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Viewing 1 to 30 of 154
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0144
Houliang Li, Robin Soon, Xiaoming Bian, Joseph Lanzesira, Pamela Dawson, Richard Beason
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0565
Paul Turnbull, John Kuo, Roy Schultz, Bruce Turner
A twenty-five kilowatt (peak power for one minute), permanent magnet electric machine for a hybrid electric vehicle application was designed and tested. The electric machine is located in the clutch housing of an automatically shifted manual transmission and is subjected to 120 °C continuous ambient temperatures. The package constraints and duty cycle requirements resulted in an extremely challenging thermal design for an electric machine. The losses in the machine were predicted using models based on first principles and the heat transfer in the machine was modeled using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were compared to test results over a variety of operating conditions and the results were used to validate the models. Parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of potting materials and cooling topologies.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0363
Gary Rushton, Amy Wesley, Armen Zakarian, Tigran Grigoryan
Not all software tools are created equal and not all software tools are created to perform the same tasks. Therefore, different software tools are used to perform different tasks. However, being able to share the information between the different software tools, without having to manually re-enter (duplicate) any of the information, can save a lot of time and improve the quality of the product. The control software interface presented in this paper, allows system engineers to exchange data between software tools in an efficient manner which maximizes each tools capabilities and ultimately reduces development time and improves the quality of the product.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0382
Naveen Rastogi, Fatma Kocer, Rodolfo Palma
The work presented here outlines the development of a robust CAO tool for optimal design of electromagnetic retarder machines. The developed EM-CAO tool is then used to perform a wide variety of CAE/CAO tasks, from automatically computing the torque versus rpm performance curves of the EM retarder to performing optimization. Two specific examples of optimal design of the EM retarder are reported. Through the use of a task manager/optimizer repetitive jobs are fully automated thereby making the analysis and optimization of electromagnetic retarders faster and user-friendlier.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1506
Chris Swales, Christoph Capellmann, Matt Crompton, Marcus Matthes
Customer clinics and surveys have revealed the increased importance to the customer of good defrost and demist performance in their vehicle. Achieving this level of performance, within the time and cost constraints of a modern vehicle development program, places increased reliance on computational (CAE) techniques. However, this paper describes how the optimum development process should be to combine this reliance upon CAE methods with a newly developed experimental technique. This new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) based methodology is employed at all stages of the development process and complements the CAE techniques perfectly. The end result is optimized airflow management within the vehicle cabin – essential if good defrost and demist performance is to be achieved in a vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1548
X. Fan, H. Cai, S. Lin, L. N. B. Gummadi, K. Cao
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1482
Hong Su, Ravi Thyagarajan, Joel Brown
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify instrument panel (IP) products under the vehicle key life test environments, by employing a set of CAE simulation and durability techniques. The virtual key life test method simulates the same structural configuration and the proving ground road loads as in the physical test. A representative dynamic road load profile model is constructed based on the vehicle proving ground field data. The dynamic stress simulation is realized by employing the finite element transient analysis. The durability evaluation is based on the dynamic stress results and the material fatigue properties of each component. The procedure has helped the IP engineering team to identify and correct potential durability problems at earlier design stage without a prototype. It has shown that the CAE virtual key life test procedure provides a way to speed up IP product development, to minimize prototypes and costs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1483
Michael Keranen, Kumar Kulkarni, Jeff Stasevich, Ravi Thyagarajan
Interior compartment doors are required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201, to stay closed during physical head impact testing, and when subjected to specific inertia loads. This paper defines interior compartment doors, and shows examples of several different latches designed to keep these doors closed. It also explores the details of the requirements that interior compartment doors and their latches must meet, including differing requirements from automobile manufacturers. It then shows the conventional static method a supplier uses to analyze a latch and door system. And, since static calculations can't always capture the complexities of a dynamic event, this paper also presents a case study of one particular latch and door system showing a way to simulate the forces experienced by a latch. The dynamic simulation is done using Finite Element Analysis and instrumentation of actual hardware in physical tests.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1379
John Meyer, George Yang, Evangelos Papoulis
As powertrains continue to get more efficient, less waste heat is available for warming the passenger compartment. Although several supplemental heating devices are currently on the market, including electric heaters, viscous heaters, and fuel operated heaters, they each have shortcomings related to cost, capacity, efficiency, and/or environmental concerns[1]. In an attempt to provide superior time-to-comfort in a cost, weight, package efficient, and environmentally friendly manner, an R134a heat pump (HP) system was developed. Several technical issues were overcome while developing this system. Production vehicles have been retrofitted to incorporate the R134a heat pump system and tested in a climatic wind tunnel. Test results for a -18°C warm-up test were compared to baseline data, showing significant improvements in average discharge air and breath level temperatures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1694
