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Viewing 1 to 30 of 254
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2136
Marcis Jansons, Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Eric Gingrich
Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2133
Kapila Wadumesthrige, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
The use of butanol as an alternative biofuel blend component for conventional diesel fuel has been under extensive investigation. However, some fuel properties such as cetane number and lubricity fall below the accepted values as described by the ASTM D 975 diesel specifications. Blending 10% butanol with #2 ULSD decreases the cetane number by 7% (from 41.6 to 39.0). At higher butanol blend levels, i.e., 20% v/v, the cetane number decrease cannot be compensated for; even with the addition of a 2000 ppm level commercial cetane improver. The decreased cetane number, or in other words, increased ignition delay, can be attributed to the increased blend level of low cetane butanol as well as the critical physical properties for better atomization of fuels during auto ignition such as viscosity. The kinematic viscosity dropped sharply with increasing butanol blend level up to 25 % v/v, then increased with further increase of butanol blend level.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2120
Kapila Wadumesthrige, Nicholas Johnson, Mark Winston-Galant, Haiying Tang, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0508
G Song, C A Tan
Shell Elements based Parametric Frame Modeling is a powerful CAE tool, which can generate robust frame design concept optimized for NVH and durability quickly when combined with Taguchi Design of Experiments. The scalability of this modeling method includes cross members length/location/section/shape, frame rail segments length/section and kick in/out/up/down angle, and access hole location & size. In the example of the D. O. E. study, more than fifteen parameters were identified and analyzed for frequency and weight. The upper and lower bounds were set for each design parameter based on package and manufacturing constraints. Sixteen Finite Element frame were generated by parametrically updating the base model, which shows this modeling method is comparatively convenient. Sensitivity of these sixteen parameters to the frequency and weight was summarized through statics, so the favorable design alternative can be achieved with the major parameters' combination.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0005
Vishal Gupta, King H. Yang
Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models.
2004-10-10
Technical Paper
2004-01-2798
F. Chen, D. Mckillip, J. Luo, S. F. Wu
This paper provides measurement and analysis on rotor in-plane mode induced squeal. Methodology is presented to simultaneously acquire both temporal and spatial squeal operational deflection shapes (ODS). Rotor accelerations both in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were measured during squeal along with rotor's normal ODS using a laser vibrometer. Modal measurement and analysis of the rotor and pad in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were conducted as installed in system condition. The test results indicating rotor modal coupling in the in-plane are provided, and out-of-plane directions, and conclusions on in-plane mode induced squeal are proposed. In addition, the countermeasure for squeal reduction is discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1769
Kyoung-Su Im, Ming-Chia Lai, Jin Wang
A numerical simulation of shock wave generation by high-pressure and high-speed spray jet has been conducted to compare to the experimental results obtained by X-ray radiographic technique. Using the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method and the stochastic particle techniques to account for fuel injections and droplet collisions, supersonic-spray-induced shock waves are successfully simulated. Similar to the experimental condition, a non-evaporating diesel spray in a chamber filled with inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at 1 atm pressure under room temperature (30° C) is simulated. To simulate the needle lift effect in the single-hole diesel injector, various injection-rate profiles were employed. In addition, the effects of discharge coefficients, with Cd ranging from 0.8 to 1.0, were also considered to simulate the shock generation processes in the leading spray front.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0010
Xin Yu, Kan Zha, Xi Luo, Dinu Taraza, Marcis Jansons
A means of validating numerical simulations has been developed which utilizes chemiluminescence measurements from an internal combustion engine. By incorporating OH*, CH2O* and CO2* chemiluminescence sub-mechanisms into a detailed n-heptane reaction mechanism, excited species concentration and chemiluminescence light emission were calculated. The modeled line-of-sight chemiluminescence emission allows a direct comparison of simulation results to experimentally measured chemiluminescence images obtained during combustion in an optically accessible compression ignition engine using neat n-heptane fuel. The spray model was calibrated using in-cylinder liquid penetration length Mie scattering measurements taken from the jets of the high-pressure piezo injector.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1097
