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Viewing 1 to 24 of 24
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2473
Sherry S. Thaxton, Andrew F. J. Abercromby, Elizabeth A. Onady, Sudhakar L. Rajulu
A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40° in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.
1991-04-01
Technical Paper
911125
A.W. Mayne, E.J. Connor, R. Scrip
This paper presents an analysis of potential methods for the testing of Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopump assemblies in a modified Component Test Facility at Stennis Space Center. In particular, the test methods will support long-duration (approximately 250 seconds) green run (acceptance) tests. Six potential test methods were considered, including the traditional, fully pressure-fed test method, some test methods involving engine systems, and some test methods involving recirculation of the pump outlet flow, or “bootstrapping.” Two of these methods were investigated in sufficient detail to provide ROM cost estimates: the fully pressure-fed method, and one of the bootstrap methods.
2000-07-10
Technical Paper
2000-01-2412
Neal Zapp, Francis A. Cucinotta, Bill Atwell, Premkumar Saganti, Lawrence W. Townsend
Typical calculations of radiation exposures in space approximate the composition of the human body by a single material, typically Aluminum or water. A further approximation is made with regard to body size by using a single anatomical model to represent people of all sizes. A comparison of calculations of organ dose and dose-equivalent is presented. Calculations are first performed approximating body materials by water equivalent thickness', and then using a more accurate representation of materials present in the body. In each case of material representation, a further comparison is presented of calculations performed modeling people of different sizes.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2406
Daniel B. Gazda, Robert J. Lipert, James S. Fritz, Marc D. Porter, Jeff Rutz, Paul Mudgett, John Schultz
A sorption-spectrophotometric platform for the concentration and subsequent quantification of biocides in spacecraft drinking water is described. This methodology, termed Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE), is based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. Quantification of the extracted analytes is accomplished by interrogating the surface of the membrane with a commercially available diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Ground-based experiments have shown that C-SPE is a viable means to determine biocide concentrations in the range commonly found in water samples from the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). This paper details efforts to advance C-SPE closer to space flight qualification and ISS implementation, starting with the modification of the ground based biocide detection platform to simplify operation in a microgravity environment.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2401
Debrah K. Plumlee, Paul D. Mudgett, John R. Schultz
The International Space Station (ISS) drinking water supply consists of water recovered from humidity condensate, water transferred from Shuttle, and groundwater supplied from Russia. The water is dispensed from both the stored water dispensing system (SVO-ZV) and the condensate recovery system (SRV-K) galley. Teflon bags are used periodically to collect potable water samples, which are then transferred to Shuttle for return to Earth. The results from analyses of these samples are used to monitor the potability of the drinking water on board and evaluate the efficiency of the water recovery system. This report provides results from detailed analyses of samples of ISS recovered potable water, Shuttle-supplied water, and ground-supplied water taken during ISS Expeditions 4 and 5. During Expedition 4, processing of U.S. Lab condensate through the Russian condensate recovery system was initiated. Results indicate water recovered from both Service Module and U.S.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2539
Jan Osburg, Walter Sipes, Edna Fiedler
Sustained crew performance under conditions of isolation, confinement and increased risk is a key contributor to the success of manned space exploration missions. Measuring crew performance and identifying the factors affecting it is therefore crucial both during actual space missions and as part of precursor activities on the ground. Planetary analog bases play an important role in this context. These integrated simulation facilities allow the operational, hardware, and human side of all mission-related elements to be combined, and thus permit the capturing of interactions among these elements. The crew on board such a station is exposed to stressors and other conditions similar to those encountered during space missions. Planetary analog bases therefore represent a valuable resource for better understanding the dynamics of crew performance.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2532
Paul D. Mudgett, John R. Schultz, Kris K. Cyrus, Ketan S. Chhipwadia, Nigel J. Packham
Two portable, collapsible water storage containers were developed to enable water logistics and storage on ISS. The first is a new version of the 44-liter Contingency Water Container (CWC) originally developed for the Shuttle Program. The new CWC uses a thicker Combitherm® film, VPCXX 140, as the bladder material. The second is a multipurpose 10-liter vessel, known as the Payload Water Reservoir (PWR), with a Teflon® bladder. Both of these collapsible vessels have Nomex® outer restraints for structural support, allowing them to withstand pressurization and resist puncture. The results of material longevity tests, the design and development of the two containers are briefly reported, and current and future water, wastewater, coolant and experiment fluid storage applications for the ISS are described.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2370
