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2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0821
Michael Bergin, Rolf D. Reitz
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0243
Long Liang, Rolf D. Reitz
A level set method (G-equation)-based combustion model incorporating detailed chemical kinetics has been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V for Spark-Ignition (SI) engine simulations for better predictions of fuel oxidation and pollutant formation. Detailed fuel oxidation mechanisms coupled with a reduced NOX mechanism are used to describe the chemical processes. The flame front in the spark kernel stage is tracked using the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model. In the G-equation model, it is assumed that after the flame front has passed, the mixture within the mean flame brush tends to local equilibrium. The subgrid-scale burnt/unburnt volumes of the flame containing cells are tracked for the primary heat release calculation. A progress variable concept is introduced into the turbulent flame speed correlation to account for the laminar to turbulent evolution of the spark kernel flame.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0239
Yi Liu, Rolf D. Reitz, Fan Lu
A new search technique, called Non-Gradient Step-Controlled algorithm (NGSC), is presented. The NGSC was applied independently from pre-selected starting points and as a supplement to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize a HSDI diesel engine using split injection strategies. It is shown that the NGSC handles well the challenges of a complex response surface and factor high-dimensionality, which demonstrates its capability as an efficient and accurate tool to seek “local” convergence on complex surfaces. By directly tracking the change of a merit function, the NGSC places no requirement on response surface continuity / differentiability, and hence is more robust than gradient-dependent search techniques. The directional search mechanism takes factor interactions into consideration, and search step size control is adopted to facilitate search efficiency.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0058
Bing Hu, Christopher J. Rutland
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0056
Manshik Kim, Rolf D. Reitz, Song-Charng Kong
Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2699
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2647
Sage L. Kokjohn, Reed M. Hanson, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1197
Justin Madsen, Andrew Seidl, Dan Negrut
This paper discusses the development of a novel deformable terrain database and its use in a co-simulation environment with a multibody dynamics vehicle model. The implementation of the model includes a general tire-terrain traction model which is modular to allow for any type of tire model that supports the Standard Tire Interface[1] to operate on the terrain. This allows arbitrarily complex tire geometry to be used, which typically has a large impact on the mobility performance of vehicles operating on deformable terrains. However, this gain in generality comes at the cost that popular analytical pressure-sinkage terramechanics models cannot be used to find the normal pressure and shear stress of the contact patch. Pressure and shear stress are approximated by combining the contributions from tire normal forces, shear stresses and bulldozing forces due to soil rutting.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1191
Dan Negrut, Daniel Melanz, Hammad Mazhar, David Lamb, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Michael Letherwood
This paper presents a computational framework for the physics-based simulation of light vehicles operating on discrete terrain. The focus is on characterizing through simulation the mobility of vehicles that weigh 1000 pounds or less, such as a reconnaissance robot. The terrain is considered to be deformable and is represented as a collection of bodies of spherical shape. The modeling stage relies on a novel formulation of the frictional contact problem that requires at each time step of the numerical simulation the solution of an optimization problem. The proposed computational framework, when run on ubiquitous Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) cards, allows the simulation of systems in which the terrain is represented by more than 0.5 million bodies leading to problems with more than one million degrees of freedom.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980132
Donald W. Stanton, Christopher J. Rutland
To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970047
Jiro Senda, Tomoyuki Kanda, Marwan Al-Roub, Patrick V. Farrell, Takashi Fukami, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, a new submodel concerning fuel film formation process is proposed in order to simulate the behavior of diesel spray impingement on relatively low temperature wall surface. Here, super - heating degree of the surface, defined by the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fuel saturated temperature, is newly considered for the behavior of impinged liquid droplets. In this spray impingement submodel, fuel film formation process, droplet interaction, film breakup process, and velocity and direction of dispersing droplets were considered based on several experimental results. This new submodel was incorporated into KIVA-II code, and the results were compared with experimental data KIVA-II original code and the spray / wall impingement model proposed by Naber & Reitz. As a result, it is found that the calculated results of impinging spray behavior by the new model agree well with experimental results.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940283
P. Sweetland, Rolf D. Reitz
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981129
Herman L.N. Wiegman, A. J. A. Vandenput
A foundation of battery normalizations, modeling and control techniques is presented for charge sustaining HEV applications. Charge and voltage based battery state observers and controllers are compared. The voltage based technique is shown to provide robust state control, as it directly constrains terminal voltage. Additionally, it provides good power cycle efficiency, and is insensitive to the initialization and drift problems characteristic of charge based controllers. Special attention is given to VRLA batteries, and dynamic loads from typical driving cycles. Future work is introduced which identifies battery power capability and efficiency as possible state control variables. This work was supported by a Netherland-America Foundation Fellowship, and by the staff at the Technical University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1543
Diego A. Arias, Timothy A. Shedd
The main circuits of a small engine carburetor can be represented as a complex, dynamic, two-phase flow fluid network. This paper presents the theoretical characterization of a dynamic one-dimensional model of fuel and air flow in small engine carburetors and its implementation into a one-dimensional engine simulation software package. This implementation allows for studying the effect of changes in individual carburetor parts on engine performance. The characterization of the model indicated that the dynamic behavior of the entire flow network can be captured by the solution of the instantaneous momentum balance equation on the single-phase liquid elements of the network, simplifying the dynamic model considerably. The second part of this work discusses the implementation into the one-dimensional engine simulation package, and shows examples of the studies that the coupled implementation allow for.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0190
Daniele Tamagna, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz
Homogeneous or partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, since it is difficult to control the start of combustion timing, direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber is often used for combustion phasing control, as well as charge preparation. In this paper, numerical simulations of compression ignition processes using gasoline fuel directly injected using a low pressure, hollow cone injector are presented. The multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, that incorporates various advanced sub-models and is coupled with CHEMKIN for modeling detailed chemistry, was used for the study. Simulation results of the spray behavior at various injection conditions were validated with available experimental data.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0127
Laine A. Stager, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine development is both time consuming and economically straining. Therefore, efforts are being made to optimize the research and development process for new engine technologies. The ability to apply information gained by studying an engine of one size/application to an engine of a completely different size/application would offer savings in both time and money in engine development. In this work, a computational study of diesel engine size-scaling relationships was performed to explore engine scaling parameters and the fundamental engine operating components that should be included in valid scaling arguments. Two scaling arguments were derived and tested: a simple, equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal lift-off length scaling model. The simple scaling model is based on an equation for the conservation of mass and an equation for spray tip penetration developed by Hiroyasu et al. [1].
