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Technical Paper
Lijuan Wang, Nigel Clark, Pingen Chen
Heavy-duty trucks are an important sector to evaluate when seeking fuel consumption savings and emissions reductions. With fuel costs on the rise and emissions regulations becoming stringent, vehicle manufacturers find themselves spending large amounts of capital improving their products in order to be compliant with regulations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkits (PSAT), developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a simulation tool that helps mitigate costs associated with research and automotive system design. While PSAT has been widely used to predict the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of conventional and hybrid light-duty vehicles, it also may be employed to test heavy-duty vehicles. The intent of this study was to develop an accurate model that predicts emissions and fuel economy for heavy-duty vehicles for use within PSAT.
Journal Article
ABM Siddiq Khan, Nigel Clark
Transit buses contribute a meager amount to the U.S. criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, but they attract a lot of attention from the public and from local government, due to their nature of operation. Transit bus fleets are often employed for the introduction of advanced heavy-duty vehicle technology and the formulation of new performance models. Emissions and fuel consumption data, gained using a chassis dynamometer, are often used to evaluate performance of these buses. However, the effect of road grade on fuel consumption and emissions most often is not accounted for in chassis dynamometer characterization. Grade effect on transit buses' fuel consumption was investigated using the road-load equation. It was observed that two parameters, including the type of terrain that buses traverse and the percentage of grade for that terrain, needed to be determined for this investigation.
Technical Paper
Satbir Singh, Shiyu Liu, Hailin Li
The nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) emissions of compression ignition diesel engines are usually relatively small, especially when operated at medium and high loads. Recent experimental investigations have suggested that adding hydrogen (H₂) into the intake air of a diesel engine leads to a substantial increase in NO₂ emissions. The increase in NO₂ fraction in the total NOx is more pronounced at lower engine load than at medium- and high-load operation, especially when a small amount of H₂ is added. However, the chemistry causing the increased NO₂ formation in H₂-diesel dual-fuel engines has not been fully explored. In the present work, kinetics of NO and NO₂ formation in a H₂-diesel dual-fuel engine are investigated using a CFD model integrated with a reduced hydrocarbon oxidation chemistry and an oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formation mechanism. A low-load and a medium-load operating condition are selected for numerical simulations.
Technical Paper
Nigel Clark, Mridul Gautam, Donald Lyons, Chris Atkinson, Wenwei Xie, Paul Norton, Keith Vertin, Stephen Goguen, James Eberhardt
Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
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