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Viewing 1 to 30 of 93
1987-02-01
Technical Paper
870343
Otto A. Uyehara
The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1221
Jiankun Shao, Christopher Rutland
Knock in a Rotax-914 engine was modeled and investigated using an improved version of the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model, together with a reduced chemical kinetics model. The ERC-PRF mechanism with 47 species and 132 reactions [1] was adopted to model the end gas auto-ignition in front of the flame front. The model was validated by a Caterpillar SI engine and a Rotax-914 engine in different operating conditions. The simulation results agree well with available experimental results. A new engineering quantified knock criterion based on chemical mechanism was then proposed. Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) shows obvious accumulation before auto-ignition and a sudden decrease after auto-ignition. These properties are considered to be a good capability for HO2 to investigate engine knock problems.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1182
Eric Gingrich, Jaal Ghandhi, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract An experimental study has been conducted to provide insight into heat transfer to the piston of a light-duty single-cylinder research engine under Conventional Diesel (CDC), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion regimes. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature. A commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. A detailed comparison was made between the different combustion regimes at a range of engine speed and load conditions. The closed-cycle integrated and peak heat transfer rates were found to be lower for HCCI and RCCI when compared to CDC. Under HCCI operation, the peak heat transfer rate showed sensitivity to the 50% burn location.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1175
Michael Tess, Jaal Ghandhi
The effects of imaging system resolution and laser sheet thickness on the measurement of the Batchelor scale were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. The Batchelor scale was determined by fitting a model spectrum to the dissipation spectrum that was obtained from fuel tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the in-cylinder scalar field. The imaging system resolution was quantified by measuring the step-response function; the scanning knife edge technique was used to measure the 10-90% clip width of the laser sheet. In these experiments, the spatial resolution varied from a native resolution of 32.0 μm to 137.4 μm, and the laser sheet thickness ranged from 108 μm to 707 μm. Thus, the overall resolution of the imaging system was made to vary by approximately a factor of four in the in-plane dimension and a factor of six in the out-of-plane dimension.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1113
Federico Perini, Bishwadipa Das Adhikary, Jae Hyung Lim, Xingyuan Su, Youngchul Ra, Hu Wang, Rolf D. Reitz
The incorporation of detailed chemistry models in internal combustion engine simulations is becoming mandatory as local, globally lean, low-temperature combustion strategies are setting the path towards a more efficient and environmentally sustainable use of energy resources in transportation. In this paper, we assessed the computational efficiency of a recently developed sparse analytical Jacobian chemistry solver, namely ‘SpeedCHEM’, that features both direct and Krylov-subspace solution methods for maximum efficiency for both small and large mechanism sizes. The code was coupled with a high-dimensional clustering algorithm for grouping homogeneous reactors into clusters with similar states and reactivities, to speed-up the chemical kinetics solution in multi-dimensional combustion simulations.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1074
Johannes Ulrich Eichmeier, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher Rutland
Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1258
Federico Perini, Dipankar Sahoo, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz
In this paper, we studied the accuracy of computational modeling of the ignition of a pilot injectionin the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) light-duty optical engine facility, using the physical properties of a cetane/iso-cetane Diesel Primary Reference Fuel (DPRF) mixture and the reaction kinetics of a well-validated mechanism for primary reference fuels. Local fuel-air equivalence ratio measurements from fuel tracer based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments were used to compare the mixture formation predictions with KIVA-ERC-based simulations. The effects of variations in injection mass from 1 mg to 4 mg, in-cylinder swirl ratio, and near-TDC temperatures on non-combusting mixture preparation were analyzed, to assess the accuracy of the model in capturing average jet behavior, despite its inability to model the non-negligible jet-by-jet variations seen in the experiments.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1323
Reed Hanson, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1320
Jae Hyung Lim, N. Ryan Walker, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1325
Derek Splitter, Martin Wissink, Dan DelVescovo, Rolf D. Reitz
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1367
David Heuwetter, William Glewen, David E. Foster, Roger Krieger, Michael Andrie
The transient response of an engine with both High Pressure (HP) and Low Pressure (LP) EGR loops was compared by conducting step changes in EGR fraction at a constant engine speed and load. The HP EGR loop performance was shown to be closely linked to turbocharger performance, whereas the LP EGR loop was relatively independent of turbocharger performance and vice versa. The same experiment was repeated with the variable geometry turbine vanes completely open to reduce turbocharger action and achieve similar EGR rate changes with the HP and LP EGR loops. Under these conditions, the increased loop volume of the LP EGR loop prolonged the response of intake O2 concentration following the change in air-fuel ratio. The prolonged change of intake O2 concentration caused emissions to require more time to reach steady state as well. Strong coupling between the HP EGR loop and turbochargers was again observed using a hybrid EGR strategy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0825
Gen Shibata, Koki Ishi, Hirooki Ushijima, Yushi Shibaike, Hideyuki Ogawa, David E. Foster
Abstract Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0843
Anand Nageswaran Bharath, Yangdongfang Yang, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher Rutland
Abstract While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0841
David Klos, Daniel Janecek, Sage Kokjohn
The tradeoff between NOx emissions and combustion instability in an engine operating in the dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion mode was investigated using a combination of engine experiments and detailed CFD modeling. Experiments were performed on a single cylinder version of a General Motors/Fiat JTD 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine. Gasoline was injected far upstream of the intake valve using an air assisted injector and fuel vaporization system and diesel was injected directly into the cylinder using a common rail injector. The timing of the diesel injection was swept from −70° ATDC to −20° ATDC while the gasoline percentage was adjusted to hold the average combustion phasing (CA50) and load (IMEPg) constant at 0.5° ATDC and 7 bar, respectively. At each operating point the variation in IMEP, peak PRR, and CA50 was calculated from the measured cylinder pressure trace and NOx, CO, soot and UHC were recorded.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0839