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0111
Terry L. Hendricks, Timothy A. Shedd, Greg F. Nellis
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the fuel and air flows within the idle circuit found in simple carburetors. The idle circuit is modeled numerically using a dynamic model that considers the resistances of the flow paths as well as the inertia of the fuel. The modeling methodology is flexible, in that the organization and techniques can be applied to any configuration and geometry. The numerical model calculates the fuel flow response of carburetor idle/transition circuits to pressure variations associated with air flow through the venturi and around the throttle plate. The model is implemented for a typical small engine carburetor and the nominal results are presented for this specific design.
2006-11-13
Technical Paper
2006-32-0113
Diego A. Arias, Timothy A. Shedd
A commercial CFD package was used to develop a three-dimensional, fully turbulent model of the compressible flow across a complex-geometry venturi, such as those typically found in small engine carburetors. The results of the CFD simulations were used to understand the effect of the different obstacles in the flow on the overall discharge coefficient and the static pressure at the tip of the fuel tube. It was found that the obstacles located at the converging nozzle of the venturi do not cause significant pressure losses, while those obstacles that create wakes in the flow, such as the fuel tube and throttle plate, are responsible for most of the pressure losses. This result indicated that an overall discharge coefficient can be used to correct the mass flow rate, while a localized correction factor can be determined from three-dimensional CFD simulations in order to calculate the static pressure at locations of interest within the venturi.
2004-09-27
Technical Paper
2004-32-0053
Diego A. Arias, Timothy A. Shedd
This work presents a complete model of the carburetor for small engines. It extends the previously published models by incorporating a detailed review of two-phase flow pressure drop, the effect of the fuel well on the control of airbleed flow, and unsteady flow. The homogenous two-phase flow model, which is commonly used in carburetor modeling, was compared with an empirical correlation derived from experiments in small pipes and found to be in poor agreement. In order to assess unsteady flow conditions, the model was extended by solving instantaneous one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in single-phase pipes. This strategy proved successful in explaining the mixture enrichment seen under pulsating flow conditions. The model was also used to derive a sensitivity analysis of geometries and physical properties of air and fuel.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0105
Yi Liu, Amr Ali, Rolf D. Reitz
Experiments show that intake flow details have a significant influence on High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) diesel engine soot emissions. Four different intake modes were simulated using the combination of the CFD codes, STAR-CD and KIVA-3V, to investigate spray-intake flow-emission interaction characteristics. The simulation results were compared to steady-state flow bench data and engine experimental data. It was found that it is difficult to accurately predict the timing of the small pilot and main combustion events, simultaneously, with current simplified ignition models. NOx emissions were predicted well, however, an insensitivity of the soot emissions to the details of the intake process was found, mainly due to the deficiencies in predicting the ignition delay. The results show that a strong swirling flow causes the formed soot to remain within the bowl, leading to high soot emissions.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1330
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for diesel engines are of increasing interest because of their potential to significantly reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. LTC with late fuel injection further offers the benefit of combustion phasing control because ignition is closely coupled to the fuel injection event. But with a short ignition-delay, fuel jet mixing processes must be rapid to achieve adequate premixing before ignition. In the current study, mixing and pollutant formation of late-injection LTC are studied in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine using three laser-based imaging diagnostics. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and combined formaldehyde (H2CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are compared with vapor-fuel concentration measurements from a non-combusting condition.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4044
R. E. Herold, J. B. Ghandhi
The mixing between the flows introduced through different intake valves of a four-valve engine was investigated optically. Each valve was fed from a different intake system, and the relative sensitivity to different flow parameters (manipulated with the goal of enhancing the bulk in-cylinder stratification) was investigated. Flow manipulation was achieved in three primary ways: modifying the intake runner geometry upstream of the head, introducing flow-directing baffles into the intake port, and attaching flow break-down screens to the intake valves. The relative merits of each flow manipulation method was evaluated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone, which was introduced to the engine through only one intake valve. Images were acquired from 315° bTDC through 45° bTDC, and the level of in-cylinder stratification was evaluated on an ensemble and cycle-to-cycle basis using a novel column-based probability distribution function (PDF) contour plot.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4131
Richard Steeper, Vaidya Sankaran, Joe Oefelein, Randy Hessel