Krishnakanth Aekbote, Chase Wang, Bill Sherwood, Matthew C. Maher, Clifford C. Chou
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1092
Anindya Deb, Anil Kumar Chigullapalli, Clifford C. Chou, Utpal Dutta
The goal of optimization in vehicle design is often blurred by the myriads of requirements belonging to attributes that may not be quite related. If solutions are sought by optimizing attribute performance-related objectives separately starting with a common baseline design configuration as in a traditional design environment, it becomes an arduous task to integrate the potentially conflicting solutions into one satisfactory design. It may be thus more desirable to carry out a combined multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) with vehicle weight as an objective function and cross-functional attribute performance targets as constraints. For the particular case of vehicle body structure design, the initial design is likely to be arrived at taking into account styling, packaging and market-driven requirements.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1392
Marcis Jansons, Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Elena Florea
Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1048
Hamish Lewis, Ben Zandi, Jeffrey Lewis, Satish Ketkar PhD
Speed and accuracy are the critical needs in software for the modeling and simulation of vehicle cooling systems. Currently, there are two approaches used in commercially available thermal analysis software packages: 1) detailed modeling using complex and sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics, and 2) rough modeling using one-dimensional (1D) simplistic network solvers (flow and thermal) for quick prediction of flow and thermal fields. The first approach offers accuracy at the cost of speed, while the second approach provides the simulation speed, sacrificing accuracy and can possibly lead to oversimplification. Therefore, the analyst is often forced to make a choice between the two approaches, or find a way to link or couple the two methods. The linking between one-dimensional and three-dimensional models using separate software packages has been attempted and successfully accomplished for a number of years.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1573
Wen L. Li
A general numerical method, the so-called Fourier Spectral Element Method (FSEM), is described for the dynamic analysis of complex systems such as car body structures. In this method, a complex dynamic system is viewed as an assembly of a number of fundamental structural components such as beams, plates, and shells. Over each structural component, the basic solution variables (typically, the displacements) are sought as a continuous function in the form of an improved Fourier series expansion which is mathematically guaranteed to converge absolutely and uniformly over the solution domain of interest. Accordingly, the Fourier coefficients are considered as the generalized coordinates and determined using the powerful Rayleigh-Ritz method. Since this method does not involve any assumption or an introduction of any artificial model parameters, it is broadly applicable to the whole frequency range which is usually divided into low, mid, and high frequency regions.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2304
Vladimir V. Vantsevich, Eugene I. Rivin
A new inter-disciplinary degree program has been developed at Lawrence Technological University: the Master of Science in Mechatronic Systems Engineering Degree (MS/MSE). It is one of a few MS-programs in mechatronics in the U.S.A. today. This inter-disciplinary program reflects the main areas of ground vehicle mechatronic systems and robotics. This paper presents areas of scientific and technological principles which the Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Math and Computer Science Departments bring to Mechatronic Systems Engineering and the new degree program. New foundations that make the basis for the program are discussed. One of the biggest challenges was developing foundations for mechanical engineering in mechatronic systems design and teaching them to engineers who have different professional backgrounds. The authors first developed new approaches and principles to designing mechanical subsystems as components of mechatronic systems.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3554
Jian Rong Qin, S. T. John Yu, Ming-Chia Lai
In this paper, we report direct calculations of cavitating pipe flows by the method of Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element, or the CE/SE method for short. The tenet of the CE/SE method is treating space and time as one entity, and the calculation of flow properties is based on the local and global space-time flux conservation. As a contrast to the modern upwind schemes, no Riemann solver is used, thus the logic of the present scheme for cavitating flows is much simpler. Two numerical examples are reported in this paper: (1) a hydraulic shock problem, and (2) a cavitating pipe flow. For the hydraulic shock problem, we demonstrate the capability of the CE/SE method for capturing contact discontinuities in cavitating fluids. For the pipe flows, a two-phase homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model is employed. In both cases, numerical results compared favorably with the experimental data and analytical solution.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3555
