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Viewing 1 to 30 of 117
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1569
Andrzej Pietrzyk
A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1522
Magnus Knutsson, Johan Lennblad, Hans Bodén, Mats Abom
Analysis of pressure pulsations in ducts is an active research field within the automotive industry. The fluid dynamics and the wave transmission properties of internal combustion (IC) engine intake and exhaust systems contribute to the energy efficiency of the engines and are hence important for the final amount of CO₂ that is emitted from the vehicles. Sound waves, originating from the pressure pulses caused by the in- and outflow at the engine valves, are transmitted through the intake and exhaust system and are an important cause of noise pollution from road traffic at low speeds. Reliable prediction methods are of major importance to enable effective optimization of gas exchange systems. The use of nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamics simulation software packages is widespread within the automotive industry.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1674
Magnus Olsson, Mikael Törmänen, Sylvain Sauvage, Catharina Hansen
In modern vehicles, each system must meet tough demands to fulfill the many different attribute requirements, design constraints and manufacturing limitations. It becomes difficult and time-consuming to find an optimal and robust design using a traditional engineering process. Volvo Cars has for several years been using Multi-Disciplinary Optimization, MDO, that basically shows the customer attributes levels, such as NVH, ride comfort, and driveability as a function of different parameter configurations. This greatly facilitates project team understanding of the limitations and possibilities of the different systems, and has become a key enabler to achieving a good balance between different attributes. Traditionally, this type of comprehensive Design of Experiments (DOE) optimization demands huge time and computer resources. Frequently, experimental designs will not fulfill manufacturing limitations or attribute targets, making this decision process slow, tedious, and fruitless.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0733
Anders Wirje, Kristian Carlsson
The durability peak load events Driving over a curb and Skid against a curb have been simulated in Adams for a Volvo S80. Simulated responses in the front wheel suspension have been validated by comparison with measurements. Due to the extreme nature of the peak load events, the component modeling is absolutely critical for the accuracy of the simulations. All components have to be described within their full range of excitation. Key components and behaviors to model have been identified as tire with wheel strike-through, contacts between curb and tire and between curb and rim, flexibility of structural components, bump stops, bushings, shock absorbers, and camber stiffness of the suspension. Highly non-linear component responses are captured in Adams. However, since Adams only allows linear material response for flexible bodies, the proposed methods to simulate impact loads are only valid up to small, plastic strains.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0473
Magdalena Lindman, Emma Tivesten
One way of avoiding crashes or mitigating the consequences of a crash is to apply an autonomous braking system. Quantifying the benefit of such a system in terms of injury reduction is a challenge. At the same time it is a fundamental input into the vehicle development process. This paper describes a method to estimate the effectiveness of reducing speed prior to impact. A holistic view of quantifying the benefit is presented, based on existing real life crash data and basic dynamic theories. It involves a systematic and new way of examining accident data in order to extract information concerning pre-crash situations. One problem area when implementing collision mitigation systems is being able to achieve sufficient target discrimination. The results from the case study highlight frontal impact situations from real world accident data that have the greatest potential in terms of improving accident outcome.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0608
Stefan Solyom, Sören Eriksson
The article describes a model-based control method for idle speed of spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is based on mid-ranging, a multivariable control strategy that is more commonly used in process control. The basic building blocks of the control structure are two PI controllers.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0255
Jan Ivar Skar, Malte Isacsson, Zheng Tan
Galvanic corrosion between die cast AZ91D and AM60B and different fastener systems has been evaluated by exposure on trucks and in accelerated laboratory tests. The exposure time on the trucks was 3 years, corresponding to a mileage of about 300000 km. Samples were retracted and evaluated after 1 and 2 years exposure. Similar samples were also exposed to the Volvo Indoor Corrosion Test and the General Motors GM9540P-cycle B test. The correlation between the field data and the laboratory tests was evaluated, as was the sharp difference in the performance of the fastener systems in the two accelerated laboratory tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1000
Anna Fathali, Fredrik Wallin, Annika Kristoffersson, Mats Laurell
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate which of the artificial aging cycles available in the automotive industry that causes major deactivation of three-way catalysts (TWCs) and can be used to obtain an aged catalyst similar to the road aged converter (160 000km). Standard bench cycle (SBC) aging with secondary air injection (SAI) covered aging with various mass flows - a flow from three cylinders into one catalyst system and a flow from three cylinders into two parallel connected catalysts. For rapid catalyst bench aging, secondary air injection is a very efficient tool to create exotherms. Furthermore, the effect on catalytic activity of SAI aging with poisons from oil and fuel dopants (P, Ca, Zn) was investigated. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized in light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements, emission conversion as a function of lambda and load variation was determined.
