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Viewing 1 to 30 of 97
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1937
Yusuke Imamori, Kenji Hiraoka, Shinsuke Murakami, Hiroyuki Endo, Christopher J. Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1572
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0108
Ethan K. Brodsky, Nicholas J. Rakovec, Kevin R. King, Daniel J. Bocci, Jared Olsen, Adam R. Schumacher, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Clean Snowmobile team has designed, constructed and now refined an electric snowmobile with 40 km (24 mi) range and acceleration comparable to a 75 kW (100 hp) internal-combustion-powered snowmobile. Starting with a Polaris IQ Fusion chassis, a direct-drive chain-case was engineered to couple a General Motors EV1 copper-bar rotor AC induction electric motor to the track drive shaft. The battery pack uses 104 28 V, 2.8 A-hr Lithium-Ion battery modules supplied by Milwaukee Tool to store 8.2 kW-hr of energy at a nominal voltage of 364 V. Power is transmitted to the electric motor via an Azure Dynamics DMOC445LLC motor controller. All of the components fit within the original sled envelope, leading to a vehicle with conventional appearance and a total mass of 313 kg (690 lb). The vehicle, dubbed the BuckEV, accelerates to 150 m (500 ft) in 6.9 seconds and has a top speed of 122 km/hr (76 mph) with a pass-by sound level of 55 dB.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1105
Federico Perini, Adam Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz, Dipankar Sahoo, Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1311
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A fundamentally based quasi-dimensional NOx emission model for spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines was developed. The NOx model consists of a chemical mechanism and three sub-models. The classical extended Zeldovich mechanism and N₂O pathway for NOx formation mechanism were employed as the chemical mechanism in the model. A characteristic time model for the radical species H, O and OH was incorporated to account for non-equilibrium of radical species during combustion. A model of homogeneity which correlates fundamental dimensionless numbers and mixing time was developed to model the air-fuel mixing and inhomogeneity of the charge. Since temperature has a dominant effect on NOx emission, a flame temperature correlation was developed to model the flame temperature during the combustion for NOx calculation. Measured NOx emission data from a single-cylinder SIDI research engine at different operating conditions was used to validate the NOx model.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1974
Federico Perini, Emanuele Galligani, Giuseppe Cantore, Rolf D. Reitz
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0140
Bao-Lin Wang, Michael J. Bergin, Benjamin R. Petersen, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920512
Song-Charng Kong, Nabil Ayoub, Rolf D. Reitz
The combustion mechanism in a Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge (CIHC) engine was studied. Previous experiments done on a four-stroke CIHC engine were modeled using the KIVA-II code with modifications to the combustion, heat transfer, and crevice flow submodels. A laminar and turbulence characteristic time combustion model that has been used for spark-ignited engine studies was extended to allow predictions of ignition. The rate of conversion from one chemical species to another is modeled using a characteristic time which is the sum of a laminar (high temperature) chemistry time, an ignition (low temperature) chemistry time, and a turbulence mixing time. The ignition characteristic time was modeled using data from elementary initiation reactions and has the Arrhenius form. It was found to be possible to match all engine test cases reasonably well with one set of combustion model constants.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930617
Yao-jung Shiao, John J. Moskwa
This paper investigates the dynamic errors between the commonly used two-lump mass connecting rod model and the actual connecting rod model for the internal combustion engine. Because of the errors between the actual rod inertia and this simplified two-lump mass model, incorrect engine dynamics and internal forces are often predicted. In this paper, the magnitudes of force differences related to errors of connecting rod inertia are presented for various engines at different engine operating speeds. A method to predict the maximum side force and its maximum deviation is presented. And the technique to minimize variability in connecting rod mass and moment of inertia, as well as minimizing errors in the lumped mass model commonly used in industry are also introduced to avoid incorrect engine dynamics and internal forces.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930924
Andrea L. Knox-Kelecy, Patrick V. Farrell
An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930511
Michael J. Gutknecht, Daniel R. Schneidewend, John J. Moskwa, Charles R. Kime, Parameswaran Ramanathan
Brake systems in current production automobiles are the result of a long evolutionary process beginning with the first practical hydraulic brake patent in 1917. While the basic hydraulic design has many advantages, recent modifications to this system for anti-lock braking and traction control considerably increase the cost of manufacture. As a result, many manufacturers are investigating the possibility of developing alternate braking system structures that cost less and can easily interface with vehicle electronics. Evaluating these systems for fault tolerance and failure effects is crucial to provide a safe and reliable vehicle braking system. This paper demonstrates the use of the Fault Tree Analysis method for carrying out such an evaluation. An example system is presented to illustrate the application of this method to automobile brake design.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972864
Michael Chan, Sudhakar Das, Rolf D. Reitz
A modified version of the multi-dimensional KIVA-II code is used to model the effects of multiple injection schemes and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on direct injected diesel engine NOx and soot emissions. The computational results, which also considered double and triple injection schemes and varying EGR amounts, are compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar heavy-duty truck engine. The study is done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 rpm) where EGR is known to produce unacceptable increases in soot (particulate). The effect of soot and spray model formulations are considered. This includes a new spray model based on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities for liquid breakup. A soot oxidation model that accounts for turbulent mixing and kinetic effects were found to give accurate results. The results showed excellent agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, and heat release data for the various cases.
