimental tests and simulated using LS-DYNA.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3286
Graham T. Reader, Siddhartha Banerjee, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Experiments are carried out with the diesel particulate filter and oxidation catalyst embedded in the active-flow configurations on a single cylinder diesel engine. The combined use of various active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to favorable windows for filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Empirical and theoretical investigations are performed with a transient one-dimensional single channel aftertreatment model developed in FORTRAN and MATLAB. The influence of the supplemental energy distribution along the length of aftertreatment device is evaluated. The theoretical analysis indicates that the active-flow control schemes have fundamental advantages in optimizing the converter thermal management including reduction in supplemental heating, increase in thermal recuperation, and improving overheating protection.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3281
Ming Zheng, Mwila C. Mulenga, Graham T. Reader, Meiping Wang, David S-K. Ting
The exhaust emission and performance characteristics of a 100% biodiesel fuel was evaluated on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine that had been modified to allow multi-pulse diesel fuel injection at the intake port and independent control of intake heating, exhaust gas recirculation and throttling. Firstly, conventional single-shot direct injection tests were conducted and comparisons made between the use of an ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel and the biodiesel fuel. Secondly, tests for the premixed combustion of neat biodiesel were performed. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied extensively to initiate the low temperature combustion for the conventional in-cylinder single injection operation and to moderate the timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition for the intake-port sequential injection. Because of the high viscosity and low volatility of the biodiesel, pilot-ignited homogeneous charge compression ignition was used.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3885
Ming Zheng, Graham T Reader, Dong Wang, Jun Zuo, Raj Kumar, Mwila C Mulenga, Usman Asad, David S-K Ting, Meiping Wang
Diesel fueling and exhaust flow strategies are investigated to control the substrate temperatures of diesel aftertreatment systems. The fueling control includes the common-rail post injection and the external supplemental fuel injection. The post injection pulses are further specified at the early, mid, or late stages of the engine expansion stroke. In comparison, the external fueling rates are moderated under various engine loads to evaluate the thermal impact. Additionally, the active-flow control schemes are implemented to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. In parallel with the empirical work, the dynamic temperature characteristics of the exhaust system are simulated one-dimensionally with in-house and external codes. The dynamic thermal control, measurement, and modeling of this research intend to improve the performance of diesel particulate filters and diesel NOx absorbers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1124
Babak Emami, Rui Liu, David S.-K. Ting, M. David Checkel
As a first step toward better understanding of the effects of flame stretch on combustion rate in SI engines, the burning velocity of a premixed, spherical, laminar methane-air flame propagating freely at standard temperature and pressure was investigated. The underlying un-stretched burning velocity was computed using CHEMKIN 3.7 with GRI mechanism, while the Lewis number and subsequently the Markstein length were deduced theoretically. The burning velocity of the freely growing flame ball was calculated from the un-stretched burning velocity with curvature and stretch effects accounted via the theoretically deduced Markstein length. For the positive Markstein length methane-air flame, flame stretching reduces the burning velocity. Therefore, the burning velocity of a spark-ignited flame starts with a value lower than, and increases asymptotically to, the underlying un-stretched burning velocity as the flame grows.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0984
Joseph Maiorana, Bruce P. Minaker, Dajun Zhang, Mohammed A. Malik
The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of simulating an active suspension using cosimulation. The vehicle used is a utility truck created in ADAMS/View while the E.C.U. (electronic control unit) is implemented in Simulink for both a fully-active and semi-active controller. The LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) is used for the fully-active system while the semi-active system uses a switching law adopted from Karnopp et al. {1}. Nonlinear and linear vehicle models are compared and the influence of suspension bushings is examined. All simulations undertaken are geared towards evaluating the ride capabilities of such systems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0140
G. Gnanam, M. Johnson, A. Sobiesiak, G. Reader
This paper investigates the expansion of the HCCI operating range and combustion control by use of internal fuel reforming with subsequent reduction of NO emissions through Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The study is focused on multi-step simulation of the engine cycle, comprised of a fuel reformation cycle and a HCCI combustion cycle, with and without EGR. The study is carried out using a single-zone well-stirred reactor model and established reaction mechanisms. The HCCI engine cycle is fueled with a lean mixture of air and ethanol. This study demonstrates that supplementing EGR with internal reforming reduces the NO emissions level. Furthermore, the study shows that internal fuel reforming extends the operational range of HCCI engines into the partial load region and is effective in the combustion onset control.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3091
