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Viewing 1 to 30 of 62
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1501
Yinhua Zheng
The paper addresses compressor body temperature (crankcase) importance to the vehicle AC system long-term durability. Majority of OEM vehicle test evaluation is to see if AC system can pass compressor discharge temperature and discharge pressure targets. Most OEMs adopt 130°C max compressor discharge temperature and 2350 kpag head pressure as the target. From the field, although some of the compressor failure results from a high compression ratio, and compressor discharge temperature that are caused by the poor front end airflow, etc., high percentage compressor failed systems exhibit not too high compression ratio and compressor discharge temperature, but having the trace of high temperature in the shaft area, gasket area, etc. With introducing more and more variable swash plate compressor applications, OEMs start to see more and more compressor failures that are not related to a high compressor discharge temperature but the trace of high compressor body temperature.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2518
Christian M. Fernholz
The present work discusses the application of multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of NVH data. Unlike conventional statistical methods which generally consider single-value, or univariate data, multivariate methods enable the user to examine multiple response variables and their interactions simultaneously. This characteristic is particularly useful in the examination of NVH data, where multiple measurements are typically used to assess NVH performance. In this work, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to examine the NVH data from a benchmarking study of hydraulic steering pumps. A total of twelve NVH measurements for each of 99 pump samples were taken. These measurements included steering pump orders and overall levels for vibration and sound pressure level at two microphone locations. Application of the PCA method made it possible to examine the entire set of data at once.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2293
Vinod K. Singh, Nitin Wani, Naveen Rastogi
Tuned mass dampers are frequently used in vehicles to resolve vibration issues arising from problematic torsional modes. The design of a tuned damper is straightforward, but evaluating its effect on other system modes is time consuming. An upfront design tool will accelerate the process of designing and evaluating the damper's affect on system level dynamic characteristics. Computer aided engineering tools have been developed to design a tuned torsional damper using two different approaches. In the first approach, a two-degree of freedom torsional system model is utilized. In the second approach, a detailed finite element model of a driveline system is considered. In the second approach, the effect of the damper to the vehicle driveline system response at the hypoid pinion nose and other desired locations is studied to assess the effectiveness of the damper design. In both approaches, the damper rotational inertia is considered as a design variable.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2310
Michael Browne, Roger Pawlowski
Determination of the critical speed of a driveshaft is critical for development and validation of its design for use in a vehicle because of its destructive effects. Typical calculations to determine critical speed are either over simplistic and not very accurate or very complicated requiring CAE software and capabilities. An analytical five-section non-prismatic beam model was developed to fill in this gap. The model was developed to compute the critical speed in a worksheet and proven to be as or more accurate as utilizing FEA methods. The model worksheet calculates the critical speed for one-piece conventional driveshafts and adapted for Visteon's Slip-In-Tube (SIT) driveshafts.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2350
Christopher E. Shaw, David J. Moenssen, William C. Montgomery
Engine air induction noise can play a significant role in the reduction of vehicle interior noise levels and tuning interior sound quality. Given the need to reduce prototyping and testing costs, it is important to gain an understanding of the level and frequency structure of the noise radiating from the open inlet of the air induction system. Engine simulation used independently can predict inlet noise; however, its utility is limited to systems that are largely one-dimensional. Systems that exhibit a three-dimensional nature, such as the wave dynamics in an engine air cleaner, require a more intensive approach. Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) has been demonstrated to be a tool that can be used to predict the frequency response of ducted systems and is particularly useful in highly three-dimensional systems.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3751
Ibrahim Haskara, Guoming Zhu, Chao Daniels, Jim Winkelman
This paper presents a combustion stability index derived from an in-cylinder ionization signal to control the engine maximum EGR limit. Different from the existing approaches that use the ionization signal values to gauge how much EGR was added during the combustion, the proposed method concentrates on using the ionization signal duration and its stochastic properties to evaluate the end result of EGR on combustion stability. When the duration index or indexes are higher than pre-determined values, the EGR limit is set. The dynamometer engine test results have shown promise for closed loop EGR control of spark ignition engines.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0626