G. D. Qualls, J. W. Wilson, C. Sandridge, F. A. Cucinotta, J. E. Nealy, J. H. Heinbockel, C. P. Hugger, J. Verhage, B. M. Anderson, W. Atwell, N. Zapp, R. Barber
The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2532
Paul D. Mudgett, Mickie J. Benoit, David R. Orta, John R. Schultz
The water supply for the International Space Station (ISS) consists partially of excess fuel-cell water that is treated on the Shuttle and stored on ISS in 44 L collapsible Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). Iodine is removed from the source water, and silver biocide and mineral concentrates are added by the crewmember while the CWCs are filled. Potable (mineralized) CWCs are earmarked for drinking and food hydration, and technical (non-mineralized) CWCs are reserved for waste system flushing and electrolytic oxygen generation. Representative samples are collected in Teflon® bags and returned to Earth for chemical analysis. The parameters typically measured include pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, iodine, silver, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, trace metals, formate and alcohols. The Nylon monomer caprolactam is also measured and tracked since it is known to leach slowly out of the plastic CWC bladder material.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2535
Matteo Arena, Marc Porter, James Fritz, Paul Mudgett, Jeff Rutz, John Schultz
Monitoring and maintaining biocide concentrations is vital for assuring safe drinking water both in ground and spacecraft applications. Currently, there are no available methods to measure biocide concentrations (i.e., silver ion or iodine) on-orbit. Sensitive, rapid, simple colorimetric methods for the determination of silver(I) and iodine are described. The apparatus consists of a 13-mm extraction disk (Empore® membrane) impregnated with a colorimetric reagent and placed in a plastic filter holder. A Luer tip syringe containing the aqueous sample is attached to the holder and 10 mL of sample is forced through the disk in ∼30 s. Silver(I) is retained by a disk impregnated with 5-(p-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-rhodanine (DMABR), and iodine is retained as a yellow complex on a membrane impregnated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670583
David R. Reese
A description of the largest Acoustic and Vibration Test Facilities in existence for the simulation of major launch vehicle dynamic environment is given and the operational characteristics of both are discussed. Sinusoidal and random excitation techniques are described and unique vibration control methods presented. A comparison of the effects of vibration and acoustic excitation on major space vehicle structures is made.
2001-07-09
Technical Paper
2001-01-2125
Jeffrey A. Rutz, John R. Schultz
Collapsible bladder tanks called Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) have been used to transfer water from the Shuttle to the Mir and the International Space Station (ISS). Because their use as potable water storage on the ISS is planned for years, efforts are underway to improve the containers, including the evaluation of new materials. Combitherm®, a multi-layer plastic film, is a material under evaluation for use as the CWC bag material. It consists of layers of linear low density polyethylene, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, nylon, and a solvent- free adhesive layer. Long term studies of the quality of water stored in Combitherm bladders indicate a gradual but steady increase in the total organic carbon value. This suggests a leaching or breakdown of an organic component of the Combitherm.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3216
Daniel B. Gazda, Jeff Rutz, John R. Schultz, Mark S. Clarke
Phase separation is one of the most significant obstacles encountered during the development of analytical methods for water quality monitoring in spacecraft environments. Removing air bubbles from water samples prior to analysis is a routine task on earth; however, in the absence of gravity, this routine task becomes extremely difficult. This paper details the development and initial ground testing of liquid metering centrifuge sticks (LMCS), devices designed to collect and meter a known volume of bubble-free water in microgravity. The LMCS uses centrifugal force to eliminate entrapped air and reproducibly meter liquid sample volumes for analysis with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE). Previous flight experiments conducted in microgravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft demonstrated that the inability to collect and meter a known volume of water using a syringe was a limiting factor in the accuracy of C-SPE measurements.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3217
April Hazen-Bosveld, Robert J. Lipert, John Nordling, Chien-Ju Shih, Lorraine Siperko, Marc D. Porter, Daniel B. Gazda, Jeff A. Rutz, John E. Straub, John R. Schultz, J. Torin McCoy
Colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is being developed as a method for in-flight monitoring of spacecraft water quality. C-SPE is based on measuring the change in the diffuse reflectance spectrum of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. Previous microgravity testing has shown that air bubbles suspended in water samples can cause uncertainty in the volume of liquid passed through the disks, leading to errors in the determination of water quality parameter concentrations. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity experiments designed to evaluate manual manipulation as a means to collect bubble-free water samples of specified volumes from water sample bags containing up to 47% air. The effectiveness of manual manipulation was verified by comparing the results from C-SPE analyses of silver(I) and iodine performed in-flight using samples collected and debubbled in microgravity to those performed on-ground using bubble-free samples.