2014-06-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2060
Raimo Kabral, Lin Du, Mats Åbom, Magnus Knutsson
Abstract Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9129
Filip Nielsen, Åsa Uddheim, Jan-Olof Dalenbäck
Abstract Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0759
Lotta Jakobsson, Graeme McInally, Anders Axelson, Magdalena Lindman, Anders Kling, Thomas Broberg, Mikael Fermér, Linus Wågström
Frontal Severe Partial Overlap Collisions (SPOC) also called small overlap crashes pose special challenges with respect to structural design as well as occupant protection. In the early 1990s, the SPOC test method was developed addressing 20-40% overlap against a fixed rigid barrier with initial velocities up to 65 km/h. The knowledge gained has been used in the design of Volvo vehicles since then. Important design principles include front side members orientated along the wheel envelopes together with a strong support structure utilizing a space frame principle with beams loaded mainly in tension and compression. This novel setup was first introduced in the 850-model in 1991 and has been refined and patented (2001) in later Volvo front structures. Among the design principles are multiple front side members on each side, helping energy absorption efficiency and robustness.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0953
Alexey Vdovin, Sabine Bonitz, Christoffer Landstrom, Lennart Lofdahl
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0165
Christoffer Landström, Tim Walker, Lasse Christoffersen, Lennart Löfdahl
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0464
Lennert Sterken, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker, Lennart Lofdahl
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0169
Christoffer Landstrom, Linda Josefsson, Tim Walker, Lennart Lofdahl
Targets for reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency present the automotive industry with many challenges. Passenger cars are by far the most common means of personal transport in the developed part of the world, and energy consumption related to personal transportation is predicted to increase significantly in the coming decades. Improved aerodynamic performance of passenger cars will be one of many important areas which will occupy engineers and researchers for the foreseeable future. The significance of wheels and wheel housings is well known today, but the relative importance of the different components has still not been fully investigated. A number of investigations highlighting the importance of proper ground simulation have been published, and recently a number of studies on improved aerodynamic design of the wheel have been presented as well. This study is an investigation of aerodynamic influences of different tires.
2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1559
Sabry Allam, Magnus Knutsson, Hans Boden
Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1572
Fredrik B. Ekstrom, Joop Somhorst
Passenger cars equipped with diesel engines will meet challenging emission legislation for the coming decade, with introduction of Euro6 and Euro7, which comprises reduced NOX emissions and possibly new driving cycles including off-cycle limits. The technology measures to meet these legislative limits comprise a broad spectrum of engine and aftertreatment, i.e., engine measures such as improved fuel injection with respect to mass and timing, improved exhaust gas recirculation, improved warm-up and reduced friction, as well as aftertreatment measures such as selective catalytic reduction and lean NOX trap in combination with diesel particulate filter, and the thereby associated engine control. The resulting technology matrix is therefore large, and calls for a multidisciplinary simulation approach for appropriate selection and optimization of technology and control with the objectives and constraints of emissions, fuel consumption, performance and cost.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0355
Markus Grahn, Krister Johansson, Christian Vartia, Tomas McKelvey
The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980995
Eva-Lotta Kalman, Fredrik Winquist, Ingemar Lundström, Mona Grönberg, Anders Löfvendahl
The principles of an electronic nose are described briefly. It is shown how a sensor array in combination with pattern recognition software can be used for quality control and classification of car interior trim materials. Anomalies such as bad smelling leather and carpet are shown as outliers. The results are consistent with GC-MS TVOC measurements as well as with data from a human sensory panel. More needs to be done, however, regarding the sensor stability in particular before the sensor array can be used for routine classification of the trim materials.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970276
Malin Henriksson, Anders Hallén, Mats Höwing, Björn Lundell, Martin Ericson, Lena Nilsson, Maria Berlin
1. ABSTRACT With the growing concern about the potential dangers with rear facing child seats placed in the front seat of passenger airbag equipped cars, various systems are being considered for deactivation of the airbag. To increase the awareness of and confidence in these proposed systems, information displays were developed for the purpose of telling the status of the passenger airbag system and to warn when necessary. A study of the effectiveness, understanding and acceptance of a selection of such information displays was jointly undertaken by Volvo Car Corporation, SAAB Automobile AB and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Respondents of various age and demographic composition, parents and grand parents of small children, were exposed to six different sets of information displays and were asked to interpret them and also rank which information displays that would most clearly convey the message.
