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Viewing 1 to 30 of 76
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2468
Brian S. M. Modrzejewski, Jerry Herman
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and the improvement of a hydraulic steering pump noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance in relief. DOE methods were applied to subjective ratings to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors on pump relief NVH. Specifically, the DOE was applied to the geometry of the cross ports on a hydraulic relief valve to improve “whistle” noise in the pump. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump whistle. These factors were used to produce a more robust cross port configuration reducing whistle noise. Lastly, the final configuration was experimentally verified on the test apparatus and subjectively confirmed in vehicle-level testing.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2518
Christian M. Fernholz
The present work discusses the application of multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of NVH data. Unlike conventional statistical methods which generally consider single-value, or univariate data, multivariate methods enable the user to examine multiple response variables and their interactions simultaneously. This characteristic is particularly useful in the examination of NVH data, where multiple measurements are typically used to assess NVH performance. In this work, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to examine the NVH data from a benchmarking study of hydraulic steering pumps. A total of twelve NVH measurements for each of 99 pump samples were taken. These measurements included steering pump orders and overall levels for vibration and sound pressure level at two microphone locations. Application of the PCA method made it possible to examine the entire set of data at once.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2293
Vinod K. Singh, Nitin Wani, Naveen Rastogi
Tuned mass dampers are frequently used in vehicles to resolve vibration issues arising from problematic torsional modes. The design of a tuned damper is straightforward, but evaluating its effect on other system modes is time consuming. An upfront design tool will accelerate the process of designing and evaluating the damper's affect on system level dynamic characteristics. Computer aided engineering tools have been developed to design a tuned torsional damper using two different approaches. In the first approach, a two-degree of freedom torsional system model is utilized. In the second approach, a detailed finite element model of a driveline system is considered. In the second approach, the effect of the damper to the vehicle driveline system response at the hypoid pinion nose and other desired locations is studied to assess the effectiveness of the damper design. In both approaches, the damper rotational inertia is considered as a design variable.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2310
Michael Browne, Roger Pawlowski
Determination of the critical speed of a driveshaft is critical for development and validation of its design for use in a vehicle because of its destructive effects. Typical calculations to determine critical speed are either over simplistic and not very accurate or very complicated requiring CAE software and capabilities. An analytical five-section non-prismatic beam model was developed to fill in this gap. The model was developed to compute the critical speed in a worksheet and proven to be as or more accurate as utilizing FEA methods. The model worksheet calculates the critical speed for one-piece conventional driveshafts and adapted for Visteon's Slip-In-Tube (SIT) driveshafts.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2350
Christopher E. Shaw, David J. Moenssen, William C. Montgomery
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1884
Zheng David Lou
A dynamic computer model of automotive air conditioning systems was developed. The model uses simulation software for the coding of 1-D heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid flow, and control valves. The same software is used to model 3-D solid dynamics associated with mechanical mechanisms of the compressor. The dynamics of the entire AC system is thus simulated within the same software environment. The results will show the models potential applications in component and system design, calibration and control.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1718
R. S. Soon, L. N. B. Gummadi, K. D. Cao
Modern automobiles utilize stabilizer bars to increase vehicle roll stiffness. Stabilizer bars are laterally mounted torsional springs which resist vertical displacement of the wheels relative to one another. A stabilizer bar is constructed in such a way that it will meet package constraints and fatigue requirements. In order to design a robust stabilizer bar, Taguchi's “Design of Experiment method” is used. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust stabilizer bar design that will maximize the fatigue life and the roll stiffness while minimizing weight. This study is based on results obtained by CAE analysis.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1776
Gary A. Epstein, May Liao
Reliability allocation of system objectives for Reliability validation purposes must account for Confidence levels. Misallocating Confidence levels can lead to unrealistic and unmanageable objectives, resulting in increased development times and associated costs. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly model both Reliability and Confidence levels. Unfortunately, modeling for anything more complex than the simplest pass/fail test criteria can become quite complex in a multi-component system. The easiest case to model is time-censored testing with no failures. But time-censored testing with no failures is just a small subset of all viable validation strategies. Given that the validation strategy for each component can be different, trying to isolate a single one-size-fits-all model is extremely difficult. For these complex scenarios, computer simulation provides the best approach to calculating true system performance.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0009
Dennis McDonald
Commonly, a significant event is detected when a normally stable engine parameter (ex. sensor voltage, sensor current, air flow, pedal position, fuel level, tire pressure, engine acceleration, etc.) transiently exceeds a calibrated detection threshold. Many implementations of detection thresholds rely on multi-input lookup tables or functions and are complex and difficult to calibrate. An approach is presented to minimize threshold calibration effort and complexity, while improving detection performance, by dynamically computing thresholds on-line based on current real-time data. Determining engine synchronization without a camshaft position sensor is presented as an illustrative application.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1516
Hong Su, David Steinert, Kevin Egle, Brian Weipert