2003-07-07
Technical Paper
2003-01-2408
Lisa M. Ponton, Daniel Gazda, Robert J. Lipert, James S. Fritz, Marc D. Porter, Jeff Rutz, Paul Mudgett, Dawn Dungan, John Schultz
One of the long-standing concerns in space exploration is the presence of trace organic contaminants in recycled spacecraft water supplies. At present, water samples on the International Space Station (ISS) are collected at regular intervals, stored in Teflon™-lined containers, and returned to Earth for characterization. This approach, while effective in defining water quality, has several notable problems. First, this method of archiving removes a significant volume of the ISS water supply. Second, the archived water consumes valuable cargo space in returning Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. Third, the organic contaminants present in the collected samples may degrade upon extended storage. The latter problem clearly compromises sample integrity. Upon return to Earth, sample degradation is minimized by refrigeration. Due to present resource constraints, however, refrigeration is not a viable option in space.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2029
Paul D. Mudgett, John E. Straub, John R. Schultz, Richard L. Sauer, David E. Williams, L. S. Bobe, V. M. Novikov, P. O. Andreichouk, N. N. Protasov, Y. E. Sinyak, V. M. Skuratov
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2028
Lizanna M. Pierre, John R. Schultz, Richard L. Sauer, Yuri E. Sinyak, Vladimir M. Skuratov, Nikoli N. Protasov, Leonid S. Bobe
Twenty-nine recycled water, eight stored (ground-supplied) water, and twenty-eight humidity condensate samples were collected on board the Mir Space Station during the Phase One Program (1995-1998). These samples were analyzed to determine potability of the recycled and ground-supplied water, to support the development of water quality monitoring procedures and standards, and to assist in the development of water reclamation hardware. This paper describes and summarizes the results of these analyses and lists the lessons learned from this project. Results show that the recycled water and stored water on board Mir, in general, met NASA, Russian Space Agency (RSA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2055
John T. James, Thomas F. Limero, John Trowbridge
Spacecraft modules that are last purged with clean air several months before they are entered by humans on orbit require careful management. The crew must not be exposed to harmful concentrations of air pollutants when they first enter. The magnitude of the pollution the crew will encounter depends on the volume of the module, the length of time since the last clean-air purge or scrub, the inherent offgassing rate of the materials in the module, the interior temperature of the module while offgassing occurs, and the system leak rate. The time of the last module purge or scrub can be several months before crew entry, so it is essential that the offgassing rate within the module be measured over a suitable interval of time to estimate pollution levels with confidence. Air samples were taken from the STS-74 Russian Docking Module, the STS-79 Spacehab, and the ISS Node 1 prior to launch to predict pollution levels at crew first entry.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2110
D. L. Dietrich, J. R. Juergens, M. J. Lewis, M. J. Lichter, J. W. Easton, F. McCleary
This paper presents a new portable metabolic device (PUMA-Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PUMA is a battery-operated, wearable unit to measure metabolic rate (minute ventilation, oxygen up-take, carbon dioxide output and heart rate) in a clinical setting, in the field or in remote, extreme environments. The critical sensors in PUMA are located close to the mouth and sampled at 10 Hz to allow intra-breath measurements. PUMA transmits metabolic data wirelessly to a remote computer for data analysis and storage. In addition to it's primary function as a portable metabolic measurement device, the PUMA sensors can also be easily adapted to other applications, including future EVA suits where they could measure metabolic rate for a suited crew member. The first section of the paper discusses the specific technologies and innovations of PUMA.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2129
H. R. Bollan, T. A. Goodall, R. Kearn, S. Woods, A. Chapman, J. L. Brokenshire, I. P. May, J. A. Breach, T. F. Limero
