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Viewing 1 to 30 of 209
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1937
Yusuke Imamori, Kenji Hiraoka, Shinsuke Murakami, Hiroyuki Endo, Christopher J. Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1572
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1560
Stephen Sakai, Mitchell Hageman, David Rothamer
The effect of equivalence ratio on the particulate size distribution (PSD) in a spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine was investigated. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignited direct-injection engine fueled with certification gasoline was used for the measurements. The engine was operated with early injection during the intake stroke. Equivalence ratio was swept over the range where stable combustion was achieved. Throughout this range combustion phasing was held constant. Particle size distributions were measured as a function of equivalence ratio. The data show the sensitivity of both engine-out particle number and particle size to global equivalence ratio. As equivalence ratio was increased a larger fraction of particles were due to agglomerates with diameters ≻ 100 nm. For decreasing equivalence ratio smaller particles dominate the distribution. The total particle number and mass increased non-linearly with increasing equivalence ratio.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0093
Riccardo Rossi, Ettore Musu, Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0197
Sanghoon Kook, Choongsik Bae, Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Michael Bergin, Rolf D. Reitz
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0108
Ethan K. Brodsky, Nicholas J. Rakovec, Kevin R. King, Daniel J. Bocci, Jared Olsen, Adam R. Schumacher, Glenn R. Bower
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Clean Snowmobile team has designed, constructed and now refined an electric snowmobile with 40 km (24 mi) range and acceleration comparable to a 75 kW (100 hp) internal-combustion-powered snowmobile. Starting with a Polaris IQ Fusion chassis, a direct-drive chain-case was engineered to couple a General Motors EV1 copper-bar rotor AC induction electric motor to the track drive shaft. The battery pack uses 104 28 V, 2.8 A-hr Lithium-Ion battery modules supplied by Milwaukee Tool to store 8.2 kW-hr of energy at a nominal voltage of 364 V. Power is transmitted to the electric motor via an Azure Dynamics DMOC445LLC motor controller. All of the components fit within the original sled envelope, leading to a vehicle with conventional appearance and a total mass of 313 kg (690 lb). The vehicle, dubbed the BuckEV, accelerates to 150 m (500 ft) in 6.9 seconds and has a top speed of 122 km/hr (76 mph) with a pass-by sound level of 55 dB.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0562
Nicholas James Neal, Jonny Jordan, David Rothamer
In-cylinder temperature and velocity fields were quantified simultaneously in an optically accessible, small-bore diesel engine. A technique utilizing luminescence from Pr:YAG phosphor particles aerosolized into the intake air was used for temperature determination while particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the aforementioned phosphor particles was used to simultaneously measure the velocity field. The temperature and velocity fields were measured at different points throughout the compression stroke up to −30 CAD. Systematic interference due to emission from the piston window reduced the accuracy of the measurements at crank angles closer to TDC. Single-shot simultaneous measurements of the temperature and velocity fields were made using both unheated and heated intake temperatures. In both cases, cycle-to-cycle variations in the temperature and velocity fields were visible.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0567
Yizhou Zhang, David Jesch, Jason Oakley, Jaal Ghandhi
High-resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were performed on the scalar field in an optical engine. The measurements were of sufficient resolution to fully resolve all of the length scales of the flow field through the full cycle. The scalar dissipation spectrum was calculated, and by fitting the results to a model turbulent spectrum the Batchelor scale of the turbulent flow was estimated. The scalar inhomogeneity was introduced by a low-momentum gas jet injection. A consistent trend was observed in all data; the Batchelor scale showed a minimum value at top dead center (TDC) and was nearly symmetric about TDC. Increasing the engine speed resulted in a decrease of the Batchelor scale, and the presence of a shroud on the intake valve, which increased the turbulence intensity, also reduced the Batchelor scale. The effect of the shrouded valve was less significant compared to the effect of engine speed.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1605
N. Ryan Walker, Adam B. Dempsey, Michael J. Andrie, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be capable of providing improved engine efficiencies coupled with the benefit of low emissions via in-cylinder fuel blending. Much of the previous body of work has studied the benefits of RCCI operation using high injection pressures (e.g., 500 bar or greater) with common rail injection (CRI) hardware. However, low-pressure fueling technology is capable of providing significant cost savings. Due to the broad market adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDI) fueling systems, a market-type prototype GDI injector was selected for this study. Single-cylinder light-duty engine experiments were undertaken to examine the performance and emissions characteristics of the RCCI combustion strategy with low-pressure GDI technology and compared against high injection pressure RCCI operation. Gasoline and diesel were used as the low-reactivity and high-reactivity fuels, respectively.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1105
Federico Perini, Adam Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz, Dipankar Sahoo, Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1311
Jian Gong, Christopher Rutland
A fundamentally based quasi-dimensional NOx emission model for spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) gasoline engines was developed. The NOx model consists of a chemical mechanism and three sub-models. The classical extended Zeldovich mechanism and N₂O pathway for NOx formation mechanism were employed as the chemical mechanism in the model. A characteristic time model for the radical species H, O and OH was incorporated to account for non-equilibrium of radical species during combustion. A model of homogeneity which correlates fundamental dimensionless numbers and mixing time was developed to model the air-fuel mixing and inhomogeneity of the charge. Since temperature has a dominant effect on NOx emission, a flame temperature correlation was developed to model the flame temperature during the combustion for NOx calculation. Measured NOx emission data from a single-cylinder SIDI research engine at different operating conditions was used to validate the NOx model.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3095
