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Viewing 1 to 30 of 230
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0422
Alireza Javadi, Srikanth Pilla, Shaoqin Gong, Yottha Srithep, Jungjoo Lee, Lih-Sheng Turng
Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/coir fiber composites were prepared via both conventional and microcellular injection-molding processes. The surface of the hydrophilic coir fiber was modified by alkali and silane-treatment to improve its adhesion with PHBV. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were investigated. The addition of coir fiber (treated and untreated) reduced cell size and increased cell density. Further decrease in cell size and increase in cell density was observed for treated fibers compared with PHBV/untreated fiber composites. Mechanical properties such as specific toughness and strain-at-break improved for both solid and microcellular specimens with the addition of coir fibers (both treated and untreated); however, the specific modulus remained essentially the same statistically while the specific strength decreased slightly.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0516
Makarand Datar, Ilinca Stanciulescu, Dan Negrut
The paper describes a methodology to co-simulate, with high fidelity, simultaneously and in one computational framework, all of the main vehicle subsystems for improved engineering design. The co-simulation based approach integrates in MATLAB/Simulink a physics-based tire model with high fidelity vehicle dynamics model and an accurate powertrain model allowing insights into 1) how the dynamics of a vehicle affect fuel consumption, quality of emission and vehicle control strategies and 2) how the choice of powertrain systems influence the dynamics of the vehicle; for instance how the variations in drive shaft torque affects vehicle handling, the maximum achievable acceleration of the vehicle, etc. The goal of developing this co-simulation framework is to capture the interaction between powertrain and rest of the vehicle in order to better predict, through simulation, the overall dynamics of the vehicle.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3062
Julie G. Marshaus, Nicholas L. Woulf, Kathryn M. Orgish, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0093
Riccardo Rossi, Ettore Musu, Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3309
E. B. Hudak, J. B. Ghandhi
Time-resolved measurements were made of the gas composition at the exhaust port of a direct-injection two-stroke engine operating at 2000 rpm and an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. A high-speed sampling valve capable of 1.0 ms (12 CAD) time resolution was used to collect samples 1 cm downstream of the exhaust port of the engine. The time-resolved NOx, CO2 and CO concentrations decreased continuously during the scavenging process due to the dilution by short-circuited air. The hydrocarbon emissions, however, behaved significantly differently from the other species. At the time of exhaust port opening the concentration was low, it reached a maximum value by BDC, then decreased slightly in the latter part of the scavenging event. The dilution rates calculated for the hydrocarbon data gave negative values, indicating that there was a significant production of hydrocarbons during the gas exchange period.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0593
Jonathan A. Butcher, Neel Vasavada, Joseph Bayer, Michael D. Koplin, Herman Wiegman, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureCar Team has designed and built a lightweight, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric vehicle for entry into the 1999 FutureCar Challenge. The base vehicle is a 1994 Mercury Sable Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV), nicknamed the “Aluminum Cow,” weighing 1275 kg. The vehicle utilizes a high efficiency, Ford 1.8 liter, turbo-charged, direct-injection compression ignition engine. The goal is to achieve a combined FTP cycle fuel economy of 23.9 km/L (56 mpg) with California ULEV emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a full-size car. Strategies to reduce the overall vehicle weight are discussed in detail. Dynamometer and experimental testing is used to verify performance gains.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0512
Ronald J. Donahue, David E. Foster
Oxygen enhancement in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was studied to investigate the potential for particulate matter and NOx emissions control. The local oxygen concentration within the fuel plume was modified by oxygen enrichment of the intake air and by oxygenating the base fuel with 20% methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The study collected overall engine performance and engine-out emissions data as well as in-cylinder two-color measurements at 25% and 75% loads over a range of injection timings. The study found oxygen enhancement, whether it be from intake air enrichment or via oxygenated fuels, reduces particulate matter, the effectiveness depending on the local concentration of oxygen in the fuel plume. Since NOx emissions depend strongly on the temperature and oxygen concentration throughout the bulk cylinder gas, the global thermal and dilution effects from oxygen enrichment were greater than that from operation on oxygenated fuel.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0588
