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2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2100
Nicholas Matthias, Carolyn Farron, David E. Foster, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, Paul Najt, Kushal Narayanaswamy, Arun Solomon, Alla Zelenyuk
More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number-based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample-handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0821
Michael Bergin, Rolf D. Reitz
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0243
Long Liang, Rolf D. Reitz
A level set method (G-equation)-based combustion model incorporating detailed chemical kinetics has been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V for Spark-Ignition (SI) engine simulations for better predictions of fuel oxidation and pollutant formation. Detailed fuel oxidation mechanisms coupled with a reduced NOX mechanism are used to describe the chemical processes. The flame front in the spark kernel stage is tracked using the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model. In the G-equation model, it is assumed that after the flame front has passed, the mixture within the mean flame brush tends to local equilibrium. The subgrid-scale burnt/unburnt volumes of the flame containing cells are tracked for the primary heat release calculation. A progress variable concept is introduced into the turbulent flame speed correlation to account for the laminar to turbulent evolution of the spark kernel flame.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0239
Yi Liu, Rolf D. Reitz, Fan Lu
A new search technique, called Non-Gradient Step-Controlled algorithm (NGSC), is presented. The NGSC was applied independently from pre-selected starting points and as a supplement to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize a HSDI diesel engine using split injection strategies. It is shown that the NGSC handles well the challenges of a complex response surface and factor high-dimensionality, which demonstrates its capability as an efficient and accurate tool to seek “local” convergence on complex surfaces. By directly tracking the change of a merit function, the NGSC places no requirement on response surface continuity / differentiability, and hence is more robust than gradient-dependent search techniques. The directional search mechanism takes factor interactions into consideration, and search step size control is adopted to facilitate search efficiency.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0058
Bing Hu, Christopher J. Rutland
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0056
Manshik Kim, Rolf D. Reitz, Song-Charng Kong
Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0055
Satbir Singh, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2699
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2647
Sage L. Kokjohn, Reed M. Hanson, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2735
Andrea Strzelec, Hassina Z. Bilheux, Charles E. A. Finney, C. Stuart Daw, David E. Foster, Christopher J. Rutland, Burkhard Schillinger, Michael Schulz
This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0380
Reed Hanson, Scott Curran, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that produces low NO and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom-machined pistons designed for RCCI operation.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1133
John Lahti, John Moskwa
One of the factors preventing widespread use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or HCCI is the challenge of controlling the process under transient conditions. Current engine control technology does not have the ability to accurately control the individual cylinder states needed for consistent HCCI combustion. The material presented here is a new approach to engine control using a physics-based individual cylinder real time model to calculate the engine states and then controlling the engine with this state information. The model parameters and engine state information calculated within the engine controller can be used to calculate the required actuator positions so that the desired mass of air, fuel, and residual exhaust gas are achieved for each cylinder event. This approach offers a solution to the transient control problem that works with existing sensors and actuators.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1208
Terry Hendricks, Jaal Ghandhi
Heat transfer in internal combustion engines is taking on greater importance as manufacturers strive to increase efficiency while keeping pollutant emissions low and maintaining adequate performance. Wall heat transfer is experimentally evaluated using temperature measurements both on and below the surface using a physical model of conduction in the wall. Three classes of model inversion are used to recover heat flux from surface temperature measurements: analytical methods, numerical methods and inverse heat conduction methods; the latter method has not been previously applied to engine data. This paper details the inherent assumptions behind, required steps for implementation of, and merits and weaknesses of these heat flux calculation methods. The analytical methods, which have been most commonly employed for engine data, are shown to suffer from sensitivity to measurement noise that requires a priori signal filtering.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980132
Donald W. Stanton, Christopher J. Rutland
To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970047