1998-05-31
Technical Paper
986180
Anders Öhlund, Camilla Palmertz, Johnny Korner, Magnus Nygren, Katarina Bohman
Car accident investigations have shown that the head, the chest and the abdomen are the three most vulnerable body regions in side impacts, when serious-to-fatal (MAIS 3-6) injuries are considered. Injuries are much more common to occupants seated on the struck side than to those on the non-struck side. The development of new side impact protection systems has therefore been focused on struck side occupants. The first airbag system for side impact protection, jointly developed by Volvo and Autoliv, was introduced on the market in 1994. The SIPS bag is seat-mounted and protects mainly the chest and the abdomen, and also to some extent the head, since the head's lateral relative displacement is reduced by the side airbag, thereby keeping the head inside the car's outer profile. However, if an external object is exposed in the head area, for example in a truck-to-car side impact or in a single car collision into a pole or a tree, there is a need for an additional head protection device.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
98C050
Ken Tindell, Antal Rajnák, Lennart Casparsson
A new in-vehicle communication concept for CAN networks has been developed, taking into account recent findings from real-time research. The concept is characterized by three impo features: (i) Ability to guarantee the real-time performance of the network already at the design stage, thus significantly reducing the need for testing; (ii) Built-in flexibility enabling the vehicle manufacturer to upgrade the network in the pre-production phase of a project as well as in the aftermarket; (iii) Low use of available resources, thus saving cost compared to other solutions. The concept is successfully used in all larger Volvo cars from model year 1999.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982311
Mikael Fermér, Magnus Andréasson, Björn Frodin
A finite-element (FE) based method for numerically predicting fatigue life of MAG-welded thin-sheet structures has been established and tested. The method uses nodal forces and moments calculated along the weld line, together with an analytical expression for the structural stress at the weld toe. The calculated stress is used together with an experimentally determined Wöhler, or S-N, curve. A “stiff” welded joint with structural stress dominated by membrane forces is found to have a steeper S-N curve than a “flexible” joint with structural stress dominated by bending moment. All test results were seen to lie close to one of two different S-N curves. The proportion of bending stress over total structural stress could be used for choosing the appropriate S-N curve.
1998-09-29
Technical Paper
982269
Lutz Hanicke, Robert Häller, Patric Högström
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982728
Lars Greger, Martin Bergqvist, Ingemar Gottberg, Göran Wirmark, Ronald Heck, Jeff Hoke, Dennis Anderson, Wayne Rudy, John Adomaitis
Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before emitting to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir®* Catalyst Systems takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient ground level ozone. This technology can be applied to both mobile and stationary applications. For automotive applications, the new system involves placing a catalytic coating on the car's radiator or air conditioner condenser. As air passes over the radiator or condenser, the catalyst converts the ozone into oxygen. Three Volvo vehicles with a catalyst coating on the radiator were tested on the road during the 1997 summer ozone season in southern California to assess performance. Studies were also conducted in Volvo's laboratory to determine the effect of the catalyst coating on the radiator's performance with regard to corrosion, heat transfer and pressure drop.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980402
Anders Aronsson, Marika Männikkö
The aim of this method is to measure emissions from components in the fuel system in a way that is comparable with regulated measurements by Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED). In a circuit, constructed as a differential reactor, air is circulated between a test cell and a flame ionization detector (FID) for total hydrocarbon measurement. A test object, i.e. a fuel system component, is filled with fuel and placed in a sealed test cell. Due to the flow characteristic, equilibrium will occur between the air and the fuel evaporated from the surface of the test object. The amount of air consumed in the reactor is compensated by pure air being added to the system. The concentration of hydrocarbon in the circulated air is continuously measured by the FID.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1437
Niklas Claeson, Stephan Ryrberg
It has been shown that Inflatable Curtains have the potential to reduce head injuries in side impacts and the system has accordingly been introduced on a growing number of car models. There is also a potential benefit in rollover situations. This paper only consider performance in situations with belted occupants. To date, it has not been possible to implement an Inflatable Curtain in convertible vehicles because they lack a roof. The challenge of the Door Mounted Inflatable Curtain (DMIC) has been to overcome the lack of support and fixation possibilities offered by a roof. This paper includes a description of the DMIC and how it was integrated into the vehicle structure. The paper will also show how to create the space and support needed to utilize the internal stiffness and make it possible to fill the bag in time. The impact attenuation and ejection protection functions of the DMIC will be demonstrated.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2722
Dan Lämkull, Lars Hanson, Roland Örtengren
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0009
Martin Larsson, Ingemar Denbratt, Lucien Koopmans
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0627
Uwe Horn, Rolf Egnell, Bengt Johansson, Öivind Andersson
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
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