Suresh K. Aggarwal, Guang-Sheng Zhu, Rolf D. Reitz
Droplet vaporization models that are currently employed in simulating diesel engine sprays are based on a quasi-steady, low-pressure formulation. This formulation does not adequately represent many high-pressure effects, such as non-ideal gas behavior, solubility of gases into liquid, pressure dependence of liquid- and gas-phase thermophysical properties, and transient liquid transport in the droplet interior. More importantly, the quasi-steady assumption becomes increasingly questionable as the ambient pressure approaches and /or exceeds the fuel critical pressure. In the present study, a high-pressure, quasi-steady vaporization model is developed. Except for the quasi-steady assumption that is retained in the model, it incorporates all the other high-pressure effects.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0586
Franz X. Tanner, Guang-Sheng Zhu, Rolf D. Reitz
A correction for the turbulence dissipation, based on non-equilibrium turbulence considerations from rapid distortion theory, has been derived and implemented in combination with the RNG k - ε model in a KIVA-based code. This model correction has been tested and compared with the standard RNG k - ε model for the compression and the combustion phase of two heavy duty DI diesel engines. The turbulence behavior in the compression phase shows clear improvements over the standard RNG k - ε model computations. In particular, the macro length scale is consistent with the corresponding time scale and with the turbulent kinetic energy over the entire compression phase. The combustion computations have been performed with the characteristic time combustion model. With this dissipation correction no additional adjustments of the turbulent characteristic time model constant were necessary in order to match experimental cylinder pressures and heat release rates of the two engines.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3645
S. Baik, K. H. Goney, S. Kang, J. Murphy, J. Blanchard, M. Corradini
We have developed and used micro-machined injector nozzles with commercially produced diesel injection systems that have the capability to improve the spray characteristics in DI diesel engines. The availability of a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) processing sequence supported the construction of micro-diesel injector nozzles, and micro-systems technology was also employed in our macro-instrumentation. Fourteen different circular plates (nickel-iron alloy) were fabricated with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating technology. Five plates that have a single orifice were fabricated to investigate the effect of orifice diameter on spray characteristics; i.e., 40 to 260 microns. The spacing between multiple orifices was also varied; e.g., two plates that each had 41 orifices and 169 orifices, respectively, with a diameter of 40 microns. Finally, three plates with non-circular orifices were also made to examine the effect of orifice shape on spray characteristics.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0364
John J. Moskwa, Wenbo Wang
This paper presents a diagnostics methodology that has applications to internal combustion engines as well as other dynamic devices. Included is an overview of the theoretical foundation of the approach, discussions on its application to internal combustion engine diagnostics, and experimental engine data showing the application of this methodology. Also included are the recent developments addressing issues of the effect of motoring compression and expansion work on crankshaft speed fluctuations and the resulting torque estimation. The methodology consists of a hard-wired nonlinear to linear transformation of engine variables that allow all subsequent diagnostics and control calculations to use linear mathematics, which significantly simplifies the size and complexity of the engine control and diagnostics strategy and code.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0028
Federico Perini, Giuseppe Cantore, Rolf D. Reitz
The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1122
Indranil Brahma, Christopher J. Rutland, David E. Foster, Yongsheng He
A procedure has been developed to build system level predictive models that incorporate physical laws as well as information derived from experimental data. In particular a soot model was developed, trained and tested using experimental data. It was seen that the model could fit available experimental data given sufficient training time. Future accuracy on data points not encountered during training was estimated and seen to be good. The approach relies on the physical phenomena predicted by an existing system level phenomenological soot model coupled with ‘weights’ which use experimental data to adjust the predicted physical sub-model parameters to fit the data. This approach has developed from attempts at incorporating physical phenomena into neural networks for predicting emissions. Model training uses neural network training concepts.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0916