Prior HCCI optical engine experiments utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of stratified fuel-air mixtures have demonstrated the utility of probability density function (PDF) statistics for correlating mixture preparation with combustion. However, PDF statistics neglect all spatial details of in-cylinder fuel distribution. The current computational paper examines the effects of spatial fuel distribution on combustion using a novel combination of a 3-D CFD model with a 1-D linear-eddy model of turbulent mixing. In the simulations, the spatial coarseness of initial fuel distribution prior to the start of heat release is varied while keeping PDF statistics constant. Several cases are run, and as the initial mixture is made coarser, combustion phasing monotonically advances due to high local equivalence ratios that persist longer. The effect of turbulent mixing is more complex.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0031
Daniele Tamagna, Roberto Gentili, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, there are several difficulties that must be overcome for HCCI practical use, such as difficult ignition timing controllability. Indeed, too early or too late ignition can occur with obvious drawbacks. In addition, the increase in cyclic variation caused by the ignition timing uncertainty can lead to uneven engine operation. As a way to solve the combustion phasing control problem, dual-fuel combustion has been proposed. It consists of a diesel pilot injection used to ignite a pre-mixture of gasoline (or other high octane fuel) and air. Although dual-fuel combustion is an attractive way to achieve controllable HCCI operation, few studies are available to help the understanding of its in-cylinder combustion behavior.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1123
Junghwan Kim, Sung Wook Park, Mike Andrie, Rolf D. Reitz, Kian Sung
The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0175
L. Fan, G. Li, Z. Han, Rolf D. Reitz
Fuel preparation and stratified combustion were studied for a conceptual gasoline Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (GDI or DISI) engine by computer simulations. The primary interest was on the effects of different injector orientations and the effects of tumble ratio for late injection cases at a partial load operating condition. A modified KIVA-3V code that includes improved spray breakup and wall impingement and combustion models was used. A new ignition kernel model, called DPIK, was developed to describe the early flame growth process. The model uses Lagrangian marker particles to describe the flame positions. The computational results reveal that spray wall impingement is important and the fuel distribution is controlled by the spray momentum and the combustion chamber shape. The injector orientation significantly influences the fuel stratification pattern, which results in different combustion characteristics.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2809
Li Fan, Rolf D. Reitz
A new ignition and combustion model has been developed and tested for use in premixed spark-ignition engines. The ignition model is referred to as the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model, and it uses Lagrangian markers to track the flame-front growth. The model includes the effects of electrode heat transfer on the early flame kernel growth process, and it is used in conjunction with a characteristic-time-scale combustion model once the ignition kernel has grown to a size where the effects of turbulence on the flame must be considered. A new term which accounts for the effect of air-fuel ratio, was added to the combustion model for modeling combustion in very lean and very rich mixtures. The flame kernel size predicted by the DPIK model was compared with measurements of Maly and Vogel. Furthermore, predictions of the electrode heat transfer were compared with data of Kravchik and Heywood.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0997
G. M. Bianchi, P. Pelloni, G.-S. Zhu, R. Reitz
The introduction of high-pressure injection systems in D.I. diesel engines has highlighted already known drawbacks of in-cylinder turbulence modeling. In particular, the well known equilibrium hypothesis is far from being valid even during the compression stroke and moreover during the spray injection and combustion processes when turbulence energy transfer between scales occurs under non-equilibrium conditions. The present paper focuses on modeling in-cylinder engine turbulent flows. Turbulence is accounted for by using the RNG k-ε model which is based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions. By using a modified version of the Kiva-3 code, different mathematically based corrections to the computed macro length scale are proposed in order to account for non-equilibrium effects. These new approaches are applied to a simulation of a recent generation HSDI Diesel engine at both full load and partial load conditions representative of the emission EUDC cycle.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1228
Li Fan, Rolf D. Reitz
Multi-Dimensional modeling was carried out for a Mercury Marine two-stroke DISI engine. Recently developed spray, ignition, and combustion models were applied to medium load cases with an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. Three injection timings, 271, 291 and 306 ATDC were selected to investigate the effects of the injection timing on mixture formation, ignition and combustion. The results indicate that at this particular load condition, earlier injection timing allows more fuel to evaporate. However, because the fuel penetrates further toward the piston, a leaner mixture is created near the spark plug; thus, a slower ignition process with a weaker ignition kernel was found for the SOI 271 ATDC case. The measured and computed combustion results such as average in-cylinder pressure and NOx are in good agreements. The later injection case produces lower NOx emission and higher CO emission; this is due to poor mixing and is in agreement with experimental measurements.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0656
Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka, Andrei Kazakov, David E. Foster
Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
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