Andrzej Sobiesiak, Shengmei Zhang
This paper presents a fundamental thermodynamic modeling approach to study internal combustion engines. The computations of the thermodynamic functions, especially availability, have been developed to seek better energy utilization, analyze engine performance and optimize design of spark ignition (SI) engines fueled with compressed natural gas (CNG), by using both the first and the second law analyses. A single-zone heat release model with constant thermodynamic properties is built into the air cycle simulation, while a more comprehensive two-zone combustion model with burning rate as a sinusoidal function of crank angle is built into the fuel/air thermodynamic engine cycle simulation. The computations mainly include pressure, unburned and burned zone temperature, indicated work, heat loss, mass blowby, availability destruction due to combustion, fuel chemical availability, availability transfer with heat, availability transfer with work and availability exhaust to the environment.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1121
Tanya Kapoor, William Altenhof, Miroslav Tot, Andrew Howard, Jim Rasico, Fuchun Zhu, Koji Mizuno
Abstract This research focuses on the response of the Q3, Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy and a child finite element model in a simulated 213 sled test. The Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year old child finite element models were developed by First Technology Safety Systems. The 3-year-old child finite element model was developed by Nagoya University by model-based scaling from the AM50 (50 percentile male) total human model for safety. The child models were positioned in a forward facing, five-point child restraint system using Finite Element Model Builder. An acceleration pulse acquired from an experimental 213 sled test, which was completed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213 using a Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy, was applied to the seat buck supporting the child restraint seat. The numerical simulations utilizing the Q3, Hybrid III 3-year-old and the child finite element model were conducted using the explicit non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1120
Miroslav Tot, Tanya Kapoor, William Altenhof, Wayne Marino, Andrew Howard
This research focuses on comparing the biomechanical response of the head and neck of the Hybrid III 3-year-old anthropometric test device finite element model and pediatric cadaver data, under flexion-extension bending and axial tensile loading conditions. Previous experimental research characterized the quasi-static biomechanical response of the pediatric cervical spine under flexion-extension bending and tolerance in tensile distraction loading conditions. Significant differences in rotational and linear stiffness were found between the Hybrid III model and the pediatric cadaver data. In this research the biomechanical child cadaver neck response has been implemented into the 3-year-old Hybrid III child dummy FE model. An explicit finite element code (LS-DYNA) and the modified Hybrid III model were used to numerically simulate the previous cadaver tests and validate the altered Hybrid III neck.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1117
Amitabha Majumder, William Altenhof, Shun Yi Jin, Tanya Kapoor, Daniel Green
Experimental and numerical studies have been completed on the deformation behaviour of round AA6061-T6 aluminum extrusions during an axial cutting deformation mode employing both curved and straight deflectors to control the bending deformation of petalled side walls. Round extrusions of length 200 mm with a nominal wall thickness of 3.175 mm and an external diameter of 50.8 mm were considered. A heat treated 4140 steel alloy cutter and deflectors, both straight and curved, were designed and manufactured for the testing considered. The four blades of the cutter had an approximate average thickness of 1.00 mm which were designed to penetrate through the round AA6061-T6 extrusions. Experimental observations illustrated high crush force efficiencies of 0.82 for the extrusions which experienced the cutting deformation mode with the deflectors. Total energy absorption during the cutting process was approximately 5.48 kJ.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1224
N. C. Nantais, B. P. Minaker
A vehicle undergoing longitudinal or lateral accelerations experiences load transfer, dynamically changing the normal load carried by each tire. Conventional braking systems are designed only to work adequately over a large range of conditions, but often ignore the dynamic state of the tire's normal load. Fortunately, new developments in braking system hardware give designers more control over the application of braking pressures. By identifying the tires that carry increased normal load, and biasing the braking system toward those tires, total braking force can be increased. The purpose of this research is to investigate advantages of open-loop load transfer based active brake pressure distribution. By estimating the tractive ability of the tires as a function of measurable vehicle conditions, brake pressure can be applied in proportions appropriate for the current dynamic state of the vehicle, referred to as Active Brake Proportioning (ABP).