Ross Pursifull
A major source of engine-off evaporative hydrocarbon emissions is fuel injector leakage. Methods and devices to relieve fuel rail pressure after key-off, and thus reduce leakage are introduced. Impact on fuel manifold re-pressurization is considered. The basic principles governing this behavior: fuel thermal expansion, fuel vapor pressure, and dissolved gasses in liquid are elaborated. Fuel pressure relief data is shown.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1884
Zheng David Lou
A dynamic computer model of automotive air conditioning systems was developed. The model uses simulation software for the coding of 1-D heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid flow, and control valves. The same software is used to model 3-D solid dynamics associated with mechanical mechanisms of the compressor. The dynamics of the entire AC system is thus simulated within the same software environment. The results will show the models potential applications in component and system design, calibration and control.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1773
Rahul Rajagopalan, Eric Pierre, AbdulNour Ramez
Evaporators for automotive air-conditioning systems are being coated externally to improve corrosion resistance, water drainage, and reduce potential odor concerns. The coating durability and efficiency in achieving its corrosion resistance depends on the coating uniformity and adhesion characteristics. Good coating adhesion on aluminum surface can be achieved after freeing the surface from the oxide and flux residues. Evaporators manufactured by the Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB) process have flux residue remaining on the surface, the presence of which interferes with the coating process and also affects the performance of coated components. A methodology to quantify the effect of high Nocolok flux residue on heat exchanger coating uniformity has been presented.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0009
Dennis McDonald
Commonly, a significant event is detected when a normally stable engine parameter (ex. sensor voltage, sensor current, air flow, pedal position, fuel level, tire pressure, engine acceleration, etc.) transiently exceeds a calibrated detection threshold. Many implementations of detection thresholds rely on multi-input lookup tables or functions and are complex and difficult to calibrate. An approach is presented to minimize threshold calibration effort and complexity, while improving detection performance, by dynamically computing thresholds on-line based on current real-time data. Determining engine synchronization without a camshaft position sensor is presented as an illustrative application.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1255
Yuejun E. Lee, Sree Sreedhar, D. Marla, C. Pawlicki
Up to date, computer aided engineering (CAE) has been used in improvement of design quality and reduction of cost and delivery time. Although it has been widely accepted as a standard product development tool by the engineering community, CAE still faces many challenges in improving simulation process efficiency through process integration and automation, and simulation accuracy by analytical model/physical testing correlation. CAE engineers are constantly improving the accuracy of their analytical models through test correlation to deliver higher confidence for their analysis result. Although laboratory testing has provided an effective way to accelerate product development, analytical simulation of the lab test has been used frequently to further reduce the development cost and time throughout many industries. This paper presents a case study of CAE correlation of a finite element (FE) model of an automotive beam axle assembly in a laboratory test environment.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1041
Xin Liu, Kyoung-Su Im, Yujie Wang, Jin Wang, David L.S. Hung, James R. Winkelman, Mark W. Tate, Alper Ercan, Lucas J. Koerner, Thomas Caswell, Darol Chamberlain, Daniel R. Schuette, Hugh Philipp, Detlef M. Smilgies, Sol M. Gruner
A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with μs-temporal resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0607
Gang Wu
Knock correction is the spark angle retard applied to the optimum ignition timing to eliminate knock. In adaptive knock control, this amount of spark retard at an operating point (i.e. Speed, load) is stored in a speed/load characteristic map. It will be reused when the engine is operated in this range once more. In this paper, a method to learn the knock correction values into a speed/load characteristic map is described. This method proportionally distributes the knock correction into the characteristic map according to the distance between the speed/load of these nodes and the current operating point. The distributed knock correction value is filtered and accumulated in its adjacent nodes. Simulation examples demonstrate that the retrieved values from the map by the proposed method are smoother than those produced by the method of [2][3]. The mathematical basis for this method is developed. The one and two independent variable cases are illustrated.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0253
Hong Su