Michael J. Bergin, Randy P. Hessel, Rolf D. Reitz
A numerical simulation and optimization study was conducted for a medium speed direct injection diesel engine. The engine's operating characteristics were first matched to available experimental data to test the validity of the numerical model. The KIVA-3V ERC CFD code was then modified to allow independent spray events from two rows of nozzle holes. The angular alignment, nozzle hole size, and injection pressure of each set of nozzle holes were optimized using a micro-genetic algorithm. The design fitness criteria were based on a multi-variable merit function with inputs of emissions of soot, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons, and fuel consumption targets. Penalties to the merit function value were used to limit the maximum in-cylinder pressure and the burned gas temperature at exhaust valve opening. The optimization produced a 28.4% decrease in NOx and a 40% decrease in soot from the baseline case, while giving a 3.1% improvement in fuel economy.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1974
Federico Perini, Emanuele Galligani, Giuseppe Cantore, Rolf D. Reitz
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4250
Andrew Dyer, Sylvain Pagerit, Makarand Datar, Daniel Mehr, Dan Negrut
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4136
Seshasai Srinivasan, Christopher Rutland
Abstract Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3175
Yonghui Ma, Chris Thomas, Ross Remiker, Sorin Manolache
A modular and scalable Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor was developed, which uses atmospheric-pressure electrical discharges under water to generate highly reactive species to break down organic contaminants and microorganisms. Key benefits of this novel technology include: (i) extremely high efficiency in both decontamination and disinfection; (ii) operating continuously at ambient temperature and pressure; (iii) reducing demands on the containment vessel; and (iv) requiring no consumables. This plasma based technology was developed to replace the catalytic reactor being used in the planned International Space Station Water Processor Assembly.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4014
V.M. Salazar, J.B. Ghandhi
The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0048
Randy P. Hessel, David E. Foster, Richard R. Steeper, Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers
This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0047
Randy P. Hessel, David E. Foster, Salvador M. Aceves, M. Lee Davisson, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Daniel L. Flowers, William J. Pitz, John E. Dec, Magnus Sjöberg, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0108
Ethan K. Brodsky, Nicholas J. Rakovec, Kevin R. King, Daniel J. Bocci, Jared Olsen, Adam R. Schumacher, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Clean Snowmobile team has designed, constructed and now refined an electric snowmobile with 40 km (24 mi) range and acceleration comparable to a 75 kW (100 hp) internal-combustion-powered snowmobile. Starting with a Polaris IQ Fusion chassis, a direct-drive chain-case was engineered to couple a General Motors EV1 copper-bar rotor AC induction electric motor to the track drive shaft. The battery pack uses 104 28 V, 2.8 A-hr Lithium-Ion battery modules supplied by Milwaukee Tool to store 8.2 kW-hr of energy at a nominal voltage of 364 V. Power is transmitted to the electric motor via an Azure Dynamics DMOC445LLC motor controller. All of the components fit within the original sled envelope, leading to a vehicle with conventional appearance and a total mass of 313 kg (690 lb). The vehicle, dubbed the BuckEV, accelerates to 150 m (500 ft) in 6.9 seconds and has a top speed of 122 km/hr (76 mph) with a pass-by sound level of 55 dB.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1318
Daniel K. Mehr, Matthew Michalak, Stephen Erlien, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin Hybrid Vehicle Team has implemented and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2008 ChallengeX competition. This four year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were appropriately weighted to determine powertrain component selections. Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, is a split-parallel hybrid utilizing a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9L CDTi (common rail diesel turbo injection) engine coupled to an F40 6-speed manual transmission. The rear axle is powered by a SiemensVDO induction motor/gearbox power-limited to 65 kW by a 40-module (288 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc, nickel-metal hydride battery pack.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1937
Yusuke Imamori, Kenji Hiraoka, Shinsuke Murakami, Hiroyuki Endo, Christopher J. Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0722