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0211
Robert Shang, William Altenhof, Henry Hu, Naiyi Li
Fatigue analysis incorporating explicit finite element simulation was conducted on a forged magnesium wheel model where a rotating bend moment was applied to the hub to simulate rotary fatigue testing. Based on wheel fatigue design criteria and a developed fatigue post-processor, the safety factor of fatigue failure was calculated for each finite element. Fatigue failure was verified through experimental testing. Design modifications were proposed by increasing the spoke thickness. Further numerical and experimental testing indicated that the modified design passed the rotary fatigue test.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0510
Sreekanta Das, Sudip Bhattacharjee, Pratanu Ghosh
Rollover crash is one of the most serious safety problems for light weight vehicles. In the USA, rollover crashes account for almost one-third of all occupant fatalities in light weight vehicles. Similar statistics are found for other countries. Thus, rollover crashes have received significant attention in recent years. In the USA and Canada, automotive manufacturers are required to comply with the roof strength requirement of “1.5 times the unloaded vehicle weight” to ensure safety in rollover. NHTSA is currently considering a set of countermeasures to improve the rollover safety, where one of the proposals is to increase the roof strength limit to “2.5 times the unloaded vehicle weight”. This increased roof strength limit seemingly has been motivated based on the benchmark study of current vehicle fleet.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1000
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng
A number of cylinder-pressure derived parameters including the crank angles of maximum pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and 50% heat released are considered as among the desired feedback for cycle-by-cycle adaptive control of diesel combustion. For real-time computation of these parameters, the heat release analyses based on the first law of thermodynamics are used. This paper intends to identify the operating regions where the simplified heat release approach provides sufficient accuracy for control applications and also highlights those regions where its use can lead to significant errors in the calculated parameters. The effects of the cylinder charge-to-wall heat transfer and the temperature dependence of the specific heat ratio on the model performance are reported. A new computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the crank angle of 50% heat released with adequate accuracy is proposed for computation in real-time.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0739
Dongqing Yang, Shaohong Cheng*, David S-K. Ting
Heavy traffic volume makes tailgating a common picture on the road today. Wake interference, particularly in the scenario when a relatively small sedan drives into the wake of a large truck, may raise some serious highway safety concerns. In this paper, the characteristics of the separation bubble of model trucks with various degrees of details are studied. The objective is to find out the impact of truck model details on the characteristics of the wake bubble. Our wind tunnel results revealed that the degree of model detail has a significant effect on the wake bubble; the bubble length increases with model details.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4019
Ming Zheng, Yuyu Tan, Mwila Clarence Mulenga, Meiping Wang
Thermal efficiency comparisons are made between the low temperature combustion and the conventional diesel cycles on a common-rail diesel engine with a conventional diesel fuel. Empirical studies have been conducted under independently controlled exhaust gas recirculation, intake boost, and exhaust backpressure. Up to 8 fuel injection pulses per cylinder per cycle have been applied to modulate the homogeneity history of the early injection diesel low temperature combustion operations in order to improve the phasing of the combustion process. The impact of heat release phasing, duration, shaping, and splitting on the thermal efficiency has been analyzed with zero-dimensional engine cycle simulations. This paper intends to identify the major parameters that affect diesel low temperature combustion engine thermal efficiency.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4035
Ming Zheng, Usman Asad
The diesel fuel reforming process in an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop of a diesel engine is capable of utilizing the engine exhaust energy to support the endothermic process of hydrogen gas generation. However, the EGR stream commonly needs to be heated to enable the operation of the reformer and thus to sustain higher yield of hydrogen. A central-fuelling and flow-reversal embedment that is energy-efficient to raise the central temperatures of the catalytic flow-bed is therefore devised and tested to drastically reduce the supplemental heating to the EGR reformer. One-dimensional modeling analyses are conducted to evaluate the fuel delivery strategies and temperature profiles of the reformer at various reforming gas flow rates and engine-out exhaust temperatures and compositions. This research attempts to quantify the energy saving by the catalytic flow-reversal and central-fuelling embedment in comparison to a unidirectional flow EGR reformer.
