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Viewing 1 to 30 of 119
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890778
Aaron George, Nigel Clark, James Smith, Jonathan Cox
Compression and power stroke cycles for a 4 stroke cycle spark ignition engine modified by extending the connecting rod to simulate purely sinusoidal piston motion are analyzed over a range of operating speeds and are compared with those of a similar conventional engine. Heat release rate is estimated for both engines using a simple Wiebe function with the functional parameters found via a simplex curve fitting method used in conjunction with experimental pressure curves. It is shown that the functional parameters which represent the combustion and the duration of fuel burn are slightly larger over the range of operation in the sinusoidal engine while the shape factor remains largely the same. However, the pressure-crank angle curves are sufficiently similar such that conventional slider-crank curves can be used to model sinusoidal engines, which was the motivation behind this research.
1987-11-08
Technical Paper
871225
James E. Smith, Nigel Clark, Alfred Stiller, Randolph Churchill, A.D. McKisic
With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1099
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel Clark
Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3769
Teresa L. Alleman, Robb Barnitt, Leslie Eudy, Matt Miyasato, Adewale Oshinuga, Tom Corcoran, Sougato Chatterjee, Todd Jacobs, Ralph A. Cherrillo, Nigel Clark, W. Scott Wayne
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1861
Michael Block, Nigel Clark, Scott Wayne, Ralph Nine, William Miller
Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1085
Marc C. Besch, Joshua Israel, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Hemanth Kappanna, Daniel Carder
Abstract This study was aimed at experimentally investigating the impact of diesel/natural gas (NG) dual-fuel retrofitting onto gaseous emissions emitted by i) legacy, model year (MY) 2005 heavy-duty engines with cooled EGR and no after-treatment system, and ii) a latest technology engine equipped with DPF and urea-SCR after-treatment systems that is compliant with 2010 US-EPA emissions standards. In particular, two different dual-fuel conversion kits were evaluated in this study with pure methane (CH4) being used as surrogate for natural gas. Experiments were conducted on an engine dynamometer over a 13-mode steady-state test cycle as well as the transient FTP required for engine certification while gaseous emissions were sampled through a CVS system. Tailpipe NOx emissions were observed at a comparable level for diesel and diesel/CH4 dual-fuel operation for the 2010 compliant engine downstream the SCR.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0290
Amin Tahmasbi-Sarvestani, Hadi Kazemi, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Abstract Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0006
Alberto Boretti, Shuheng Jiang, Joseph Scalzo
Abstract The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0009
Bingjie Zhang, Siti Khalijah Mazlan, Shuheng Jiang, Alberto Boretti
Abstract With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0007
Alberto Boretti, Shuheng Jiang, Joseph Scalzo
Abstract Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles using a traditional ICE that has been modified to use hydrogen fuel are an important mid-term technology on the path to the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen-powered ICEs that can run on pure hydrogen or a blend of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) are a way of addressing the widespread lack of hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the near term. Hydrogen-powered ICEs have operating advantages as all weather conditions performances, no warm-up, no cold-start issues and being more fuel efficient than conventional spark-ignition engines. The Wankel engine is one of the best ICE to be converted to run hydrogen. The paper presents some details of an initial investigation of the CAD and CAE modeling of a novel design where two jet ignition devices per rotor are replacing the traditional two spark plugs for a faster and more complete combustion.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2672
Yuebin Wu, Nigel Clark, Daniel Carder, Benjamin Shade
Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2652
David L. McKain, Nigel Clark, Richard J. Atkinson, Zac J. Luzader, Bradley Rutledge
Yard hostlers are tractors (switchers) used to move containers at ports and storage facilities. While many speed-time driving cycles for assessing emissions and performance from heavy-duty vehicles exist, a driving cycle representative of yard hostler activity at Port of Long Beach, CA was not available. Activity data were collected from in-use yard hostlers as they performed ship loading/unloading, rail loading/unloading and other yard routines, primarily moving containers on trailers or carts. The activity data were then used to develop four speed-time driving cycles with durations of 1200 seconds, representing light and heavy ship activities and light and heavy load rail activities. These cycles were constructed using actual speed-time data collected during activity logging and the cycles created were statistically comparable to each subset of activity data.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2164
Srikanth Gururajan, Mario Luca Fravolini, Matthew Rhudy, Antonio Moschitta, Marcello Napolitano
Abstract Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2101
Joseph Dygert, Melissa Morris, Patrick Browning
Abstract The high demand for traditional air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies which would result in safer, more reliable, and better performing aircraft. Active methods of aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem. Research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices to, among other methods, plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device which uses dominant electric fields for actuation. Unlike traditional flow control methods, a DBD device operates without moving components or mass injection methods.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1588
Peter Bonsack, Ross Ryskamp, Marc Besch, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, John Nuszkowski
Abstract Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2096
Vinay Jakkali, Wade Huebsch, Ashish Robert, Shanti Hamburg, Patrick H. Browning