Jiro Senda, Tomoyuki Kanda, Marwan Al-Roub, Patrick V. Farrell, Takashi Fukami, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, a new submodel concerning fuel film formation process is proposed in order to simulate the behavior of diesel spray impingement on relatively low temperature wall surface. Here, super - heating degree of the surface, defined by the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fuel saturated temperature, is newly considered for the behavior of impinged liquid droplets. In this spray impingement submodel, fuel film formation process, droplet interaction, film breakup process, and velocity and direction of dispersing droplets were considered based on several experimental results. This new submodel was incorporated into KIVA-II code, and the results were compared with experimental data KIVA-II original code and the spray / wall impingement model proposed by Naber & Reitz. As a result, it is found that the calculated results of impinging spray behavior by the new model agree well with experimental results.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940283
P. Sweetland, Rolf D. Reitz
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960316
D. T. Montgomery, Rolf D. Reitz
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
1995-09-01
Technical Paper
952093
Peter E. Lucier, Frank J. Fronczak, Norman H. Beachley
Positive displacement flowmeters can be used to simply and accurately calibrate common flow transducers such as axial turbine and target flowmeters. Two means of utilizing positive displacement devices were studied for use as a laboratory flowmeter calibration. The first method employed a fixed displacement axial piston motor. This proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty in quantifying flow losses. The second method used a large hydraulic cylinder. An optical encoder measured the position of the cylinder rod, permitting a direct calculation of the flow through the in-line flowmeter being calibrated. Because cylinder leakage is virtually zero at low pressure, flow can be readily calculated knowing the effective cylinder diameter and piston velocity. The method described in this paper permits flow rates to be measured with an accuracy of ±0.1% of the volumetric flow rate. This paper discusses details of the design of the flowmeter and calibration method.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961730
Edwin Itano, Anthony J. Shakal, Jay K. Martin, Doug Shears, Thomas J. Engman
Three different carburetor types have been tested to observe differences in the characteristics of the fuel/air mixtures produced. To characterize the fuel/air mixtures, two diagnostics have been applied: 1) High speed movies and subsequent analysis of the exit flow, and 2) measurement of the A/F ratio found in different positions within the intake manifold. The three different carburetor types that have been studied include a fixed-venturi, fixed-jet butterfly carburetor, a slide-valve carburetor, and a constant-velocity carburetor. Each carburetor type produced a unique set of exit flow characteristics, with differences in the optical density of fuel exiting the carburetor, and differences in the apparent amount of fuel on the intake manifold wall, entrained in the air flow, and in vapor phase.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
981129
Herman L.N. Wiegman, A. J. A. Vandenput
A foundation of battery normalizations, modeling and control techniques is presented for charge sustaining HEV applications. Charge and voltage based battery state observers and controllers are compared. The voltage based technique is shown to provide robust state control, as it directly constrains terminal voltage. Additionally, it provides good power cycle efficiency, and is insensitive to the initialization and drift problems characteristic of charge based controllers. Special attention is given to VRLA batteries, and dynamic loads from typical driving cycles. Future work is introduced which identifies battery power capability and efficiency as possible state control variables. This work was supported by a Netherland-America Foundation Fellowship, and by the staff at the Technical University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1148
Sangsuk Lee, Manuel A. Gonzalez D., Rolf D. Reitz
The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0918
Sangsuk Lee, Rolf D. Reitz
The effect of spray targeting on exhaust emissions, especially soot and carbon monoxide (CO) formation, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The spray targeting was examined by sweeping the start-of-injection (SOI) timing with several nozzles which had different spray angles ranging from 50° to 154°. The tests were organized to monitor the emissions in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion by introducing high levels of EGR (55%) with a relatively low compression ratio (16.0) and an open-crater type piston bowl. The study showed that there were optimum targeting spots on the piston bowl with respect to soot and CO formation, while nitric oxide (NOx) formation was not affected by the targeting. The soot and CO production were minimized when the spray was targeted at the edge of the piston bowl near the squish zone, regardless of the spray angle.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1543
Diego A. Arias, Timothy A. Shedd
The main circuits of a small engine carburetor can be represented as a complex, dynamic, two-phase flow fluid network. This paper presents the theoretical characterization of a dynamic one-dimensional model of fuel and air flow in small engine carburetors and its implementation into a one-dimensional engine simulation software package. This implementation allows for studying the effect of changes in individual carburetor parts on engine performance. The characterization of the model indicated that the dynamic behavior of the entire flow network can be captured by the solution of the instantaneous momentum balance equation on the single-phase liquid elements of the network, simplifying the dynamic model considerably. The second part of this work discusses the implementation into the one-dimensional engine simulation package, and shows examples of the studies that the coupled implementation allow for.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1200