2008-10-06
Journal Article
2008-01-2472
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng, Xiaoye Han, Graham T. Reader, Meiping Wang
Simultaneous low NOx (< 0.15 g/kWh) & soot (< 0.01 g/kWh) are attainable for enhanced premixed combustion that may lead to higher levels of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions as the engine cycles move to low temperature combustion, which is a departure from the ultra low hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, typical of the high compression ratio diesel engines. As a result, the fuel efficiency of such modes of combustion is also compromised (up to 5%). In this paper, advanced strategies for fuel injection are devised on a modern 4-cylinder common rail diesel engine modified for single cylinder research. Thermal efficiency comparisons are made between the low temperature combustion and the conventional diesel cycles. The fuel injection strategies include single injection with heavy EGR, and early multi-pulse fuel injection under low or medium engine loads respectively.
2008-12-02
Journal Article
2008-01-2967
R. Rieveley, B. Minaker
The paper describes a ‘virtual motorsports’ event developed by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control Research Group. The event was a competitive project-based component of a Vehicle Dynamics course offered by the University's Department of Mechanical, Automotive, & Materials Engineering. The simulated race was developed to provide fourth year automotive engineering students with design and race experience, similar to that found in Formula SAE®or SAE Baja®, but within the confines of a single academic semester. The project, named ‘Formula463’, was conducted entirely within a virtual environment, and encompassed design, testing, and racing of hi-fidelity virtual vehicle models. The efficacy of the Formula463 program to provide students with a design experience using model based simulation tools and methods has been shown over the past two years. All of the software has been released under a General Public License and is freely available on the authors website.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0730
Yuyu Tan, Ming Zheng, Graham T. Reader, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang
Low temperature combustion (LTC), though effective to reduce soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) simultaneously from diesel engines, operates in narrowly close to unstable regions. Adaptive control strategies are developed to expand the stable operations and to improve the fuel efficiency that was commonly compromised by LTC. Engine cycle simulations were performed to better design the combustion control models. The research platform consists of an advanced common-rail diesel engine modified for the intensified single cylinder research and a set of embedded real-time (RT) controllers, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, and a synchronized personal computer (PC) control and measurement system.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0472
Wencheng Zhang, Tanya Kapoor, William Altenhof, Andrew Howard, Koji Mizuno
This research focuses on the further development of a child finite element model whereby implementation of pediatric cadaver testing observations considering the biomechanical response of the neck of children under tensile and bending loading has occurred. Prior to this investigation, the biomechanical neck response was based upon scaled adult cadaver behaviour. Alterations to the material properties associated with ligaments, intervertebral discs and facet joints of the pediatric cervical spine were considered. No alteration to the geometry of the child neck finite element model was considered. An energy based approach was utilized to provide indication on the appropriate changes to local neck biomechanical characteristics. Prior to this study, the biomechanical response of the neck of the child finite element model deviated significantly from the tensile and bending cadaver tests completed by Ouyang et al.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0434
Robert J. Rieveley, Bruce Minaker, Marc Maurini, Iva Shallvari, Justin Laport
The paper describes a closed-loop vehicle simulation environment developed to support a virtual vehicle design and testing methodology, proposed for the University of Windsor Formula SAE team. Virtual prototyping and testing were achieved through co-simulation of Matlab/Simulink® and Carsim®. The development of the required hybrid-control driver and vehicle models are described. The proposed models were validated with in vehicle test data. The proposed methods have shown to be effective and robust in predicting driver response, while controlling the vehicle within the developed simulation environment.
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