Shiyou Yang, Rolf D. Reitz
A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0662
Ben R. Petersen, Jaal B. Ghandhi
The ability to make fully resolved turbulent scalar field measurements has been demonstrated in an internal combustion engine using one-dimensional fluorobenzene fluorescence measurements. Data were acquired during the intake stroke in a motored engine that had been modified such that each intake valve was fed independently, and one of the two intake streams was seeded with the fluorescent tracer. The scalar energy spectra displayed a significant inertial subrange that had a −5/3 wavenumber power dependence. The scalar dissipation spectra were found to extend in the high-wavenumber regime, to where the magnitude was more than two decades below the peak value, which indicates that for all practical purposes the measurements faithfully represent all of the scalar dissipation in the flow.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1511
Nilesh L. Bagal, Christopher J. Rutland, David E. Foster, Kushal Narayanaswamy, Yongsheng He
A kinetic carbon monoxide (CO) emission model is developed to simulate engine out CO emissions for conventional diesel combustion. The model also incorporates physics governing CO emissions for low temperature combustion (LTC). The emission model will be used in an integrated system level model to simulate the operation and interaction of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion with aftertreatment devices. The Integrated System Model consists of component models for the diesel engine, engine-out emissions (such as NOx and Particulate Matter), and aftertreatment devices (such as DOC and DPF). The addition of CO emissions model will enhance the capability of the Integrated System Model to predict major emission species, especially for low temperature combustion. In this work a CO emission model is developed based on a two-step global kinetic mechanism [8].
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1634
Shiyou Yang, Rolf D. Reitz, Claudia O. Iyer, Jianwen Yi
Improvements to combustion models for modeling spark ignition engines using the G-equation flame propagation model and detailed chemical kinetics have been performed. The improvements include revision of a PRF chemistry mechanism, precise calculation of “primary heat release” based on the sub-grid scale unburned/burnt volumes of flame-containing cells, modeling flame front quenching in highly stratified mixtures, introduction of a Damkohler model for assessing the combustion regime of flame-containing cells, and a better method of modeling the effects of the local residual value on the burning velocity. The validation of the revised PRF mechanism shows that the calculated ignition delay matches shock tube data very well. The improvements to the “primary heat release” model based on the cell unburned/burnt volumes more precisely consider the chemical kinetics heat release in unburned regions, and thus are thought to be physically reasonable.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1748
Z. Gerald Liu, Devin R. Berg, James J. Schauer
Studies have shown that there are a significant number of chemical species present in engine exhaust particulate matter emissions. Additionally, the majority of current world-wide regulatory methods for measuring engine particulate emissions are gravimetrically based. As modern engines considerably reduce particulate mass emissions, these methods become less stable and begin to display higher levels of measurement uncertainty. In this study, a characterization of mass emissions from three heavy-duty diesel engines, with a range of particulate emission levels, was made in order to gain a better understanding of the variability and uncertainty associated with common mass measurement methods, as well as how well these methods compare with each other. Two gravimetric mass measurement methods and a reconstructed mass method were analyzed as part of the present study.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1702
Shiyou Yang, Lin-Shu Wang
Two charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems, named Turbo-Cool and T2C, have been introduced. Turbo-Cool employs an air turbine expander/suction-compressor unit in the intake side and a VGT in the exhaust side, while T2C employs an air turbine expansion in the intake side and an exhaust VGT with a same shaft with the air turbine. A Nissan SR20DET turbocharged gasoline engine with the two charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems have been modeled using GT-SUITE 6.0 engine simulation code. Modeling results show that either Turbo-Cool or T2C must be combined with exhaust VGT. The air turbine in both systems can be either VGT or fixed. Modeling results also show that the power at WOT and rated engine speed of the engine with the proposed charge-air cooling turbo-charging systems can be increased by 20∼30%, the maximum torque at WOT can be increased by 46∼71%, and the BSFC at WOT and rated engine speed can be decreased by 4∼5%.
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