1998-02-01
Technical Paper
980131
Mark A. Patterson, Rolf D. Reitz
A new spray model has been developed to improve the prediction of diesel engine combustion and emissions using the KIVA-II CFD code. The accuracy of modeling the spray breakup process has been improved by the inclusion of Rayleigh-Taylor accelerative instabilities, which are calculated simultaneously with a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave model. This model improves the prediction of the droplet sizes within a diesel spray and provides a more accurate initial condition for the evaporation, combustion, and emissions models. An improvement to the droplet drag model is also presented. This model accounts for the increased droplet drag due to the change in the droplet's shape, as well as the increase in the frontal area of the droplet. The drag model affects the breakup process locally, producing a more realistic droplet size distribution, and therefore a more accurate calculation of the vaporization process.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980926
Joseph W. Anthony, John J. Moskwa, Eugene Danielson
Powertrain simulation is becoming an increasingly valuable tool to evaluate new technologies proposed for future military vehicles. The powertrain of the M1A1 Abrams tank is currently being modeled in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This powertrain model is to be integrated with other component models in an effort to produce a high fidelity simulation of the entire vehicle.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980524
Gregory J. Hampson, Rolf D. Reitz
Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980508
T. R. Fuchs, C. J. Rutland
Using modified versions of the KIVA-II and KIVA-3 CFD codes, intake, compression, and combustion of a Caterpillar diesel engine was modeled. Seven variations on intake and two injection schemes were explored so that a detailed understanding of the effects of intake on various flow properties and their subsequent influence on combustion and emissions could be obtained. The results revealed that, in many cases, one of three factors: swirl ratio, temperature, and turbulence, was dominant in describing a combustion or emission behavior. In addition, stratification of fuel and oxygen was found to be a result of high swirl ratios. This had a profound impact on combustion and emissions, especially for split injection cases.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980488
Patrick D. Maguire, Jed T. von Heimburg, Daniel J. Nickchen, Aaron M. Sullivan, Wayne D. Milestone, Glenn R. Bower
Students, as members of Team Paradigm, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have designed a charge regulating, parallel hybrid electric Dodge Intrepid for the 1997 FutureCar Challenge (FCC97). The goals for the Wisconsin “FutureCow” are to achieve an equivalent fuel consumption of 26 km/L (62 mpg) and Tier 2 Federal Emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a stock Intrepid. These goals are realized through drivetrain simulations, a refined vehicle control strategy, decreased engine emissions, and aggressive weight reduction. The vehicle development has been coupled with 8,000 km of reliability and performance testing to ensure Wisconsin will be a strong competitor at the FCC97.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970884
Zhiyu Han, Li Fan, Rolf D. Reitz
A numerical study of air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was carried out. In this paper, the numerical models are described and grid generation methods to represent a realistic port-valve-chamber geometry is discussed. To model a vaporizing hollow-cone spray resulting from an automotive pressure-swirl injector, a newly developed sheet spray atomization model was used to compute the processes of disintegration of the liquid sheet and breakup of the subsequent drops. Computations were performed of a particular 4-valve pent-roof engine configuration in which the intake process and an early fuel injection scheme were considered. After an analysis of the intake-generated flow structures in this engine configuration, the spray behavior and the spatial and temporal evolution of fuel liquid and vapor phases are characterized.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
961967
Gregory J. Hampson, Jun Xin, Yong Liu, Zhiyu Han, Rolf D. Reitz
In previous work the KIVA-II code has been modified to model modem DI diesel engines and their emissions of particulate soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). This work presents results from a program to further validate the NOx emissions models against engine experiments with a well characterized modern engine. To facilitate a simplified comparison with experiments, a single cylinder research version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty DI diesel engine was retrofitted to run as a naturally-aspirated, propane-fueled, spark-ignited engine. The retrofit includes installing a low compression ratio piston with bowl, adding a gas mixer, replacing the fuel injector assembly with a spark plug assembly and adding spark and fuel stoichiometry control hardware. Cylinder pressure and engine-out NOx emissions were measured for a range of speeds, exhaust gas residual (EGR) fractions, and spark timing settings.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962056
A. Uludogan, David E. Foster, Rolf D. Reitz
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
962052
