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Viewing 1 to 30 of 51
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5612
Lawrence W. Lay,, M. Gawad Nagati, James E. Steck
This paper presents a method by which artificial neural networks can be trained and used to identify a possible spin entry, differentiate between an incipient spin and a stabilized spin, and predict required recovery controls. These were then implemented into a simulation and tested using data from actual flight tests conducted by NASA Langley Research Center, to verify that artificial neural networks can successfully be used for this application. The spin avoidance and recovery system functioned properly. In addition, a weighting system was developed to predict possible spin characteristics of aircraft, depending on the relative magnitude of the three principal moments of inertia.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2718
Benjamin Knoblauch, Patricia Best, Vijay Ragothaman, Ravi Pendse
While most industries have already adopted the use of IP networks to exploit the many advantages of network connectivity, the aircraft industry still has not significantly deployed networked devices in the aircraft. Security and reliability are two main concerns that have slowed the transition to this technology. The ability for Air Traffic Control to send digital communications to aircraft could significantly improve the aircraft safety by improving the speed and efficiency of communications. In addition, if devices could offload flight data to servers on the ground for analysis, the accuracy and efficiency of maintenance and other decisions impacting the aircraft could significantly improve. The purpose of this research is to propose an IP-based LAN architecture for the aircraft which provides a scalable solution without jeopardizing flight safety.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3788
K. Rokhsaz, L. K. Kliment
Some of the methods used for experimental detection and examination of wake vortices are presented. The aim of the article is to provide the reader a brief overview of the available methods. The material is divided into two major sections, one dealing with methods used primarily in the laboratory, and the second part devoted to those used in field operations. Over one hundred articles are cited and briefly discussed.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2229
Chandrashekhar K. Thorbole, Hamid M. Lankarani
The necessity of avoiding the destructive and non-repeatable FSST (Full Scale Sled Test) makes it desirable to devise a cheaper and more repeatable method which can supplant this test procedure. This need developed the HCTD (HIC Component Testing Device) which is capable of providing conservative HIC results with higher repeatability. The computational model of the HCTD is validated against one of the tests conducted at CAMI with polyethylene foam. This validated model is used to conduct a series of tests with input parameters similar to the sled test to develop the correlation between the sled test and HCTD. This study hence concludes that a validated computational model of HCTD can be successfully utilized to address the HIC compliance issues for a foam padded surface.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1543
Shigeo Hayashibara, Roy Y. Myose, Ismael Heron, L. Scott Miller
A unique cascade test facility has been developed for use in the Wichita State University (WSU) water table. Although small in scale, the WSU water table has the advantage of low cost and the ease with which test conditions can be varied. Water table facilities have been used in the past for cascade experiments, especially as analogies for compressible flow visualization of turbine cascades. However, the lack of a quantitative measurement technique at low speeds has precluded the use of the water table as an analogy for testing subsonic compressors and turbines. In the present experiment, the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique is used to generate bubble time lines, and a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video camera system captures and digitizes these time line images. A VisualBASIC® computer program is then used to determine the wake velocity profile based on the difference in bubble line positions at successive intervals of time.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740365
W. H. Wentz, H. C. Seetharam
As part of a general aviation airfoil development program being carried out under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center, a 30% chord Fowler flap has been developed for the GA(W)-1 airfoil.. Wind tunnel tests at Wichita State University have demonstrated a c1max value of 3.80 for 40 deg flap deflection at a Reynolds number of 2.2 × 106. Effects of flap slot geometry have been systematically tested and optimum flap settings for any flight c1 have been obtained. Modification of the reflexed lower surface contour resulted in a reduced c1max with flap nested. Vortex generators provided an increase in c1max of 0.2 for flap nested and 40 deg flap along with a drag penalty at low c1 values. Flow visualization studies show that the stalling patterns for the new airfoil are characterized by an absence of leading edge separation for both the flap-nested and the 40 deg flap cases.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985523
Farzad Taghaddosi, Judith M. Gallman, Ramesh K. Agarwal
The current emphasis on environment protection by reducing noise pollution has led to stricter noise standards for general aviation aircraft. As a result, there is a growing demand for a computational tool to predict the noise during the design process. A computer program, called ProRAPP, has been developed for the prediction of noise generated by propeller/rotor blades. The acoustic pressure is calculated using a form of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation which is suitable for numerical implementation. For noise predictions, the observer can either move with the propeller/rotor hub or it can be fixed to the ground. Experimental data from both wind tunnel and flight tests are used to validate the numerical results.