There is an ever growing need in the aircraft industry to increase the performance of a flight vehicle. To enhance performance of the flight vehicle one active area of research effort has been focused on the control of the boundary layer by both active and passive means. An effective flow control mechanism can improve the performance of a flight vehicle by eliminating boundary layer separation at the leading edge (as long as the energy required to drive the mechanism is not greater than the savings). In this paper the effectiveness of a novel active flow control technique known as dynamic roughness (DR) to eliminate flow separation in a stalled NACA 0012 wing has been explored. As opposed to static roughness, dynamic roughness utilizes small time-dependent deforming elements or humps with amplitudes that are on the order of the local boundary layer height to energize the local boundary layer. DR is primarily characterized by the maximum amplitude and operating frequency.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2097
Patrick H. Browning, Mridul Gautam, Wade Huebsch
This paper documents the numerical and experimental investigation of a new type of wing section being developed at West Virginia University that shows good potential for use in wings in low Reynolds number flows. These wing sections have been designed with a minimum number of flat sides, or facets, which are arranged in such a way as to promote flow over the surface similar to traditional smooth airfoil shapes, but without the complexity of the typically highly contoured airfoil form. 2D numerical techniques have been employed to determine appropriate geometric limitations of the wing section facets, and finite span wings comprised of these faceted wing sections have been tested in wind tunnels in wing-only and wing-plus-body configurations to determine their basic aerodynamic performance. The latest results of these efforts, as well as some speculation as to the mechanisms at work are presented.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2262
Jay Wilhelm, Joesph Close, Wade Huebsch, Mridul Gautam
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a round that transforms into a UAV after being launched. Some HP's are fired from a rifled barrel and must be de-spun and wings-level for lifting surfaces to be deployed. Control surfaces and controllers for de-spinning and wings-leveling were required for initial design of an HP 40 mm. Wings, used as lifting surfaces after transformation, need to be very close to level with the ground when deployed. First, the tail surface area needed to de-spin a 40 mm HP was examined analytically and simulated. Next, a controller was developed to maintain a steady de-spin rate and to roll-level the projectile in preparation of wing deployment. The controller was split into two pieces, one to control de-spin, and the other for roll-leveling the projectile. An adaptable transition point for switching controllers was identified analytically and then adjusted by using simulations.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2203
Jay Wilhelm, Christopher Gioia, Wade Huebsch, Mridul Gautam
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. In order to properly transform, the moment of transformation needs to be controlled. A simple timer was first envisioned to control transformation point for maximum distance. The distance travelled or range of an HP can directly be modified by varying the launch angle. In addition, an internal timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It also filters out noise from an inertial measurement unit (IMU).
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2304
Richard Brian Cain, Patrick Browning, Wade Huebsch, Jay Wilhelm
Significant efforts have been made in the research of Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) to increase the reliability and longevity of detonation based propulsion systems for use in manned aircraft. However, the efficiency, durability, and low mechanical complexity of PDEs opens up potential for use in disposable unmanned-vehicles. This paper details the steps taken for producing a miniaturized pulse detonation engine at West Virginia University (WVU) to investigate the numerically generated constraining dimensions for Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) cited in this paper. Initial dimensions for the WVU PDE Demonstrator were calculated using fuel specific DDT spatial properties featured in the work of Dr. Phillip Koshy Panicker, of The University of Texas at Arlington. The WVU demonstrator was powered using oxygen and acetylene mixed in stoichiometric proportions.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980489
W. Taylor, W. Kellermeyer, R. Napier, B. Ralston, M. Snoberger, C. M. Atkinson
As a part of the 1996 FutureCar Challenge competition, West Virginia University converted a 1996 Chevrolet Lumina to a series hybrid electric vehicle. This technical report summarizes the modifications made to the vehicle during 1997, the second year of the competition, and details the present state of development of this second-generation hybrid electric vehicle. In particular, the vehicle's powertrain configuration, component selection, control strategy for all modes of operation, emissions control strategies, vehicle structure and design modifications, and suspension design and modifications are all detailed. Also discussed, are the operational use of this vehicle and its intended market. The projected performance of the vehicle, obtained from computer simulations, is discussed in the light of results obtained from testing during 1996 and 1997.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980895
W. Scott Wayne, Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson
Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, vehicles powered by natural gas must have bi-fuel capability in order to avoid a limited vehicle range. Although bi-fuel conversions of existing gasoline engines have existed for a number of years, these engines do not fully exploit the combustion and knock properties of both fuels. Much of the power loss resulting from operation of an existing gasoline engine on compressed natural gas (CNG) can be recovered by increasing the compression ratio, thereby exploiting the high knock resistance of natural gas. However, gasoline operation at elevated compression ratios results in severe engine knock. The use of variable intake valve timing in conjunction with ignition timing modulation and electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated as a means of controlling knock when operating a bi-fuel engine on gasoline at elevated compression ratios.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950468
Christopher M. Atkinson, Michael L. Traver, Christopher J. Tennant, Richard J. Atkinson, Nigel N. Clark