Jian-Rong Qin, Tomohisa Dan, Ming-Chia Lai, Craig Savonen, Ernest Schwartz, Walter Brkyzik
This paper studies the effect of nozzle geometry on the flow characteristics inside a diesel fuel injection nozzle and correlates to the subsequent atomization process under different operating conditions, using simple turbulent breakup model. Two kinds of nozzles, valve covered orifice (VCO) and mini-SAC nozzle, with various nozzle design parameters were studied. The internal flow inside the nozzle was simulated using 3-D computational fluid dynamics software with k-ε turbulence model. The flow field at the nozzle exit was characterized by two parameters: the fuel discharge coefficient Cd and the initial amplitude parameter amp0. The latter parameter represents the turbulence characteristics of the exit flow. The effects of nozzle geometry on the mean velocity and turbulent energy distribution of the exit flow were also studied. The characteristics of the exit flow were then incorporated into the spray model in KIVA-II to study the effect of nozzle design on diesel spray behavior.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0454
Zhengfang Qian, Ling Shi, Sheng Liu
A unified approach has been developed and applied to solder joint life prediction in this paper, which indicates a breakthrough for solder joint reliability simulation. It includes the material characterization of solder alloys, the testing of solder joint specimens, a unified viscoplastic constitutive framework with damage evolution, numerical algorithm development and implementation, and experimental validation. The emphasis of this report focuses on the algorithm development and experimental verification of proposed viscoplasticity with damage evolution.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0458
Minfu Lu, Xiaoyan He, Sheng Liu, Ampere A. Tseng
A new algorithm for carrier removal, a key step in the Fourier transform method of fringe pattern analysis, is presented in this paper. The accuracy of frequency estimations is critical to carrier removal to avoid potential significant errors in the recovered phase. A new algorithm on Fourier transform and curve fitting technique is developed. To avoid an ill-conditioned result in solving the least-square problem, an orthogonal polynomial curve fitting algorithm is developed. A new system that combines projected grating moiré (PM) with shadow moiré (SM), recently designed and built with large dynamic range for both component level and board level warpage measurement for the reliability study of electronic packaging materials and structures, is presented and demonstrated.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3662
Junesung Park, Xingbin Xie, Kyoung-Su Im, Hoisan Kim, Ming-Chia Lai, Jialin Yang, Zhiyu Han, Richard W. Anderson
The direct injection gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside a heated pressurized chamber using various visualization techniques, including high-speed laser-sheet macroscopic and microscopic movies up to 25,000 frames per second, shadowgraph, and doublespark particle image velocimetry. Two hollow cone high-pressure swirl injectors having different cone angles were used to inject gasoline onto a heated plate at two different impingement angles. Based on the visualization results, the overall transient spray impingement structure, fuel film formation, and preliminary droplet size and velocity were analyzed. The results show that upward spray vortex inside the spray is more obvious at elevated temperature condition, particularly for the wide-cone-angle injector, due to the vaporization of small droplets and decreased air density. Film build-up on the surface is clearly observed at both ambient and elevated temperature, especially for narrow cone spray.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0242
Jehad R. Zughyer, Fu-Quan Zhao, Ming-Chia Lai, Ki-Sang Lee
High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1391
C. L. Xie, M. Hailat, Z. Abedin, X. Wu, G. Newaz, M. Taya, B. Raju
A composite of an aluminum matrix reinforced by short TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers was fabricated. The processing and thermomechanical behaviors of the composite TiNi/Al6061 were investigated experimentally and analytically. Optimal hot-pressing conditions of TiNi/Al6061 processing were identified. The shape memory effect (SME) was activated by prestraining the composite at the temperature between Ms and As, followed by heating up to Af. SME on mechanical properties, such as microhardness, yield stresses of the composite, were investigated. A computational model for the strengthening mechanism of the short fiber metal matrix composite was utilized to analyze SME on yield stress of the composite. Yield stress of the composite as a function of prestrain was predicted numerically and verified experimentally.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1199
Valentin Soloiu, April Covington, Jeff Lewis, Marvin Duggan, James LoBue, Marcis Jansons