Alan S. Phillips
Past and current practice in this industry for measuring individual loudspeaker drive units has included great freedom in choice of chamber type and baffling. Many of these methods do not yield the true acoustical response of the loudspeaker free from acoustical artifacts. In fact, international loudspeaker measurement standards and many carmaker specifications allow test set-ups that significantly mask the true response of the loudspeaker. This paper is intended to drive awareness of this issue in the industry in an effort to promote a new standard for measurement.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1240
Syed Nabi, Mahesh Balike, Jace Allen, Kevin Rzemien
This paper discusses our experiences on the implementation and benefits of using the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) systems for Powertrain control system software verification and validation. The Visteon HIL system integrated with several off-the-shelf diagnostics and calibration tools is briefly explained. Further, discussions on test automation sequence control and failure insertion are outlined The capabilities and advantages of using HIL for unit level software testing, open loop and closed-loop system testing, fault insertion and test automation are described. HIL also facilitates Software and Hardware Interface validation testing with low-level driver and platform software. This paper attempts to show the experiences with and capabilities of these HIL systems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0685
Fatma Kocer, Sid Medina, Balaji Bharadwaj, Rodolfo Palma, Roger Keranen
The increasing power requirement for automotive electronics (radios, etc.), combined with ever-shrinking size and weight allowances, is creating a greater need for optimization and robust design of heat sinks. Not only does a heat sink directly affect the overall performance and reliability of a specific electronics application, but a well-designed, optimized heat sink can have other benefits - such as eliminating the requirement for special fans, reducing weight of the application, eliminating additional heat sink support structures, etc. Optimizing heat sink efficiency and thermal performance offers a challenge, due to the many competing design requirements. These requirements include effecting greater temperature reductions, accommodating vehicle packaging requirements and size limitations, generating a uniform heat distribution, etc., and all the while reducing the heat sink cost.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0782
Gary Leevy, Khoa Cao
The fundamentals of multi-leaf spring design as determined through beam theory offers a general perspective on how finite element analysis works. Additionally, the fundamentals of combining dissimilar materials require a basic knowledge of how the combined equivalent modulus affects the overall stiffness characteristics of multi-leaf design. By capturing these basic fundamentals into finite element modeling, an analysis of a steel-composite multi-leaf contact model relative to an idealized steel-composite multi-leaf model shows the importance of contact modeling. The results demonstrate the important differences between an idealized non-contact model relative to a complete contact model.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0862
Nitin Y. Wani, Vinod K. Singh, Greg Falbo, Vincent D. Monkaba
In the absence of prototypes, analytical methods such as finite element analysis are very useful in resolving noise and vibration problems, by predicting dynamic behavior of the automotive components and systems. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a simulation technique and involves making assumptions that affect analytical results. Acceptance and use of these results is greatly enhanced through test validation. In this paper, dynamic behavior of the automotive propshaft equipped with cardboard liner and torsional damper is investigated. The finite element model is validated at both component and subsystem levels using frequency response functions. Effects of the cardboard liner and torsional damper on the propshaft bending, torsional and breathing frequencies are studied under free-free boundary conditions. Effects of the U-Joint stiffness along with other design variables on the driveshaft dynamic behavior are also studied.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0021
Scott M. Dittman, Amy Wesley, Arthur J. Gajewski
One challenge facing automotive product development teams is the inclusion of the Human System Integration (HSI) community – consisting of human factors professionals, graphic and industrial designers, rapid prototyping software engineers, electronic hardware engineers, and systems engineers – in the Product Development Process (PDP). In order to achieve this integration, Visteon looked to the methods of systems engineering currently employed throughout the PDP. Overlaying the HSI process with an accepted systems engineering process description known as the N2 (N-squared) chart resulted in the outlining of expected inputs to the HSI process team, definitions of processes undertaken by the team, and expected outputs of those processes.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0003
Henry Blind
Three dimensional acoustic entertainment enables the listener to experience sounds emanating from all around them, rather than being limited to the space between a pair of stereo speakers. It provides the artist with an enhanced sonic pallet to place sound sources in three dimensional space, as well as potential for a more realistic music reproduction experience. With the popularity of the Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), the technology successfully migrated from the movie theater into the “home theater”. The multichannel replacements for the audio CD (DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD) are enhancing the advancement into the automotive space. Automotive interiors are readymade for multichannel reproduction, but the automotive environment offers some challenges as well. This paper will discuss the market and technical potential for automotive applications of three dimensional sound, matters to take into account, media choices, distribution considerations and a look toward the future.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3377