Plastic air induction system (AIS) has been widely used in vehicle powertrain applications for reduced weight, cost, and improved engine performance. Physical design validation (DV) tests of an AIS, as to meet durability and reliability requirements, are usually conducted by employing the frequency domain vibration tests, either sine sweep or random vibration excitations, with a temperature cycling range typically from -40°C to 120°C. It is well known that under high vibration loading and large temperature range, the plastic components of the AIS demonstrate much higher nonlinear response behaviors as compared with metal products. In order to implement a virtual test for plastic AIS products, a practical procedure to model a nonlinear system and to simulate the frequency response of the system, is crucial. The challenge is to model the plastic AIS assembly as a function of loads and temperatures, and to evaluate the dynamic response and fatigue life in frequency domain as well.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1478
Shunji Miyahara, Jerry Sielagoski, Faroog Ibrahim
Principle of the target tracking method for the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is applicable to non-uniform or transient condition, had been proposed by one of the authors. This method does not need any other information rather than that from the radar and host vehicle. Here the method is modified to meet more complex traffic scenarios and then applied to data measured on real highway. The modified method is based on the phase chart between the lateral component of the relative velocity and azimuth of a preceding vehicle. From the trace on the chart, the behavior of a preceding vehicle is judged and the discrimination between the lane change and curve-entry/exit can be made. The method can deal with the lane-change of a preceding vehicle on the curve as well as on the straight lane. And it is applied to more than 20 data including several road/vehicle conditions: road is straight, or turns right or left; vehicles are motorbikes, sedans and trucks.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0850
Tibor Kiss, Lawrence Chaney, John Meyer
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1255
Yuejun E. Lee, Sree Sreedhar, D. Marla, C. Pawlicki
Up to date, computer aided engineering (CAE) has been used in improvement of design quality and reduction of cost and delivery time. Although it has been widely accepted as a standard product development tool by the engineering community, CAE still faces many challenges in improving simulation process efficiency through process integration and automation, and simulation accuracy by analytical model/physical testing correlation. CAE engineers are constantly improving the accuracy of their analytical models through test correlation to deliver higher confidence for their analysis result. Although laboratory testing has provided an effective way to accelerate product development, analytical simulation of the lab test has been used frequently to further reduce the development cost and time throughout many industries. This paper presents a case study of CAE correlation of a finite element (FE) model of an automotive beam axle assembly in a laboratory test environment.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1041
Xin Liu, Kyoung-Su Im, Yujie Wang, Jin Wang, David L.S. Hung, James R. Winkelman, Mark W. Tate, Alper Ercan, Lucas J. Koerner, Thomas Caswell, Darol Chamberlain, Daniel R. Schuette, Hugh Philipp, Detlef M. Smilgies, Sol M. Gruner
A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with μs-temporal resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1192
Omar M. Mohamud, Perry Johnson
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an integral part of product development at Visteon Climate Systems with a validated set of CFD tools for airflow and thermal management processes. As we increasingly build CAE capabilities to design not only thermal comfort, but quiet systems, developing noise prediction capabilities becomes a high priority. Two Broadband Noise Source (BNS) models will be presented, namely Proudman's model for quadrupole source and Curle's boundary layer model for dipole source. Both models are derived from Lighthill's acoustic analogy which is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. BNS models provide aeroacoustic tools that are effective in screening air handling systems with higher noise levels and identifying components or surfaces that generate most of the noise, hence providing opportunities for early design changes. In this paper, BNS models were used as aeroacoustic design tools to redesign an automotive HVAC center duct with high levels of NVH.
2006-02-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-1960
Ashraf Zeid
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
2006-11-21
Technical Paper
2006-01-2828
Ary Pontes de Miranda
The need for entertainment is a constant desire since human beans started to use vehicles for short and long distance travel. The radio, a home entertainment revolution, was the first one to be incorporated. The information and entertainment that initially brought the radio to the vehicles also started a major change on the interior and electrical systems. This revolution will require changes in vehicle design to accommodate the new concepts and features.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0607
Gang Wu
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0729
Hong Su
A test load specification is required to validate an automotive product to meet the durability and design life requirements. Traditionally in the automotive industry, load specifications for design validation tests are directly given by OEMs, which are generally developed from an envelop of generic customer usage profiles and are, in most cases, over-specified. In recent years, however, there are many occasions that a proposed load specification for a particular product is requested. The particular test load specification for a particular product is generated based on the measured load data at its mounting location on the given type of vehicles, which contains more realistic time domain load levels and associated frequency contents. The measured time domain load is then processed to frequency domain test load data by using the fast Fourier transform and damage equivalent techniques.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0451
Colleen Serafin, Rainer Heers, Michael Tschirhart, Chris Ullrich, Christophe Ramstein
Touch screens provide substantial benefits as a control and display system but still have some disadvantages. The availability of haptic (tactile) technology allows touch screens to function similarly to traditional mechanical controls. Two studies were undertaken to investigate the addition of haptic feedback as well as auditory feedback on user perceptions of the touch screen experience. The first study was conducted in a desktop setting and the second study was conducted with the touch screen integrated in a vehicle. In both studies, participants assessed four different types of feedback conditions: visual feedback only (V), auditory and visual feedback (AV), haptic and visual feedback (HV), and auditory, haptic, and visual feedback combined (AHV). The results of these studies support the claim that individuals strongly prefer touch screen implementations that incorporate haptic elements and also provide insights on regional differences in their perception.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1482