In this paper, an analytical procedure for prediction of shell radiated noise of air induction systems (AIS) due to engine acoustic excitation, without a prototype and physical measurement, is presented. A set of modeling and simulation techniques are introduced to address the challenges to the analytical radiated noise prediction of AIS products. A filter seal model is developed to simulate the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of air cleaner boxes. A finite element model (FEM) of the AIS assembly is established by incorporating the AIS structure, the proposed filter seal model and its acoustic cavity model. The coupled acoustic-structural FEM of the AIS assembly is then employed to compute the velocity frequency response of the AIS structure with respect to the air-borne acoustic excitations.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3317
Guoming G. Zhu, David L. S. Hung, Jim Winkelman
It is well-known that in-cylinder ionization signals can be used for detecting combustion characteristics of IC (Internal Combustion) engines. For example, engine misfire, incomplete combustion (or partial-burn), knock, MBT (Minimum spark advance for Best Torque) timing and combustion stability can be detected using in-cylinder ionization signals. In addition, closed loop combustion spark timing control strategies have been developed to control engine MBT timing and to manage spark timing advance (knock) and retard (incomplete combustion) limits. In-cylinder ionization signals can also be used for closed loop control of maximum equivalence ratio (lean limit) at a desired combustion stability level. Up to now, most of the ionization applications have been for PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines. This paper presents ionization detection for gasoline Direct Injection (DI) engines.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1506
Chris Swales, Christoph Capellmann, Matt Crompton, Marcus Matthes
Customer clinics and surveys have revealed the increased importance to the customer of good defrost and demist performance in their vehicle. Achieving this level of performance, within the time and cost constraints of a modern vehicle development program, places increased reliance on computational (CAE) techniques. However, this paper describes how the optimum development process should be to combine this reliance upon CAE methods with a newly developed experimental technique. This new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) based methodology is employed at all stages of the development process and complements the CAE techniques perfectly. The end result is optimized airflow management within the vehicle cabin – essential if good defrost and demist performance is to be achieved in a vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1379
John Meyer, George Yang, Evangelos Papoulis
As powertrains continue to get more efficient, less waste heat is available for warming the passenger compartment. Although several supplemental heating devices are currently on the market, including electric heaters, viscous heaters, and fuel operated heaters, they each have shortcomings related to cost, capacity, efficiency, and/or environmental concerns[1]. In an attempt to provide superior time-to-comfort in a cost, weight, package efficient, and environmentally friendly manner, an R134a heat pump (HP) system was developed. Several technical issues were overcome while developing this system. Production vehicles have been retrofitted to incorporate the R134a heat pump system and tested in a climatic wind tunnel. Test results for a -18°C warm-up test were compared to baseline data, showing significant improvements in average discharge air and breath level temperatures.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1151
Wei Xue, Rob Pyle
The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3266
Guoming G. Zhu, Chao F. Daniels, James Winkelman
MBT timing for an internal combustion engine is also called minimum spark timing for best torque or the spark timing for maximum brake torque. Unless engine spark timing is limited by engine knock or emission requirements at a certain operational condition, there exists an MBT timing that yields the maximum work for a given air-to-fuel mixture. Traditionally, MBT timing for a particular engine is determined by conducting a spark sweep process that requires a substantial amount of time to obtain an MBT calibration. Recently, on-line MBT timing detection schemes have been proposed based upon cylinder pressure or ionization signals using peak cylinder pressure location, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burn location, pressure ratio, and so on. Because these criteria are solely based upon data correlation and observation, both of them may change at different engine operational conditions. Therefore, calibration is still required for each MBT detection scheme.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1385
James Link, Ken Helberg, Karim Nasr
There are many opportunities in a current automotive HVAC case for improved performance, and cost savings. Based on these opportunities, a new HVAC case design has been developed. This new design is smaller and lighter than current cases while meeting many of the performance requirements. The case also features a unique plenum design for air distribution to the three modes, panel, floor, and defrost. The results of simulation and laboratory testing confirmed the concept of the new HVAC design.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2977