José Neto da Silva, José Roberto de A. Zanini
Nowadays, ever market vehicle change affects body, suspension & steering gear systems. The purpose of this report is to quantify the methodology for evaluating and improving rattle mechanical noises in power rack & pinion steering systems. It is very important the correct process be used to adjust and approve the power steering gears in order to prevent the knock noise issue on services (warranty). This report describes how Visteon's Engineering makes efforts to achieve a reduction in warranty issues due to mechanical noise in the power steering gear, which affects its performance. We refer to this mechanical noise as “Knocking Noise” which derives from the gearing (meshing) adjustment loss. This experiment, supported by the Six Sigma methodology, led to new knowledge on how to improve the method of meshing adjust and test approval in process through of Design of Experiments (DOE).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1385
James Link, Ken Helberg, Karim Nasr
There are many opportunities in a current automotive HVAC case for improved performance, and cost savings. Based on these opportunities, a new HVAC case design has been developed. This new design is smaller and lighter than current cases while meeting many of the performance requirements. The case also features a unique plenum design for air distribution to the three modes, panel, floor, and defrost. The results of simulation and laboratory testing confirmed the concept of the new HVAC design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1746
Donald P. Lynch, Bryan L. Dodson
Low resolution fractional factorial experimental designs, used in screening, are more popular than ever due to the ever increasing costs of materials and machine time. Experimenters have to be more precise in their analysis, making every degree of freedom count. Resolution III designs are becoming more commonplace for use in screening designs. When running unsaturated resolution III designs there are extra degrees of freedom stemming from unassigned interactions. It is common practice to utilize these extra degrees of freedom to approximate error. In many cases, this common practice can over state the error and lead to erroneous results regarding factor statistical significance. Utilizing saturated resolution III designs and statistically analyzing unassigned interactions while estimating the error with replication is a method for strengthening the DOE strategy and improving the results from screening designs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1747
Donald P. Lynch
There is still much controversy and confusion in industry today regarding the use of process capability indices and analysis. A lack of knowledge regarding the underlying variation assumptions and rationale sampling strategies in indices such as Cp, Cpk, Pp and Ppk have added to the confusion and in many cases has led to misapplication of these widely used metrics. This issue has also promoted inconsistency in the assessment of long-term versus short-term capability and has hampered the true characterization of processes which is a critical step in any continuous improvement effort. Capability indices and analysis, when properly applied can impart a wealth of knowledge regarding process performance as well as provide focus for improvement activity through the proper characterization and enumeration of variation. Being able to properly characterize variation if the first step in reducing it.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0569
Roberval A. de Assis, Ary P de Miranda
Electronics components are estimated to be between 9 to 15 % of a total vehicle cost, and this trend will remain strong for the next years. The amount of electronics content in a vehicle has grown steadily since 1970's, and as a result, development challenges such as testing and validation are a key aspect of its overall development costs. Testing costs can amount easily to US$ 500 k in medium complex automotive parts of a vehicle (e.g. instrument cluster) depending on a specific OEM customer demand, and this on top of limited regional laboratory capacity can also lead to increased testing time. The goal of this paper is to outline key aspects of electronics in vehicle components testing, including overall costs and timing, and propose a lean approach to optimize such costs & timing. The key aspects of such optimization include not only resources, but also laboratories and upfront OEM customer planning.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1139
Neville J. Bugli, Gregory S. Green
Engine air filtration technologies currently used in air induction systems typically utilize pleated paper or felt type air filters. These air filter designs have been used for many years in panels, cylindrical or round (pancake type) type air cleaners. Pleated air filters are specifically designed to be serviceable and hence their performance is inherently limited by vehicle under-hood packaging and manufacturing constraints. Due to these constraints, majority of air cleaner designs are not optimized for engine filtration and air flow management under the hood. Studies show that use of low performing serviceable aftermarket air filters significantly affect the performance and durability of engine air cleaners [9]. High mileage studies confirm that engine durability, service issues, warranty field returns and customer satisfaction was affected by use of aftermarket filter brands.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1104
Jeffry M. Leffel, Reza Abdolhosseini