Dan DelVescovo, Hu Wang, Martin Wissink, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore the effects of isobutanol as both the high and low reactivity fuels in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion. Three fuel combinations were examined; EEE/diesel, isobutanol/diesel, and isobutanol/isobutanol+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide). In order to assess the relative performance of the fuel combinations of interest under RCCI operation, the engine was operated under conditions representative of typical low temperature combustion (LTC). A net load of 6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was chosen because it provides a wide operable range of equivalence ratios and combustion phasings without excessively high peak pressure rise rates (PPRR). The engine was operated under various intake pressures with global equivalence ratios from 0.28-0.36, and various combustion phasings (defined by 50% mass fraction burned-CA50) from about 1.5 to about 10 deg after top dead center (ATDC).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0837
Reed Hanson, Shawn Spannbauer, Christopher Gross, Rolf D. Reitz, Scott Curran, John Storey, Shean Huff
Abstract In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0856
Martin Wissink, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract Control of the timing and magnitude of heat release is one of the biggest challenges for premixed compression ignition, especially when attempting to operate at high load. Single-fuel strategies such as partially premixed combustion (PPC) use direct injection of gasoline to stratify equivalence ratio and retard heat release, thereby reducing pressure rise rate and enabling high load operation. However, retarding the heat release also reduces the maximum work extraction, effectively creating a tradeoff between efficiency and noise. Dual-fuel strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) use premixed gasoline and direct injection of diesel to stratify both equivalence ratio and fuel reactivity, which allows for greater control over the timing and duration of heat release. This enables combustion phasing closer to top dead center (TDC), which is thermodynamically favorable.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0855
Adam B. Dempsey, Scott Curran, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0034
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
Abstract This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1869
Takashi Kato, Takashi Fukushige, Kan Akatsu, Robert Lorenz
Abstract This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1607
Qi Jiao, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1092
Anand Krishnasamy, Rolf D. Reitz, Werner Willems, Eric Kurtz
Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0289
Scott Curran, Reed Hanson, Robert Wagner, Rolf D. Reitz
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0376
Scott Curran, Reed Hanson, Robert Wagner
This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI).
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1067
William Glewen, David Heuwetter, David E. Foster, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger
Deviations between transient and steady state operation of a modern light duty diesel engine were identified by comparing rapid load transitions to steady state tests at the same speeds and fueling rates. The validity of approximating transient performance by matching the transient charge air flow rate and intake manifold pressure at steady state was also assessed. Results indicate that for low load operation with low temperature combustion strategies, transient deviations of MAF and MAP from steady state values are small in magnitude or short in duration and have relatively little effect on transient engine performance. A new approximation accounting for variations in intake temperature and excess oxygen content of the EGR was more effective at capturing transient emissions trends, but significant differences in magnitudes remained in certain cases indicating that additional sources of variation between transient and steady state performance remain unaccounted for.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972883
L. Fan, S. E. Parrish, Z. Han, P. V. Farrell, Rolf D. Reitz
Fuel spray atomization and breakup processes within a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine and outside the engine were modeled using a modified KIVA-3V code with improved spray models. The structures of the predicted sprays were qualitatively compared with planar images. The considered sprays were created by a prototype pressure-swirl injector and the planar images were obtained by laser sheet imaging in an optical DISI engine. In the out-of-engine case, the spray was injected into atmospheric air, and was modeled in a two dimensional bomb. In the engine case, the injection started from 270° ATDC, and full 3-D computations in the same engine were performed. In both cases, two liquid injection pressure conditions were applied, that is, 3.40 MPa and 6.12 MPa. The model gives good prediction of the tip penetration, and external spray shape, but the internal structure prediction has relatively lower accuracy, especially near the spray axis.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950282
Philip W. Stephenson, Christopher J. Rutland
The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921705
Paul W. Claar, Walter S. Chmielewski
An overview of a design methodology based on finite element and fatigue analyses is described for the design of welded structures. Fatigue life is a primary design consideration for agricultural equipment structural members. The re-design of an agricultural implement frame and hitch assembly is used to illustrate the methodology for optimal design and improved fatigue life. A description of the finite element mode of the agricultural implement and the simulated loading history are described. Results from finite element analysis are used to optimize the frame member sizes and calculate the fatigue strength characteristics. This design analysis strategy provides improved fatigue life characteristics for the implement frame or welded structure.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3544
Ilhan Bayraktar, Tuba Bayraktar
The CFD tools in aerodynamic design process have been commonly used in aerospace industry in last three decades. Although there are many CFD software algorithms developed for aerodynamic applications, the nature of a complex, three-dimensional geometry in incompressible highly separated, viscous flow made computational simulation of ground vehicle aerodynamics more difficult than aerospace applications. However, recent developments in computational hardware and software industry enabled many new engineering applications on computational environment. Traditional production process has largely influenced by computational design, analysis, manufacturing and visualization. Different aspects of linking advanced computational tools and aerodynamic vehicle design challenges are discussed in the present work. Key technologies like parallel computation, turbulence modeling and CFD/wind tunnel compatibility issues are presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1678
Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Marcus Megerle, Bret RempelEwert, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, Volker Sick
Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
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