Ibrahim Haskara, Guoming G. Zhu, Jim Winkelman
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. However, the usable range of ignition timing is often limited by knock in the advance direction and by combustion instability (partial burn and misfire) in the retard direction. This paper details a retard limit management system utilizing ionization signals in order to maintain the desired combustion quality and prevent the occurrence of misfire without using fixed limits. In-cylinder ionization signals are processed to derive a metric for combustion quality and closeness of combustion to partial burn/misfire limit, which is used to provide a limiting value for the baseline ignition timing in the retard direction. For normal operations, this assures that the combustion variability is kept within an acceptable range.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-2976
Guoming G. Zhu, Chao F. Daniels, Jim Winkelman
Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3149
Chao F. Daniels, Guoming G. Zhu, James Winkelman
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1139
Neville J. Bugli, Gregory S. Green
Engine air filtration technologies currently used in air induction systems typically utilize pleated paper or felt type air filters. These air filter designs have been used for many years in panels, cylindrical or round (pancake type) type air cleaners. Pleated air filters are specifically designed to be serviceable and hence their performance is inherently limited by vehicle under-hood packaging and manufacturing constraints. Due to these constraints, majority of air cleaner designs are not optimized for engine filtration and air flow management under the hood. Studies show that use of low performing serviceable aftermarket air filters significantly affect the performance and durability of engine air cleaners [9]. High mileage studies confirm that engine durability, service issues, warranty field returns and customer satisfaction was affected by use of aftermarket filter brands.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1071
Hong Su, James Kempf, Bill Montgomery, Ryan Grimes
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1149
Joe Z. Li, Chris Treusch, Benoît Honel, Stéphane Neyrat
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0048
Dennis McDonald
Engine position synchronous control of fuel injection and spark ignition at engine start can reduce regulated emissions, and improve start quality. Synchronous fuel and ignition control requires full 720° engine position information. Emissions and start quality benefits are gained if engine position is available at key-on before initial engine rotation. Typical engine position sensor sets require substantial engine rotation before engine position is initialized. Tracking engine stop position, for use on the next start, eliminates the initial engine angular travel required for synchronization. The previous stop position of the engine is stored in non-volatile memory, giving engine position immediately at start. This approach is applicable for systems in which the engine controller remains powered for some time after key-off. As the engine stops, direction reversals are common.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0018
Guoming G. Zhu, Ibrahim Haskara, Jim Winkelman
Spark timing of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine is often limited by engine knock in the advanced direction. The ability to operate the engine at its advanced (borderline knock) spark limit is the key for improving output power and fuel economy. Due to combustion cycle-to-cycle variations, IC engine combustion behaves similar to a random process and so does the engine performance criteria, such as IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure), and knock intensity. The combustion stability measure COVariance of IMEP assumes the IMEP is a random process. Presently, the spark limit control of IC engines is deterministic in nature. The controller does not utilize any stochastic information associated with control parameters such as knock intensity for borderline spark limit control. This paper proposes a stochastic limit control strategy for borderline knock control. It also develops a simple stochastic model for evaluating the proposed stochastic controller.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0144
Houliang Li, Robin Soon, Xiaoming Bian, Joseph Lanzesira, Pamela Dawson, Richard Beason
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0524
Chang Yang
This paper describes two electronic throttle controllers of Visteon Corporation with one already in production and the other currently under development. Analysis and tuning of the two controllers are described. The general structure of the controllers consists of a reference shaping subsystem and a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative(PID) controller supplemented with additional terms that deal with the nonlinearility of the electronic throttle body. Due to a friction cancellation term in the controller that minimizes the nonlinearity of the system, linear system analysis techniques are applied. The transfer functions of the electronic throttle body at six different operating conditions are derived. Analysis of the closed-loop dynamics is performed based on the plant and the controller transfer-functions. Controller fine-tuning is performed using frequency response techniques, MATLAB simulations and testing on the actual system.
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