A Saturn 1.9 liter engine has been converted for operation on either compressed natural gas or gasoline. A bi-fuel controller (BFC) that uses closed-loop control methods for both fuel delivery and spark advance has been developed. The performance and emissions during operation on each fuel have been investigated with the BFC, as well as the performance and emissions with the stock original equipment manufacturer (OEM) controller using gasoline. In-cylinder pressure was measured at a rate of 1024 points per revolution with piezoelectric pressure transducers flush-mounted in the cylinder head. The in-cylinder pressure was used in real time for ignition timing control purposes, and was stored by a data acquisition system for the investigation of engine stability and differences in the combustion properties of the fuels.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982456
Nigel N. Clark, Byron L. Rapp, Mridul Gautam, Wenguang Wang, Donald W. Lyons
New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these vehicles was for street collection and transporting the collected refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982688
Yasser Yacoub, Chris Atkinson
A conceptual understanding of modularity in internal combustion engines (defined as design, operation, and sensing on an individual cylinder basis) is presented. Three fundamental modular concepts are identified. These are dissimilar component sizing and operation, component deactivation, and direct sensing. The implementation of these concepts in spark ignition internal combustion engines is presented. Several modular approaches are reviewed with respect to breathing, fueling, power generation, and sensing. These include dissimilar orientation, geometry, and activation of multiple induction runners, partial or total disablement of valves through direct or indirect means, dissimilar fueling of individual cylinders, skipping the combustion event of one or more cylinders, deactivation of dissimilar individual cylinders or a group of cylinders, and individual cylinder gas pressure and mixture strength sensing.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982533
W. Scott Wayne, Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson
Dedicated natural gas engines suffer the disadvantages of limited vehicle range and relatively few refueling stations. A vehicle capable of operating on either gasoline or natural gas allows alternative fuel usage without sacrificing vehicle range and mobility. However, the bi-fuel engine must be made to provide equal performance on both fuels. Although bi-fuel conversions have existed for a number of years, historically natural gas performance is degraded relative to gasoline due to reduced volumetric efficiency and lower power density of CNG. Much of the performance losses associated with CNG can be overcome by increasing the compression ratio. However, in a bi-fuel application, high compression ratios can result in severe engine knock during gasoline operation. Variable intake valve timing, increased exhaust gas recirculation and retarded ignition timing were explored as a means of controlling knock during gasoline operation of a bi-fuel engine.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981406
M. Gautam, M. Durbha, K. Chitoor, M. Jaraiedi, N. Mariwalla, Dave Ripple
Among the key technologies currently being used for reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been found to be very effective for light duty diesel engines. However, EGR results in a sharp increase in particulate matter emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The presence of increased levels of particulate matter in the engine has led to increased wear of engine parts such as cylinder liners, piston rings, valve train system and bearings. A statistically designed experiment was developed to examine the effects of soot contaminated engine oil on wear of engine components. A three-body wear machine was designed and developed to simulate and estimate the extent of wear. The three oil properties studied were phosphorous level, dispersant level and sulfonate substrate level. The above three variables were formulated at two levels: High (1) and Low (-1). This resulted in a 23 matrix (8 oil blends).
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981395
Sumit Bhargava, Nigel N. Clark, M. Wayne Hildebrand
Lean-burn natural gas engines offer attractively low particulate matter emissions and enjoy higher efficiencies than their stoichiometric counterparts. However, even though oxides of nitrogen emissions can be reduced through operation at lambda ratios of greater than 1.3, catalysts cannot reduce the oxides of nitrogen emissions in the oxidizing exhaust environment. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) offers the potential to reduce engine out oxides of nitrogen emissions by reducing the flame temperature and oxygen partial pressure that encourages their formation during the combustion process. A comparative study involving a change in the nature of primary diluent (air replaced by EGR) in the intake of a Hercules, 3.7 liter, lean-burn natural gas engine has been undertaken in this research. The Hercules engine was equipped with a General Motors electronically controlled EGR valve for low EGR rates, and a slide valve, constructed in house, for high EGR rates.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981393
Nigel N. Clark, Donald W. Lyons, Byron L. Rapp, Mridul Gautam, Wenguang Wang, Paul Norton, Charles White, Kevin Chandler
Both field research and certification data show that the lean burn natural gas powered spark ignition engines offer particulate matter (PM) reduction with respect to equivalent diesel power plants. Concerns over PM inventory make these engines attractive despite the loss of fuel economy associated with throttled operation. Early versions of the Cummins L-10 natural gas engines employed a mixer to establish air/fuel ratio. Emissions measurements by the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories on Cummins L-10 powered transit buses revealed the potential to offer low emissions of PM and oxides of nitrogen, (NOx) but variations in the mixture could cause emissions of NOx, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to rise. This was readily corrected through mixer repair or readjustment. Newer versions of the L-10 engine employ a more sophisticated fueling scheme with feedback control from a wide range oxygen sensor.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981392
Kevin Chandler, Paul Norton, Nigel Clark
The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. This paper summarizes the design of the project and early results from the first two sites. Data collection is planned for operations, maintenance, truck system descriptions, emissions, duty cycle, safety incidents, and capital costs and operating costs associated with the use of alternative fuels in trucking.
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