Christopher L. Hagen, Scott T. Sanders
A laser-based sensor has been developed which generates short multicolored pulses for use with absorption spectroscopy techniques for the collection of thermodynamic information in an HCCI engine. Our sensor is based on supercontinuum generation which is accomplished by coupling a short-duration, high energy laser pulse (the pump) into fiber optics where colors other than the pump are generated through various nonlinear phenomena. The resulting “white pulse” is then stretched out in time by dispersive media (e.g., another fiber) to a time scale which can be collected by a high speed detector and oscilloscope. Although other multicolored (wavelength agile) laser based techniques generated by scanning mirrors or gratings have been applied to HCCI combustion [1], our supercontinuum approach offers a broad range of wavelengths with both high spectral and high temporal resolution from a source with no moving parts.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1366
Laura A. Kranendonk, Joachim W. Walewski, Scott T. Sanders, Robert Huber, James G. Fujimoto
Initial measurements of water vapor temperature using a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser were performed in a carefully controlled homogenous charge compression ignition engine with optical access. The gas temperature was inferred from water absorption spectra that were measured each 0.25 crank angle degrees (CAD) over a range of 150 CAD. Accuracy was tested in a well controlled shock tube experiment. This paper will validate the potential of this FDML laser in combustion applications.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1605
Diego A. Arias, Timothy A. Shedd, Ryan K. Jester
This paper presents a theoretical study of different strategies of waste heat recovery in an internal combustion engine, operating in a hybrid vehicle (spark ignition engine and electric motor). Many of the previous studies of energy recovery from waste heat focused on running thermodynamic cycles with the objective of supplying air-conditioning loads. There are two elements of this study that are different from previous studies: first, the end use of the recovered waste heat is the generation of electric power, and, second, the implementation of these heat recovery strategies takes place in a hybrid vehicle. The constant load conditions for the SI-engine in the hybrid vehicle are a potential advantage for the implementation of a heat recovery system. Three configurations of Rankine cycles were considered: a cycle running with the exhaust gases, a cycle with the engine coolant system, and a combined exhaust-engine coolant system.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0190
Daniele Tamagna, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz
Homogeneous or partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, since it is difficult to control the start of combustion timing, direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber is often used for combustion phasing control, as well as charge preparation. In this paper, numerical simulations of compression ignition processes using gasoline fuel directly injected using a low pressure, hollow cone injector are presented. The multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, that incorporates various advanced sub-models and is coupled with CHEMKIN for modeling detailed chemistry, was used for the study. Simulation results of the spray behavior at various injection conditions were validated with available experimental data.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0119
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, David D. Wickman
A computational study was performed to evaluate the effects of bowl geometry, fuel spray targeting and swirl ratio under highly diluted, low-temperature combustion conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study is used to examine aspects of low-temperature combustion that are affected by mixing processes and offers insight into the effect these processes have on emissions formation and oxidation. The foundation for this exploratory study stems from a large data set which was generated using a genetic algorithm optimization methodology. The main results suggest that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exist to simultaneously minimize emissions formation and improve soot and CO oxidation rates. Spray targeting was found to have a significant impact on the emissions and fuel consumption performance, and was furthermore found to be the most influential design parameter explored in this study.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0121
Sangsuk Lee, Manuel A. Gonzalez D., Rolf D. Reitz
Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0127
Laine A. Stager, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine development is both time consuming and economically straining. Therefore, efforts are being made to optimize the research and development process for new engine technologies. The ability to apply information gained by studying an engine of one size/application to an engine of a completely different size/application would offer savings in both time and money in engine development. In this work, a computational study of diesel engine size-scaling relationships was performed to explore engine scaling parameters and the fundamental engine operating components that should be included in valid scaling arguments. Two scaling arguments were derived and tested: a simple, equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal lift-off length scaling model. The simple scaling model is based on an equation for the conservation of mass and an equation for spray tip penetration developed by Hiroyasu et al. [1].
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