1983-02-01
Technical Paper
830709
W. G. Thomson, W. H. Wentz
The results of an analytical study of aerodynamic interference effects for a light twin aircraft are presented. The data presented concentrates on the influence of a wing on a body (the fuselage). Wind tunnel comparisons of three fillets are included, with corresponding computational analysis. Results indicate that potential flow analysis is useful to guide the design of intersection fairings, but experimental tuning is still required. While the study specifically addresses a light twin aircraft, the methods are applicable to a wide variety of aircraft.
1985-04-01
Technical Paper
850862
W. H. Wentz, A. Ahmed, R. Nyenhuis
Flight test experiments were conducted to measure the extent and nature of natural laminar flow on a smoothed test region of a swept-wing business jet wing. Surface hot film aneraometry and sublimating chemicals were used for transition detection. Surface pressure distributions were measured using pressure belts. Engine noise was monitored by a microphone attached to the wing surface to study possible acoustic effects on stability of the laminar boundary layer, Side-slip conditions were flown to simulate changes in effective wing sweep. Flight instrumentation and ground data analysis techniques and a method for measuring intermittency of turbulence are described, Correlation was obtained between the hot film gage signals and chemicals for transition detection. Cross-flow vortices were observed for some flight conditions. Results of spectral and statistical analysis of the hot film signals for various flight test conditions are presented.
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9006
Linda Kliment, Kamran Rokhsaz
Abstract In-service data from two Bombardier business jets, a Global 5000 and a Global Express XRS, have been compared. Flight data has been analyzed from both airframes with comparable number of ground-air-ground cycles. Individual flight phase have been examined and compared between the two airframes. Primary emphasis has been placed on airframe usage. The influence of primary mission on ground-air-ground cycles has been highlighted in the form of ground and flight loads, as well as dynamics of the flights. It is demonstrated that safe-life maintenance approach may have to be adjusted to account for the airframe usage.
2005-10-03
Technical Paper
2005-01-3420
K. Rokhsaz, J. E. Steck, R. Chandramohan, B. Singh
An envelope protection scheme is proposed for responding to a microburst. This approach is based on limiting the allowable maximum inertial deceleration of the aircraft when flying at low airspeeds. This technique is shown in simulations to be very effective at preventing stall and resulting in minimal loss of altitude. It is speculated that the same scheme can also protect an aircraft in the event of other forms of windshear encounters, such as making a sudden turn to downwind.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3817
K. Rokhsaz, J. E. Steck, Y. Gunbatar
An algorithm is developed and validated for automatic avoidance of restricted airspaces. This method is devised specifically for implementation with an advanced flight control system designed for general aviation application. The algorithm presented here implements two inputs to the aircraft; the bank angle, and the airspeed, while the control system always ensures coordinated maneuvers. Unlike collision avoidance systems, the current method is not designed to serve in an advisory role, but to assume complete control of the aircraft if necessary. It is demonstrated that in order to implement this technique, the aircraft must be assigned an immediate domain whose size would have to depend on the aircraft performance and flight conditions. The strategy is designed such that as the domain surrounding the aircraft approaches that of the restricted airspace, aircraft control would switch gradually away from the pilot and to the controller, which would initiate an evasive maneuver.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2579
Brandon Todd Buerge
Abstract While operational airships globally number in the low dozens, interest in buoyant or semi-buoyant platforms continues to arouse imaginations of commercial and military planners and developers alike. The airship-as-advertisement business model is the only model that has proven sustainable on any scale since the crash of the initially successful LZ-128 Hindenburg effectively ended regular passenger and cargo transport by airship, and the 1962 termination of the US Naval airship program terminated regular large-scale surveillance from airships. Efforts in the US and Japan during the 2000's to have a self-sustaining sight-seeing business model using the modern semi-rigid Zeppelin NT both failed. In theory, the buoyant nature of airships provides compelling endurance and cost-per-ton-mile capability which fills a niche arguably not currently occupied by other modes of transportation.