Hong Su, Ravi Thyagarajan, Joel Brown
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify instrument panel (IP) products under the vehicle key life test environments, by employing a set of CAE simulation and durability techniques. The virtual key life test method simulates the same structural configuration and the proving ground road loads as in the physical test. A representative dynamic road load profile model is constructed based on the vehicle proving ground field data. The dynamic stress simulation is realized by employing the finite element transient analysis. The durability evaluation is based on the dynamic stress results and the material fatigue properties of each component. The procedure has helped the IP engineering team to identify and correct potential durability problems at earlier design stage without a prototype. It has shown that the CAE virtual key life test procedure provides a way to speed up IP product development, to minimize prototypes and costs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1506
Chris Swales, Christoph Capellmann, Matt Crompton, Marcus Matthes
Customer clinics and surveys have revealed the increased importance to the customer of good defrost and demist performance in their vehicle. Achieving this level of performance, within the time and cost constraints of a modern vehicle development program, places increased reliance on computational (CAE) techniques. However, this paper describes how the optimum development process should be to combine this reliance upon CAE methods with a newly developed experimental technique. This new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) based methodology is employed at all stages of the development process and complements the CAE techniques perfectly. The end result is optimized airflow management within the vehicle cabin – essential if good defrost and demist performance is to be achieved in a vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1548
X. Fan, H. Cai, S. Lin, L. N. B. Gummadi, K. Cao
Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1151
Wei Xue, Rob Pyle
The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3612
Renato Bernardinetti Slave, Erbis Llobet Biscarri
The automotive industry for emerging markets faces a challenge to offer products that are appealing to the end customer, meet all regulations and specifications, and have low cost. Along the last decade significant changes occurred in the technologies used to accomplish this challenge. This paper reviews some recent instrument cluster designs, identifying the cluster trends and examining some attempts to change its position at the panel.
2003-11-18
Technical Paper
2003-01-3670
Ary Pontes de Miranda
Same of the more enticing and productive opportunities to a useful work in product assurance are those of influencing the design of a product. The primary concern of design assurance is preventing or correcting those design errors that lead to poor product integrity. One of the tools used by the development teams in many organizations is the Design Review. The impact in cost and quality is directly affected by the correct utilization of the tool.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1385
James Link, Ken Helberg, Karim Nasr
There are many opportunities in a current automotive HVAC case for improved performance, and cost savings. Based on these opportunities, a new HVAC case design has been developed. This new design is smaller and lighter than current cases while meeting many of the performance requirements. The case also features a unique plenum design for air distribution to the three modes, panel, floor, and defrost. The results of simulation and laboratory testing confirmed the concept of the new HVAC design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1747
Donald P. Lynch
There is still much controversy and confusion in industry today regarding the use of process capability indices and analysis. A lack of knowledge regarding the underlying variation assumptions and rationale sampling strategies in indices such as Cp, Cpk, Pp and Ppk have added to the confusion and in many cases has led to misapplication of these widely used metrics. This issue has also promoted inconsistency in the assessment of long-term versus short-term capability and has hampered the true characterization of processes which is a critical step in any continuous improvement effort. Capability indices and analysis, when properly applied can impart a wealth of knowledge regarding process performance as well as provide focus for improvement activity through the proper characterization and enumeration of variation. Being able to properly characterize variation if the first step in reducing it.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1746
Donald P. Lynch, Bryan L. Dodson
Low resolution fractional factorial experimental designs, used in screening, are more popular than ever due to the ever increasing costs of materials and machine time. Experimenters have to be more precise in their analysis, making every degree of freedom count. Resolution III designs are becoming more commonplace for use in screening designs. When running unsaturated resolution III designs there are extra degrees of freedom stemming from unassigned interactions. It is common practice to utilize these extra degrees of freedom to approximate error. In many cases, this common practice can over state the error and lead to erroneous results regarding factor statistical significance. Utilizing saturated resolution III designs and statistically analyzing unassigned interactions while estimating the error with replication is a method for strengthening the DOE strategy and improving the results from screening designs.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0021
Scott M. Dittman, Amy Wesley, Arthur J. Gajewski
One challenge facing automotive product development teams is the inclusion of the Human System Integration (HSI) community – consisting of human factors professionals, graphic and industrial designers, rapid prototyping software engineers, electronic hardware engineers, and systems engineers – in the Product Development Process (PDP). In order to achieve this integration, Visteon looked to the methods of systems engineering currently employed throughout the PDP. Overlaying the HSI process with an accepted systems engineering process description known as the N2 (N-squared) chart resulted in the outlining of expected inputs to the HSI process team, definitions of processes undertaken by the team, and expected outputs of those processes.
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