Sampling and retrospective analysis of contaminant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in submarine atmospheres is essential to demonstrate compliance with exposure standards, evaluate trends, and determine new compounds introduced into the atmosphere of a submarine. Currently atmospheric VOCs are sampled using Tenax™ sorbent tubes and analysed retrospectively. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the sampling regime, submarine trials were conducted using the Volatile Organics Analyzer (VOA), borrowed from NASA. Using the results from these trials further investigative work was carried out to develop the sampling and retrospective analysis regime including passive samplers. This paper will detail findings from VOA trials, and the development of a new passive sampling regime utilising various sorption tubes.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-2113
Grant C. Bue, Luis A. Trevino, Sharon Fritts, Gus Tsioulos
The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The first SWME prototype, designed, built, and tested at Johnson Space Center in 1999 used a Teflon hydrophobic porous membrane sheet shaped into an annulus to provide cooling to the coolant loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. This present study describes the test methodology and planning to compare the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME, in particular, a porous hydrophobic polypropylene, and two variants that employ ion exchange through non-porous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests will be performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to ordinary constituents that are expected to be found in the potable water provided by the vehicle, the target feedwater source.
1998-07-13
Technical Paper
981745
Thomas F. Limero, John Trowbridge, Stan Taraszewski, John Foster, John T. James
A volatile organic analyzer (VOA), developed by Graseby Dynamics, Ltd. under contract to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory, is the core instrument for trace contaminant monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS). The VOA will allow trace amounts of target compounds to be analyzed in real time so that ISS air quality can be assessed in nominal and contingency situations. Recent events on Mir have underscored the need for real-time analysis of air quality so that the crew can respond promptly during off-nominal conditions. The VOA, which is based on gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry, is the first spacecraft instrument to be used for such a complex task. Consequently, a risk mitigation experiment (VOA/RME) was flown to assess the performance and engineering aspects of the VOA. This paper is a review of VOA/RME results from the STS-81 and STS-89 flights and their implications for the ISS VOA design and operations.
1999-07-12
Technical Paper
1999-01-2117
Curt J. Wiederhoeft, John R. Schultz, William F. Michalek, Richard L. Sauer
Iodine is the disinfectant used in U.S. spacecraft potable water systems. Recent long-term testing on human subjects has raised concerns about excessive iodine consumption. Efforts to reduce iodine consumption by Shuttle crews were initiated on STS-87, using hardware originally designed to deiodinate Shuttle water prior to transfer to the Mir Space Station. This hardware has several negative aspects when used for Shuttle galley operations, and efforts to develop a practical alternative were initiated under a compressed development schedule. The alternative Low Iodine Residual System (LIRS) was flown as a Detailed Test Objective on STS-95. On-orbit, the LIRS imparted an adverse taste to the water due to the presence of trialkylamines that had not been detected during development and certification testing. A post-flight investigation revealed that the trialkylamines were released during gamma sterilization of the LIRS resin materials.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2539
Neil C. Dias, Daniel B. Gazda, James S. Fritz, Marc D. Porter, Jeff Rutz, Paul Mudgett, John Schultz
Archived water samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth for analysis have, in a few instances, contained trace levels of heavy metals. Building on our previous advances using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a biocide monitoring technique [1, 2], we are devising methods for the low level monitoring of nickel(II), lead(II) and other heavy metals. C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent that are then quantified on the surface of the membrane using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Along these lines, we have analyzed nickel(II) via complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and begun to examine the analysis of lead(II) by its reaction with 2,5-dimercapto-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole (DMTD) and 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR).
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