1983-02-01
Technical Paper
830772
C Ostowari, W. H. Wentz
Force measurements, surface flow patterns and wake total pressure surveys have been obtained for a wing, wing--body, wing-nacelle and wing-body--nacelle configuration at typical pre-and post-stall angle of attack (10° and 16°), for a general aviation twin-engine airplane. The data includes separated regions and combined flow field models. The results indicate the presence of highly three-dimensional separated regions above and beyond the surface at post-stall condition. Based upon the present experimental data, combined flow field models have been proposed for each of the configurations, at the pre-stall (10°) and post -stall (16°) angle of attack condition. In all cases, the flow is shown to be forming turbulent three-dimensional separation bubbles. These flow models should provide some guidelines for future analytical modeling of separated flow associted with interfering bodies.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2259
K. S. Raju, B. L. Smith, F. Caido, C. Gomez, M. Shiao
The fatigue behavior of Hilok fastener joints under constant amplitude loading has been investigated experimentally. The effects of load transfer in an unbalanced joint configuration was characterized in terms of a stress severity factor relative to the open-hole configuration. The experimental data indicates that the clamp-up forces dominate the performance of fastener joints with the open-hole fatigue life being the lower bound at the stress levels investigated. The failure modes were observed to transition from a net-section type failure across the minimum section to a fretting induced failure at some distance from the hole. The experimental data has been used to develop stress severity factors to be used as a measure of the fatigue quality of the fastener joints.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2232
Linda K. Kliment, Richard B. Bramlette, Kamran Rokhsaz, Thomas DeFiore
Presented here are analyses and statistical summaries of data collected from 11,299 flight operations recorded on 6 BE-1900D aircraft during routine commuter service over a period of three years. Basic flight parameters such as airspeed, altitude, flight duration, etc. are shown in a form that allows easy comparison with the manufacturer's design criteria. Lateral ground loads are presented for ground operations. Primary emphasis is placed on aircraft usage and flight loads. Maneuver and gust loads are presented for different flight phases and for different altitude bands. In addition, derived gust velocities and various coincident flight events are shown and compared with published operational limits.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2130
Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan, Shintaro fukada, Mitsuo Fujimoto, Kenichi Kamimuki, Hideki Okada, Brent Duncan, Phuonghanh Bui, Michael Yeshiambel, Brian Brown, Alan Handyside
Abstract The Refill Friction Spot Joining (RFSJ) is an emerging solid-state spot welding technology that thermo-mechanically creates a molecular-level bond between the work-pieces. RFSJ does not consume any filler or foreign materials so that no additional weight is introduced to the assembly. As the solid-to-liquid phase transition is not involved in RFSJ in general, there is no lack of fusion or material deterioration caused by liquefaction and solidification. Unlike the conventional friction stir spot welding, RFSJ produces a spot joint with a perfectly flush surface finish without a key or exit hole. Currently, the aerospace industry employs solid rivets for fastening the primary structures as they meet the baseline requirements and have well-established standards and specifications.
1999-06-05
Technical Paper
1999-01-2270
B. Bahr, R. Vodrahalli
Composites are finding more and more applications in the aircraft industry. Drilling good quality holes is a major challenge for the manufacturing industry. The major factors which have an effect on hole quality are cutting parameters like speed and feedrate, machine rigidity, tool material, workpiece material, and tool geometry. The hole quality was studied by measuring the hole diameter and visually observing other parameters like shape and fiber breakout. Force analysis indicates that thrust increases with an increase in feedrate. Speed does not seem to have a very significant effect on thrust. The tool geometry plays a very important role in fiber pullout.
2002-11-05
Technical Paper
2002-01-3007
Michael Papadakis, Hsiung-Wei Yeong, Reuben Chandrasekharan, Mike Hinson
Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the effect of tailplane icing on the aerodynamic characteristics of 15%-scale business jet aircraft. The simulated ice shapes selected for the experimental investigation included 9-min and 22.5-min smooth and rough LEWICE ice shapes and spoiler ice shapes. The height of the spoilers was sized to match the horns of the LEWICE shapes on the suction side of the horizontal tail. Tests were also conducted to investigate aerodynamic performance degradation due to ice roughness which was simulated with sandpaper. Six component force and moment measurements, elevator hinge moments, surface pressures, and boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test conditions included AOA sweeps for Reynolds number in the range of 0.7 based on tail mean aerodynamic chord and elevator deflections in the range of -15 to +15 degrees.