Neal Clements, Giri Venkataramanan, T. M. Jahns
Permanent magnet AC generators are robust, inexpensive, and efficient compared to wound-field synchronous generators with brushless exciters. Their application in variable-speed applications is made difficult by the variation of the stator voltage with shaft speed. This paper presents the use of stator-side reactive power injection as a means of regulating the stator voltage. Design-oriented analysis of machine performance for this mode of operation identifies an appropriate level of machine saliency that enables excellent terminal voltage regulation over a specified speed and load range, while minimizing stator current requirements. This paper demonstrates that the incorporation of saliency into the permanent magnet generator can significantly reduce the size of the reactive current source that is required to regulate the stator voltage during operation over a wide range of speeds and loads.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1974
Federico Perini, Emanuele Galligani, Giuseppe Cantore, Rolf D. Reitz
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0379
Derek E. Nieman, Adam B. Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0417
Aaron Gander, John Moskwa
The focus of this paper is to discuss the modeling and control of intake plenum pressure on the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory's (PCRL) Single-Cylinder Engine (SCE) transient test system using a patented device known as the Intake Air Simulator (IAS), which dynamically controls the intake plenum pressure, and, subsequently, the instantaneous airflow into the cylinder. The IAS exists as just one of many devices that the PCRL uses to control the dynamic boundary conditions of its SCE transient test system to make it “think” and operate as though it were part of a Multi-Cylinder Engine (MCE) test system. The model described in this paper will be used to design a second generation of this device that utilizes both continuously and discretely actuating valves working in parallel.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1131
Youngchul Ra, Paul Loeper, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, David E. Foster, Rolf D. Reitz, Russ Durrett
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0140
Bao-Lin Wang, Michael J. Bergin, Benjamin R. Petersen, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0345
Jun Tamura, Chen-Yen Yu, Natee Limsuwan, Robert Lorenz
This paper presents advanced and cost-reducing technologies of a motor drive system with reduced permanent magnets but without a position sensor. The key enabler is the integration of novel designs of flux-intensifying interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (FI-IPMSMs) and position self-sensing control technologies. In this paper, we focus on two advantages of FI-IPMSM over conventional flux-weakening interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (FW-IPMSMs). The first benefit is that thinner magnets are possible and there is less concern for demagnetization because of its significantly smaller flux-weakening current. This paper presents two design examples of FI-IPMSMs, one of which has not only smaller magnets but also similar power conversion capability. The second advantage is reduced saturation and cross-saturation effect, which leads to improved position self-sensing capability.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920512
Song-Charng Kong, Nabil Ayoub, Rolf D. Reitz
The combustion mechanism in a Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge (CIHC) engine was studied. Previous experiments done on a four-stroke CIHC engine were modeled using the KIVA-II code with modifications to the combustion, heat transfer, and crevice flow submodels. A laminar and turbulence characteristic time combustion model that has been used for spark-ignited engine studies was extended to allow predictions of ignition. The rate of conversion from one chemical species to another is modeled using a characteristic time which is the sum of a laminar (high temperature) chemistry time, an ignition (low temperature) chemistry time, and a turbulence mixing time. The ignition characteristic time was modeled using data from elementary initiation reactions and has the Arrhenius form. It was found to be possible to match all engine test cases reasonably well with one set of combustion model constants.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920380
Michael J. Burkett, Norman H. Beachley, Frank J. Fronczak
The modified hypocycloid (MH) mechanism, which uses gears to produce straight line motion, has been proposed as an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion (IC) engines. Advantages of the MH mechanism over the slider-crank for an IC engine include the capability of perfect balancing with any number of cylinders and the absence of piston side loads. The elimination of piston side load has the potential for lower piston friction, reduced piston slap, and less susceptibility to cylinder liner cavitation. To evaluate the concept, an experimental single cylinder four-stroke engine which utilizes the MH mechanism is currently being built at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The MH engine has an increased number of friction interfaces compared to a conventional slider-crank engine due to additional bearings and the gear meshes. Thus, the lubrication of these components is an important issue in total MH engine friction.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930259
Jon C. Longstreth, Frank A. Sanders, Steven P. Seaney, John J. Moskwa, Frank J. Fronczak
A hydrostatic dynamometer capable of accurately controlling the speed and torque of an engine has been designed and constructed. The thrust of this work is not only to build a better dynamometer, it is the first step in creating a system for laboratory simulation of the actual load environment of engines and powertrains. This paper presents the design, construction, and evaluation of a hydrostatic dynamometer. The evaluation includes speed and torque limits, and bandwidth of the dynamometer. Also, the dynamometer is compared with those in common use, and the feasibility of accurately reproducing the engine or powertrain load environments are assessed. This is the first phase of a development program; future research is discussed.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930617
Yao-jung Shiao, John J. Moskwa