Recent legislation entitled “The Single Fuel Forward Policy” mandates that all vehicles deployed by the US military be operable with aviation fuel (JP-8). Therefore, the authors are conducting an investigation into the influence of JP-8 on a diesel engine's performance. The injection, combustion, and performance of JP-8, 20-50% by weight in ULSD (diesel no.2) mixtures (J20-J50) produced at room temperature, were investigated in a small indirect injection, high compression ratio (24.5), 77mm separate combustion chamber diesel engine. The effectiveness of JP8 for application in an auxiliary power unit (APU) at continuous operation (100% load) of 4.78bar bmep/2400rpm was investigated. The blends had an ignition delay of approximately 1.02ms that increased slightly in relation to the amount of JP-8 introduced. J50 and diesel no.2 exhibited similar characteristics of heat release, the premixed phase being combined with the diffusion combustion.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0967
Richard Young
There is little agreement in the field of driving safety as to how to define cognitive distraction, much less how to measure it. Without a definition and metric, it is impossible to make scientific and engineering progress on determining the extent to which cognitive distraction causes crashes, and ways to mitigate it if it does. We show here that different studies are inconsistent in their definitions of cognitive distraction. For example, some definitions do not include cellular conversation, while others do. Some definitions confound cognitive distraction with visual distraction, or cognitive distraction with cognitive workload. Other studies define cognitive distraction in terms of a state of the driver, and others in terms of tasks that may distract the driver. It is little wonder that some studies find that cognitive distraction is a negligible factor in causing crashes, while others assert that cognitive distraction causes more crashes than drunk driving.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0965
Li Hsieh, Richard Young, Sean Seaman
Up to now, there is no standard methodology that addresses how driver distraction is affected by perceptual demand and working memory demand - aside from visual allocation. In 2009, the Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) became a NHTSA recommended measure for driver distraction [1]. Then the PDT task was renamed as the Detection Response Task (DRT) because the International Standards Organization (ISO) has identified this task as a potential method for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving. The DRT is also under consideration for adoption as an ISO standard surrogate test for driver performance for new telematics designs. The Wayne State University (WSU) driver imaging group [2, 3] improved the PDT and created the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task I (EPDT-I) [4]. The EPDT-I is composed of a simple visual event detection task and a video of a real-world driving scene.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0302
Macam S. Dattathreya, Harpreet Singh
Mobility assessment for combat vehicles is often a great challenge for the military due to various subjective attributes. The attributes' characteristics vary significantly depending on the vehicle type and its operating environments such as terrain, weather, and human factors. A clear definition and relationship between multiple attributes including human factors is necessary to assess mobility. To the best of authors' knowledge, many existing mobility assessment techniques use complex analytical methods and focus on individual attributes. In this paper, for the first time, the authors propose a novel approach to define vehicle mobility and its influencing attributes using qualitative linguistic fuzzy variables, which are defined as having values between 0 and 1. The authors also propose a fuzzy logic mobility (FLM) model and a simulation approach to assess a combat vehicle's mobility.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0089
Massuod Alatrash, Ayman Mansour, Mohammad obeidat
In this paper, we proposed a distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System. Instead of attending engineering teaching sessions, engineering students are able to interact with the software to gain the same amount of teaching materials. Besides, they will interact with other engineering students from other Engineering schools. The proposed software has the ability to examine the student step by step to reach certain goals. The training and the examination will be different based on the student level and his learning process. Using this system the role of excellent professor can be achieved. The software will have two sessions, i.e. test session and learning session. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between multi schools and different educational systems that can provide the students with a large set of training materials. The system was built using JAVA programming language.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0162
Hai Wu, Jyh-Shin Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Russell P. Durrett, Wen Chen, Kevin L. Moore
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1537
Anindya Deb, Gunti R. Srinivas, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1421
Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh, Richard Young
Abstract This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
Abstract The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include Auditory-Vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of Auditory-Vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
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