P. K. Senecal, J. Xin, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract It is well known that the accuracy of simulations of combustion processes in diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines depends on the initial conditions within the cylinder at intake valve closure (IVC). Residual gas affects the engine combustion processes through its influence on charge mass, temperature and dilution. In SI engines, there is little oxygen in the residual gas, and thus the dilution effect on flame propagation is more significant than in compression ignited (CI) engines. However, in CI engines, the ignition delay depends strongly on the in-cylinder gas temperature, which is proportional to the gas temperature at IVC. Furthermore, ignition delay is significantly affected by how much oxygen is present, which is also partly determined by the residual gas fraction. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to determine residual gas concentrations accurately.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
971089
John J. Moskwa, Scott A. Munns, Zachary J. Rubin
Simulation is a useful tool which can significantly reduce resources invested during product development. Vehicle manufacturers are using simulations to aid in the evaluation of designs and components, including powertrain systems and controllers. These simulations can be made more useful by addressing issues such as flexibility, modularity, and causality. These issues and other aspects involved in the development and use of powertrain system simulations are discussed in this paper, and a case study of a powertrain system model developed in the PCRL using methodologies based on considerations of such issues is presented.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920579
Manuel A. Gonzalez D., Zhi W. Lian, Rolf D. Reitz
Diesel engine in-cylinder combustion processes have been studied using computational models with particular attention to spray development, vaporization, fuel/air mixture formation and combustion. A thermodynamic zero-dimensional cycle analysis program was used to determine initial conditions for the multidimensional calculations. A modified version of the time-dependent, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II was used for the computations, with a detailed treatment for the spray calculations and a simplified model for combustion. The calculations were used to obtain an understanding of the potential predictive capabilities of the models. It was found that there is a strong sensitivity of the results to numerical grid resolution. With proper grid resolution, the calculations were found to reproduce experimental data for non- vaporizing and vaporizing sprays. However, for vaporizing sprays with combustion, extremely fine grids are needed.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922308
Andrea L. Knox-Kelecy, Patrick V. Farrell
An experimental investigation of turbulent flow patterns in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of the injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Two steady flow average Reynolds numbers (10,500 and 13,300), analogous to fuel injection velocities and sac pressures of approximately 320 and 405 m/s and 67 and 107 MPa (10,000 and 16,000 psi), were investigated. The axial progression of mean and root mean square (rms) axial velocities was obtained for both sharp and rounded inlet conditions and varying L/D. The discharge coefficient was also calculated for each geometry.
1993-09-01
Technical Paper
932458
Rolf D. Reitz, R. Giangregorio, G. Hampson, R. Hessel, S. Kong, A. Liu, D. Mather, D. Nehmer, M. Patterson, C. Pieper, T. Tow, Y. Zhu, C. J. Rutland
The three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and initial computations have been made of intake flow in the manifold and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940144
Yaojung Shiao, John J. Moskwa
Many researchers have studied and developed methods for on-board engine combustion misfire detection in production vehicles. Misfiring can damage the catalytic converter within a short time and can lead to increased emission levels. For that reason, the on-board detection of engine misfire is one requirement of the On Board Diagnosis II (OBDII) Regulation and a recent interest for many researchers. One object in this paper is to propose a misfire detection method for multi-cylinder SI engines. The detection is achieved by examining the estimated cylinder pressures and combustion heat release rates in engine cylinders. The Sliding Observer methodology is applied in these estimations. This detection method provides a reliable and low-cost way to diagnose engine misfires. The other object of the paper is to eliminate large estimation errors due to system unobservability and reconstruct cylinder pressures.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940523
M. A. Patterson, S.-C. Kong, G. J. Hampson, Rolf D. Reitz
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950899
Chung-Hung Pan, John J. Moskwa
A transmission system model for Ford Motor Company's automatic transmission (AOD) system used in the Lincoln Town Car has been developed using the free-body diagram method (Newtonian approach). This model is sophisticated enough to represent the dynamic behavior of the transmission system, yet simple enough to use as a real time computer simulation tool, and as an embedded model within a dynamic observer. The transmission system and torque converter models presented in this paper are part of a larger powertrain system model at the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950278
Song-Charng Kong, Zhiyu Han, Rolf D. Reitz
An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950285
Nabil S. Ayoub, Rolf D. Reitz
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization on diesel engine performance under both standard and cold-starting conditions. The code has also been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, and a crevice flow model. The baseline computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system. The effect of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization is studied, with particular attention to the effects of the injection ambient temperatures.
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