This paper investigates the dynamic errors between the commonly used two-lump mass connecting rod model and the actual connecting rod model for the internal combustion engine. Because of the errors between the actual rod inertia and this simplified two-lump mass model, incorrect engine dynamics and internal forces are often predicted. In this paper, the magnitudes of force differences related to errors of connecting rod inertia are presented for various engines at different engine operating speeds. A method to predict the maximum side force and its maximum deviation is presented. And the technique to minimize variability in connecting rod mass and moment of inertia, as well as minimizing errors in the lumped mass model commonly used in industry are also introduced to avoid incorrect engine dynamics and internal forces.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930924
Andrea L. Knox-Kelecy, Patrick V. Farrell
An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930864
Glenn R. Bower, David E. Foster
This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972864
Michael Chan, Sudhakar Das, Rolf D. Reitz
A modified version of the multi-dimensional KIVA-II code is used to model the effects of multiple injection schemes and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on direct injected diesel engine NOx and soot emissions. The computational results, which also considered double and triple injection schemes and varying EGR amounts, are compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar heavy-duty truck engine. The study is done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 rpm) where EGR is known to produce unacceptable increases in soot (particulate). The effect of soot and spray model formulations are considered. This includes a new spray model based on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities for liquid breakup. A soot oxidation model that accounts for turbulent mixing and kinetic effects were found to give accurate results. The results showed excellent agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, and heat release data for the various cases.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972859
M. J. Stiyer, J. B. Ghandhi
A direct calibration has been performed on laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the oil film in a single cylinder air-cooled research engine by simultaneously measuring the minimum oil film thickness by the capacitance technique. At the minimum oil film thickness the capacitance technique provides an accurate measure of the ring-wall distance, and this value is used as a reference for the photomultiplier voltage, giving a calibration coefficient. This calibration coefficient directly accounts for the effect of temperature on the fluorescent properties of the constituents of the oil which are photoactive. The inability to accurately know the temperature of the oil has limited the utility of off-engine calibration techniques. Data are presented for the engine under motoring conditions at speeds from 800 - 2400 rpm and under varying throttle positions.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980810
Paul J. Tennison, Thierry L. Georjon, Patrick V. Farrell, Rolf D. Reitz
An experimental and numerical characterization has been conducted of a high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. The experimental study was performed using a common rail system with the capability of producing multiple injections within a single cycle. The injector used in the experiments had a single guided multi-hole nozzle tip. The diesel sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber with optical access at ambient temperature. The gas density in the chamber was representative of the density in an HSDI diesel engine at the time of injection. Single, pilot, and multiple injection cases were studied at different rail pressures and injection durations. Images of the transient sprays were obtained with a high-speed digital camera. From these images spray tip penetration and cone angles were obtained directly. Also spray droplet sizes were derived from the images using a light extinction method (LEM).
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980789
D. K. Mather, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract Rate shaping of the fuel injection process is known to significantly impact emissions production in diesel engines. To demonstrate the ability of multidimensional engine modeling to quantify and explain the effect of rate shaping and injection duration, three injection profiles typical of common diesel fuel injection systems were investigated for three injection durations and injection timings. The present study uses an improved version of the KIVA-II engine simulation code employing the characteristic time combustion model, the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor spray atomization mechanisms, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx production model, and a single species soot model.
1998-02-01
Technical Paper
980131
Mark A. Patterson, Rolf D. Reitz
A new spray model has been developed to improve the prediction of diesel engine combustion and emissions using the KIVA-II CFD code. The accuracy of modeling the spray breakup process has been improved by the inclusion of Rayleigh-Taylor accelerative instabilities, which are calculated simultaneously with a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave model. This model improves the prediction of the droplet sizes within a diesel spray and provides a more accurate initial condition for the evaporation, combustion, and emissions models. An improvement to the droplet drag model is also presented. This model accounts for the increased droplet drag due to the change in the droplet's shape, as well as the increase in the frontal area of the droplet. The drag model affects the breakup process locally, producing a more realistic droplet size distribution, and therefore a more accurate calculation of the vaporization process.
1998-02-01
Technical Paper
980159
J. D. Plackmann, T. Kim, J. B. Ghandhi
The role of mixture stratification on combustion rate has been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel in which mixtures of different equivalence ratios can be added in a spatially and temporally controlled fashion. The experiments were performed in a regime of low fluid motion to avoid the complicating effects of turbulence generated by the injection of different masses of fluid. Different mixture combinations were investigated while maintaining a constant overall equivalence ratio and initial pressure. The results indicate that the highest combustion rate for an overall lean mixture is obtained when all of the fuel is contained in a stoichiometric mixture in the vicinity of the ignition source. This is the result of the high burning velocity of these mixtures, and the complete oxidation which releases the full chemical energy.
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