2003-06-16
Technical Paper
2003-01-2129
Michael Papadakis, Arief Rachman, See-Cheuk Wong, Colin Bidwell, Timothy Bencic
This paper presents experimental methods for investigating large droplet impingement dynamics and for obtaining small and large water droplet impingement data. Droplet impingement visualization experiments conducted in the Goodrich Icing Wind Tunnel with a 21-in chord NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrated considerable droplet splashing during impingement. The tests were performed for speeds in the range 50 to 175 mph and with cloud median volumetric diameters in the range of 11 to 270 microns. Extensive large droplet impingement tests were conducted at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Impingement data were obtained for a range of airfoil sections including three 36-inch chord airfoils (MS(1)-0317, GLC-305, and NACA 652-415), a 57-inch chord Twin Otter horizontal tail section and 22.5-minute and 45-minute LEWICE glaze ice shapes for the Twin Otter tail section. Small droplet impingement tests were also conducted for selected test models.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3359
Michael Papadakis, Hsiung-Wei Yeong, Koji Shimoi
Ice particles shed from aircraft surfaces are a safety concern because they can damage aft-mounted engines and other aircraft components. Ice shedding is a random and complex phenomenon. The randomness of the ice fragment geometry, size, orientation and shed location in addition to potential particle breakup during flight poses considerable simulation challenges. Current ice shedding analysis tools have limited capabilities due to the lack of experimental aerodynamic coefficients for the forces and moments acting on the ice fragment. A methodology for simulating the shedding of large ice particles from aircraft surfaces was developed at Wichita State University. This methodology combines experimental aerodynamic characteristics of ice fragments, computational fluid dynamics, trajectory analysis and the Monte Carlo method to provide probability maps of shed particle footprints at desired locations.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3334
See Cheuk J. Wong, Chiong S. Tan, Michael Papadakis
A methodology for developing spray rigs for icing cloud simulation is presented. This methodology includes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and icing tunnel experiments and was applied to design a spray rig system for a small airborne icing tanker. An in-house spray system was developed and tested in a laboratory to assess two commercially available nozzles - a single-jet type and a multi-jet type - which were capable of producing both FAR Part 25 Appendix C and SLD icing clouds. Spray rig characteristics evaluated during the laboratory tests included air and water flow rates as well as droplet size and distributions. The effects of airspeed and nozzle spacing on spray plume size and uniformity were investigated in a small icing tunnel facility with a two-nozzle spray rig. The experimental data were compared with three-dimensional numerical simulation results obtained with the FLUENT software.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3346
S. C. Tan, M. Papadakis
An experimental study was performed to investigate large droplet dynamics in the vicinity of an airfoil. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Glenn Droplet Imaging Flow Tunnel (DrIFT). Mono-dispersed large droplets were released at the tunnel inlet and accelerated toward an airfoil that was mounted in the test section. The dynamic behavior of a droplet's encounter with the airfoil, which may involve droplet distortion, break-up, impingement and splashing, was recorded using a high-speed imaging system. The effects of the droplet size, tunnel velocity and airfoil configuration on the droplet dynamics were investigated in a parametric study. The droplet sizes used in the experimental study were 96 and 375 μm whereas tunnel velocities were varied from 80 to 130 mph. Three different airfoil geometries were used in the experimental study; a ‘clean’ and ‘iced’ airfoil, and a ‘clean’ three-element high-lift airfoil. The incidence angle of these airfoils was set to zero degrees.