To control engine intake evaporative emissions, or “breathing losses”, functions of both Fuel Vapor Storage and Air Induction Systems must be understood. The merging of these diverse systems results in a functional requirements set that is very broad in scope. Several known devices for controlling engine evaporative emissions breathing losses are reviewed and compared. Experimental methods of measuring and estimating hydrocarbon adsorption, approximated by n-butane, are shown, some utilizing scaled laboratory sample units. HC capture efficiency, capacity, flow losses and other performance characteristics of the various devices are then optimally matched to the numerous system needs. Thus, emission control requirements are met, while cost and deleterious effects are minimized, resulting in high level optimal systems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1071
Hong Su, James Kempf, Bill Montgomery, Ryan Grimes
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0048
Dennis McDonald
Engine position synchronous control of fuel injection and spark ignition at engine start can reduce regulated emissions, and improve start quality. Synchronous fuel and ignition control requires full 720° engine position information. Emissions and start quality benefits are gained if engine position is available at key-on before initial engine rotation. Typical engine position sensor sets require substantial engine rotation before engine position is initialized. Tracking engine stop position, for use on the next start, eliminates the initial engine angular travel required for synchronization. The previous stop position of the engine is stored in non-volatile memory, giving engine position immediately at start. This approach is applicable for systems in which the engine controller remains powered for some time after key-off. As the engine stops, direction reversals are common.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0018
Guoming G. Zhu, Ibrahim Haskara, Jim Winkelman
Spark timing of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction. The ability to operate the engine at its advanced (borderline knock) spark limit is the key for improving output power and fuel economy. Due to combustion cycle-to-cycle variations, IC engine combustion behaves similar to a random process and so does the engine performance criteria, such as IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure), and knock intensity. The combustion stability measure COVariance of IMEP assumes the IMEP is a random process. Presently, the spark limit control of IC engines is deterministic in nature. The controller does not utilize any stochastic information associated with control parameters such as knock intensity for borderline spark limit control. This paper proposes a stochastic limit control strategy for borderline knock control. It also develops a simple stochastic model for evaluating the proposed stochastic controller.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0793
Gary Leevy, Neil Wasylewski, Khoa Cao
Although not completely understood, rotor distortion due to bolt-up is an issue commonly found in conventional brake rotor design. In this paper, bolt-up is addressed by utilizing optimization and contact analysis methods. These methods give greater insight to the contributing factors that influence bolt-up distortion. In particular, the optimization method defines the approximate geometric shape required for a brake rotor based on optimizing one or more variables. By utilizing the non-linear contact analysis method, the results from the optimization analysis are validated. In general, the results show that bolt-up distortion is not significantly affected by changing design features, variables or combinations of design features and variables. However, significant improvement in bolt-up distortion is noticed when changes are made to the brake rotor and the wheel bearing hub.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1066
Chin-Jung Chen, Jhun Lin, Christina Le
An effort to integrate a structural optimization process into the carbon canister bracket design is presented to demonstrate the benefits of an upfront Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) driven design. Structural optimization methods - including topology, shape, and size optimization - are used to develop the injection molded plastic carbon canister bracket. Furthermore, the incorporation of the Knowledge Base Engineering (KBE) features in the design process not only accelerates the design process but also ease manufacturing feasibility. Even though topology optimization has been widely used to explore the initial topological designs of different products, it is still a great challenge to explore shell like structure designs with 3D solid design package spaces using topology optimization method.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1051
Krista M. Schulte, Mohan R. Paruchuri, Jayesh B. Patel
Much research exists on the application of lean concepts in a traditional manufacturing setting and new research is broadening the scope of lean to encompass the product development cycle, yet little is documented about how lean can apply in a product development test laboratory. Testing is a hybrid environment, facing challenges unique from the takt-time driven manufacturing environment and multi-value stream product development environment. This paper will address how lean is being adapted to a product development test laboratory, where the objective and method to create a competitive edge remains the same: to drive waste out of the system and reduce the lead-time to the customer.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1478
Shunji Miyahara, Jerry Sielagoski, Faroog Ibrahim
Principle of the target tracking method for the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is applicable to non-uniform or transient condition, had been proposed by one of the authors. This method does not need any other information rather than that from the radar and host vehicle. Here the method is modified to meet more complex traffic scenarios and then applied to data measured on real highway. The modified method is based on the phase chart between the lateral component of the relative velocity and azimuth of a preceding vehicle. From the trace on the chart, the behavior of a preceding vehicle is judged and the discrimination between the lane change and curve-entry/exit can be made. The method can deal with the lane-change of a preceding vehicle on the curve as well as on the straight lane. And it is applied to more than 20 data including several road/vehicle conditions: road is straight, or turns right or left; vehicles are motorbikes, sedans and trucks.
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