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Technical Paper
Fadi Adly Anis Estefanous, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein
This paper investigates the relationship between NOx and ion current measured inside the combustion chamber of a heavy duty diesel engine under different operating conditions. Nevertheless, ion current is a local signal, thus it is important to measure NOx concentrations at the same exact location of the ion current probe. A novel technique is developed to simultaneously sample in-cylinder NOx and measure the ion current signal by adapting gas sampling probes for ion sensing. The cycle-resolved traces for the rate of heat release, NO mole fraction and ion current were analyzed to determine the contribution of the premixed combustion and the mixing-diffusion controlled combustion on NO formation and ionization in diesel engines.
Technical Paper
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
Technical Paper
Tamer Badawy, Fadi Estefanous, Naeim Henein
Estimation of soot in real time would help in the development of engine controls during engine production to meet the emissions goals and for on-board diagnostics. This paper presents a new approach to the estimate the soot emissions from the ion current measured inside the cylinder during engine operation. The investigation was carried out on a 4.5L heavy duty, turbocharged diesel engine. The glow plug was modified to act as an ion current probe, in addition to its main function. Algorithms were developed for the ion current signal to estimate the soot formed on a cycle-by-cycle basis. A comparison was made between the estimated soot emissions and measurements made by using an opacity meter under steady state as well as under transient engine operating conditions. In this research, a non-linear multiple regression model (NLMR) was used to estimate soot percentage from the ion current signal.
Technical Paper
Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein, Walter Bryzik
Signals indicative of in-cylinder combustion have been under investigation for the control of diesel engines to meet stringent emission standards and other production targets in performance and fuel economy. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the use of the ion current signal for the close loop control of a heavy duty four cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. A correlation is developed between the start of ion current signal (SIC) and the location of the peak of premixed combustion (LPPC) in the rate of heat release trace. Based on this correlation, a PID closed loop controller is developed to adjust the injection timing for proper combustion phasing under steady and transient engine operating conditions.
Philip J Dingle, Ming-Chia D Lai
Despite being developed more than 100 years ago, the diesel engine has yet to achieve mass acceptance in the North American passenger car sector. In most other parts of the world, however, diesel engines have made considerable strides due in part to the common rail fuel injection system. Significant fuel economy, reduced exhaust emissions, invincible low-speed torque, and all-around good drivability are a few of the benefits associated with common rail technology, which are covered in-depth in Diesel Common Rail and Advanced Fuel Injection Systems.
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