2007-09-24
Technical Paper
2007-01-3313
Michael Papadakis, See-Ho Wong, Hsiung-Wei Yeong, See-Cheuk Wong, Giao T. Vu
The work presented in this paper is part of a long-term research program to explore methods for improving bleed air system performance. Another objective of this research is to provide detailed experimental data for the development and validation of simulation tools used in the design and analysis of bleed air systems. A business jet wing was equipped with an inner-liner hot air ice protection system and was extensively instrumented for documenting system thermal performance. The wing was tested at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for representative in-flight icing conditions. Data obtained include bleed air supply and exhaust flow properties, wing leading edge skin temperatures, temperatures and pressures in the interior passages of the bleed air system, flow properties inside the piccolo tube, photos of run back ice shapes and ice shape traces. Selected experimental results for a warm hold icing condition are presented in this paper.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1534
Bert L. Smith, Ala L. Hijazi, Roy Y. Myose
An aging aircraft accumulates fatigue cracks commonly referred to as multiple site damage (MSD). A simplified engineering fracture mechanics model, generally referred to as the linkup model (or plastic zone touch model), has been used with some success to describe the MSD fracture phenomenon in 2024-T3 aluminum panels. A disadvantage of the linkup model is that it gives excessively inaccurate results for some configurations. A modified linkup model has been developed through empirical analysis of test data taken from unstiffened panels with MSD cracks at open holes. The modified linkup model was then validated with test data from stiffened panels including single-bay panels with the lead crack centered between stiffeners and two-bay panels with the lead crack centered beneath a severed stiffener. Further validation of the modified linkup model was done with test data from panels with bolted lap joints. Test results were obtained from 112 different panels.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1538
T. E. Lacy, I. K. Samarah, J. S. Tomblin
The coupled influence of material configuration (number of facesheet plies, core density, core thickness) and impact parameters (impact velocity and energy, impactor diameter) on the impact damage resistance characteristics of sandwich composites comprised of carbon-epoxy woven fabric facesheets and Nomex honeycomb cores was investigated using empirically based quadratic response surfaces. The diameter of the planar damage area associated with TTU C-scan measurements and the peak residual facesheet indentation depth were used to describe the extent of internal and detectable surface damage, respectively. Estimates of the size of the planar damage region correlated reasonably well with experimentally determined values. For a fixed set of impact parameters, estimates of the planar damage size and residual facesheet indentation suggest that impact damage development is highly material and lay-up configuration dependent.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1537
Bert L. Smith, John S. Tomblin, K. S. Raju, K. H. Liew, A. K. M. Haque, Juan C. Guarddon
During this study, a number of 8.5-inch by 11.5-inch flat honeycomb sandwich panels were inflicted with low energy impact damage, inspected non-destructively, and tested for residual in-plane compressive strength. Each panel had either a 3/8-inch or 3/4-inch low density Nomex honeycomb core, and either 2-ply, 4-ply or 6-ply face sheets. The face sheets were either carbon or Eglass (prepreg) fabric. The panels were either clamped or simply supported in a test fixture during impact from a gravity assisted drop mechanism, and impacted with either a 1-inch or 3-inch diameter spherical indenter. After impact the damage to each panel was characterized by (1) ultrasonic through-transmission to obtain a c-scan representing planar damage area, (2) indentation volume and depth, and finally (3) visual inspection to rate the damage according to a predetermined rating scale. The panels were then tested for in-plane compressive strength.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1514
A. H. Adibi-Sedeh, V. Madhavan, B. Bahr
A generalized upper bound model for calculating the chip flow angle in oblique cutting using flat faced tools with single cutting edge and multiple or curved cutting edges has been developed. The chip flow angle and chip velocity are obtained by minimizing the cutting power with respect to both these variables. The chip flow angles predicted by this model show good agreement with experimental values of chip flow angles for various tool geometries and cutting conditions. The model has the potential to be extended to the more complex machining processes such as drilling and milling.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1515
J. Sha, Behnam Bahr
Metal cutting is a substantial constituent of airframe manufacturing. During the past several decades, it has evolved significantly. However, most of the changes and improvement were initiated by the machine tool industry and cutting tool industry, thus these new technologies is generally applicable to all industries. Among them, few are developed especially for the airframe manufacture. Therefore, the potential of high efficiency could not be fully explored. In order to deal with severe competition, the aerospace industry needs improvement with a focus on achieving low cost through high efficiency. The direction of research and development in parts machining must comply with lean manufacturing principles and must enhance competitiveness. This article is being forwarded to discuss the trend of new developments in the metal cutting of airframe parts. Primary driving forces of this movement, such as managers, scientists, and engineers, have provided significant influence to this trend.
2002-04-16
Technical Paper
2002-01-1516
R. Madhavan Nair, B. Durairajan, B. Bahr
The competitive market has forced the industry to develop methodologies to reduce lead-time of the products without sacrificing quality. One of the major metal removal operations in the aerospace industries is drilling. Over 100,000 holes are made for a small single engine aircraft. Naturally, demand for faster production rate results in the demand for high-speed drilling. But the cost of hole-making operations becomes a significant portion of the total manufacturing cost. This paper discusses the high speed drilling of Al-2024-T3 alloy, the effect of feed and speed on hole quality features like oversize, roundness error, burr height and surface roughness.
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